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10 AGRICULTURAL NOTES.j

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10 AGRICULTURAL NOTES. WHFAT-OROWING ON CLAY LANDS. Mr. Lewin White, bailiff to Mr. E. Cazalet, con- tributes to the Farmer some interesting details, showing1 thd result of Mr. Cazalet'j system of wheat-growing at Fair Lawn, Tunbridge. The plan adopted by the latter gentleman is as near as possible to that which, for the; last six or sevon years, has been successfully carried out by Mr. John Prout on a stiff clay farm at Sawbridgeworth, Herts. Mr. White s,-Lys:-Last year I grow upon tha farm 61 acres of wheat, and was fortunate enough (the wheat being very early) to get in nearly all of it before the continual wet set in. At present I have thrashed about half, and so far it I lias yielded 4qrs. Gbush.'per acre.jl have sold 200cjrs. at 57s. per qr., to weigh 641b. per bushel, to be delivered during the winter, and I could have sold it for 60s. per qr., if I could have undertaken to put it all on the rail at Tunbridge, in October. The stout, long, white straw, nearly two loads per acrs, is in excellent condition, and I have been offered 52s. per load for it. Now, this gives £ 13 10s. 9d. per acre for wheat, If loads of straw- only being required to make £ 18 Is. 9d. per acre, ind really, after all, I fail to see what there is wonderful or -except itinal about it. The follow- "Jg figures show the cost per acre :— £ s. a. Ploughing « Manure 3 0 0 Sowing ditto 0 10 8*flJ. 1 0 Dressing and sowing ditto 0 10 Harrowing 0 2 6 Ditto in spring 0 10 Rolling ditto 0 2 0 Weeding 0 2 0 Kent. 1 10 0 Rates and taxe-j 0 10 0 Harvesting 10 0 Thrashing 1 0 0 Carting five miles 0 5 0 Inwrest on capital and sundries 0 11 6 AèiO 0 0 No doubt your readers will sav that 10s. is too little for ploughing an acre of* stiff land, and, of course, it would be so by horse-power, but we have an eight-horse power traction engine, built by Messi>. Weeks and Son, of Maidstone, with bottom and side drums for ploughing and cultivating nd from its peculiar construction we can cither traction up one side of the field and ue one anchor, or stand still at the gate and use a pair of anchors (self-acting). By this means we seldom do less than four acres a dAy with a Howard's four-furrow plough and after eighteen months' use of it I am able to give an average cost of one day's work- ing expenses, which is about as f ollows Engine driver 0 5 0 Ploughman 0 3 6 Assistant 0 2 0 Porter boy 0 1 0 Water cart horse 0 3 0 Attendant 0 2 G Coals 0 7 0 Oil and sundries 0 2 6 Interest on £ 1,000, at live percent. per aenum, for one day, say 0 3 6 Wear and tear, 10 p?r cent 0 7 0 Repairo 0 3 0 Pour acres .2 0 0 In large fields, in dry weather, when we can trac- ea-ilv iiou, we can easily get over six acres in one day. Thus, your readers will see that there is nothing very wonderful in Mr. Cazalet's statement, and 1 cannot understand why a gentleman like Mr. Freeman, who has the interest, of agriculture 1>0 much at heart, should be so ready to dispute and throw cold water over any statement made in per- fect good faith, and with 110 other object in view than that 01 trying to widen the siivery lining 01 the cloud, or to lead the farming community to fpel that their case is not so irretrievably bad as at present appearances seem to indicate. A TFNANT FAKMEK'S OPIXJON OF THE FARMERS' ALLTAXCK. A "Tenant Farmer," writing to the of Tuesday, sayi, that, save in the, case of bigoted politicians, lw hud not met with any who regard the Alliance as an association designed to aid tho cause of agriculture, but. rather as a political agency calculated to destroy the harmonious feel- ing new existing between" landlord and tenant. One of the principal grievances with which the farmers are credited is tii. Law of lustre?*, and a "Tenant, Farmer" savs the only instance he can recall of this right being oppressively used was a case in which the landlord happened to be a pro- minent Liberal. The Farmers' Alliance, he adds, is ilind,r ti)e presidency of Mr. Howard, the well- known agricultural, implement maker, and by a singular coincidence Mr. Aveling, the vice-presi- dent, is engaged in a similar business. It is well known that agricultural implement makers dis- pose of their machinery to farmers on what is known as the hire system. The purchaser by tili- plan contracts to pay an annual sum for a given number) of years, when the article so hired becomes the property of the hirer but should the farmer neglect, to pay even the last instalment, tho dealer can seize the machine for the small moiety of the purchase nionev tin aiid all previous pay- ments by the purchaser are thereupon forfeited. "Tcnant Farmer" pertinently asks in what respect does this remedy differ from that of a landlord ? imply in that the landlord can only recover by distress the rent which lias accrued to him for the Use and ..njoyment of his capital, while the machinist not only seizes the machinery—which 11., has sold at a handsome profit-but confiscates the money which he has already received by its pur- chase: If the landlord's remedy, the LjNv of Dis- tress, is abolished, he argues that such despotic agreements referred to on the part of the agricul- tural implement makers should in liko manner ^declared illegal. rl he unexhausted improvements b!TVlulCP 'sn°t>lu3 says, a landLrd'squcstion at all, it one exclusively for the outgoing and incoming •^oants. If the outgoing tenant is to set up a cUitn forunexhausted improvements,theincorfiing tenant is the person who will have to pay it. In conclusion. "Tenant Farmer" uavs what is ivallv l'rqllired is some substantial relief in th shape or a readjustment, of police, highway, and school- board rates, and the tithe, all of which nov. press most, severely on the farmer; and with nibre favourable seasons, we may very safely and wisely dispense wi*h the political noatruros and qu;tck remedies we are invitvd to swallow. THK DUPLEX STACK COOI.TNG FAX. The Agricultural Gazette of this week contains the following evidence s to the value of th system invented by Mr. W. A, Gibbs, of Gilwell park, Chugford, Essex, to whom it appears that tHe latest as well as any previous contrivances for artificial drying of hay is due:—Mr. Neilson, of Halewood, Liverpool, 0ays ho .has used the process tor six years, and has not had anv crop „poi!t for the whole of that time. Mr. Realey. of Thv Close, ftadcliffe, noar Manchester, adopted it, but huo abandoned it :1", producing musty hay. Mr. Snowies, of Colston Bassctt. Notts, speaks verv highly of it, and gives tlu-se directions for its u" "1- Grass must be well shaken out srveral time, by hand or machine, so tu to get all the locks of opened. 2 Provided it has been well halren out and wither„-d, it can be stacked even if it is pt with rain. 3. My stacks .re 20ft. diameter, with on. central hole of 2ft. diameter and 7ft. high. 4. My experience is, that it. requires the fan to be worked three-quarters of an hour once a day. 04r. Webb, of Newstead Abbey, Notts, adopted th„ plin lat. in last season, and reports good uniform duality, both of chver and barlev, the latter after- wards ■•Id for malting—he had not tried grass. In answer to the question if it was needful to keep the fan going through the night, he replies that" it depends on the temperature of the stack," he say there is not much risk of firing with proper management." Mr. Norris, of Castle Hill, BletchingLy, Surrey, adopted it after August in last year, and dried two stacks of second cut clover, «< quality excellent," he refused C6 10,. a load for it. lie says, the heat is ascertained by a thermometer tied to a sliding-lath, in a, box built in to the stack about half way up when 130 d\:g or 140 dug. the fan should be worked till it falls to 100 deg., which will take from 10 to 115 minutes, according to the moisture in the stack. There is no fear of fire or must,' if the stack is properly attended to." All thesw four gentlemen use underground nine- inch pipes, coming up into the centre hole in t-ach stack, and provided with dampers. All these pipes are drawn together in home convenient place, where a fan is fixed and worked by steam or horse power. These pipes require a good deal of skill (besides expense) to arrange, and if any one of them were choked bv accident or careless stacking, the stack would hmve to be pttlled down to prevent fire. The same danger would occur if any one of the pipes got broken or filled with water; therefore a side vent for the steam is both a safer and cheaper arrangement. For this it is only needful to build in to each stack a common wooden shute, about 9ft. or 10ft. long and Sin. or 9in. square, open at both ends. These can bo made by any country carpenter for 4s. or 5s. each. One end achcs to the centre hole, and the other to the tllc stock. On to this outer end the new minntf al*.c.ai1 be fixed and unfixed in less than a w 13 obvious that the steam can be drawn ,,ff more I*eadil, from the ide than from the bottom of the centre bole, and that there will be a freo vf' !( (^v^ ^hen the fan is removed, an r.avantage winch the damper plan destroys. As we are toid tlut nvn^s from 1010 45 n,inutes working once a day it hardly seems worth while-to use a steam engine or horse sear anrf th**#. duplex fans can be easily taken about, from stack to stack and worked by one or two men thev will enable farmers to try this process in the cheapest and most efficient manner. TENANT RTGIIT The Farmer savs :-Ifr. Caird, in his English Agriculture of 1851-52," gives as the result of his equity throughout England (as Tunes com- ■iiissioner') that "to legalise it (tenant-right) by A,lt. of Parliament Po as to render its operation Keneral over the kingdom, it would be necessary to prove that it, would promote the puWi1'.re. e hav:- seen in the counties where it exists, that -he agriculture is 011 tho whole inferior to that of Jther districts, and in no case, even under tho most favourable circumstances, superior to other well-conditioned counties which do not possess this tenant-right. In every county it has led to fraud in a greater or less degree. It perpetuates iiad husbandry. It, absorbs the capital of •■he entering tenant. It unfairly depresses the letting value of land. The practic.il forking of tenant-right has thus led us to the con- viction (contrary, we admit, to our preconceived opinions) that it is not desirable to extend it either «;gallv or conventionally to other parts of the fclngdom. However well it may look in theory, ""f! should find the honest and intelligent farmers (If other (-ounti(-v, becoming disgusted with its frauds, and as the name class arc now doing in 1 urrey, North Nott*, and the West Riding, de- manding its restriction and recommending their J-olords to buy it, up and get. rid of it." The ^boye remark, apply chiefly to oases of tenants °lding from year to year. The above calls for ^onament from tht, advocates of universal tenant- tlht. BIRR, OF FARE FOR EGG PRODUCTION. ht" Fanny Field," whose exceptional achievement I egg production during the cold months, ias attracted attention, reports to the .,7,e Farmer her methods of feeding. ghe ys hens must be supplied with egg-making h"terial, and thL; must not be consumed as fuel to tep them warm. Success presupposes coinfort- I able and clean quartern. Corn is fattening, but on I this ration alone. even in abundance, there will not, be eggs enough to pay for the trouble of shel- ling the corn." My way of feeding fowls in winter—and it works wonderfully well—is to give them a warm breakfast every morning, just as winter-and it works wonderfully weB-is to give them a warm breakfast every morning, just as soon as they can sce to eat, a few haudfuls of grain at noon, and a full feed of grain at night. The warm breakfast is made of vegetables, turnips, beets, carrots, or potatoes, boiled and masliod up with wheat bran or oatmeal scalded with skim- milk or refuse from the kitchen boiled up and the soup thickened with bran; and when sweet, apples arc plenty, we boil them, a.nd mix with cornmeal—sometimes one thing and sometimes another; wa don't believe in feeding one thing all the time, and the hens don't believe in it either. I don't think that my biddies need the noon feed because they are hungry. but, I give it to them to make thorn scratch for exercisc and to keep them out of mischief. I scatter it around among the litter under tin, shed and let them dig it out. This lunch is generally oats or buckwheat, and once in a while sunflower seed. At night 1 generally feed corn but if I could get wheat cheap enough, I should feed that at least half of the time. My fowls have water or milk by them all the time, and green food is supplied by fastening cabbage heads up whrc the fowls can help themselves. Sometimes, when somebody has time to attend to it, we give them a change of gi-cen food in the shape ot raw turnips or sweet, appiescnoppeu nuc. Two winters ago I took a new departure on th~ meat questioi-t, an(! now instead 01 fussing to cook it and deal it out a little at a time, I just hang up a piece and let the fowls eat all they want, When they have meat within reach all the time there is not the slightest danger of their eating too much. T got cheap met. from the butcher, and I am sur I am paid twice over for the outlay. Crushed ovster shells, gravel, charcoal and crushed raw bones are kept in the houses all the time. This raw- bone is nn excellent thing for fowls, and would be the last article of food that I would think of drop- ping from my biddies' bill of far.. Where the crushed oyster shell cannot be obtained, liuio in some other shape will do just as well. One of my neighbours had two of the rooms in his house plast ered this fall, and he saved all the old plaster for his hens." FKFDING VALUE OF MILK. A correspondent in the Agricultural Gazette says-.—Skim-milk contains un an average about 8 percent, of solid matter, the rest being water. In other words, every 10 gal. (about 100ib) contains 921b. of mere water and only 81b. of solid sub- stance. At the supposed price of 4d. per gal. we should thereforw pay 3s. 4d. for these 81b., or 5d. per lb. For human consumption, as compared with meat, this shows skim-milk to be a very clinp food at 4cl. per gal., for its value as a nutri- ment is not very different from that of meat; and for a pound of the dry matter of flesh, free from bone, we should have to pay the butcher five or six times as much. since raw mea.t contain, also about two-thirds of its weight of water. But when we come to the question of making meat by feeding animals, is there any practic.'sl man who will value any food whatever at 5d. per lb ? Suppose again we analyse the const ituent" of the dry matter of miik, we shall find that at the utmost the 10 gal. of skim-milk are capable of furnishing the material of about 31b. of dry flesh and fat, but as the material necessary for the organic work of the body must be deducted or otherwise paid for, there will be really not more than lAib. of dry increase, which in pigs is equal to say 21b. of carcase increase. So that, the value qf 10 gal. of skim-milk cannot possibly be more than the value of 21b. of pork. There are, however, circumstances in which a little higher value may be obtained. Skim-milk isextremelv rich in albuminoids; if therefore it be added to other food which is poor in albuminoids it will raise the feeding value of that food, in addition to yielding its own proper value. Then Professor Wolff found that, in feeding pigs it gave the best return when use:! in addition to maize meal, a less return when used with barley meal, snd little or no return when used with pease meal, which is in itself rich in albuminoids. Still, it soems quite impossible to reckon its value as by any possibility more that Is. 3d. per 10 gal. or lid. per gal. In ordinary cases it will be safer to take it at not more than Id. per gal.

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EKONDDA VALLEY " SHONNY-HOYS"…

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THE BUTE DOCK OBSTRUCTIONISTS.

TO THE EDITOR.

CARDIFF CORPORATION SUPPORTS…

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ITHE SOUTH WALES COALFIELD.…

THE PROPOSED NEW U0Lr EGE.

MR. HUSlY M.P., ON THI FUTUF,…

WELSH NOTES FROM THE METROPOLIS.

SCHUBERT.- AS ANECDOTE.

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