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MERTHYR I

Esperanto.

IAbercynon Objectors Fined.I

CORRESPONDENCE. I

Emrys Hughes on Trial. I

Our Appeal for Navvy Pat.I

,I Food Reform.I

South Wales Conscientious…

Glais Notes.

Bargoed and District Trades…

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Blackwood Educational Class.

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Blackwood Educational Class. The above class held its usual weekly meot- ing on Tuesday, when Mr Sydney Jones an- nounced as the subject of his lecture "England Before the Nerman Conquest." He first of all described Britain prior to the Roman Invasion, when the country was in a wild un- cultivated stitte the manners of the people rough and uncouth; their customs weird and barbaric in the extreme; and the*- social stat- us in a crude elemental-v state. In the midst of all this barbarity we find the Romans as- cending on the land and introducing their su- perior education and scientific knowledge everywhere. They were the cause of the Britons advancing intellectually, morally and .physic- ally. They taught them to till the land after the Roman fashion, to build magnificent roads, gymnasiums, baths and mightv edifices wherein to worship the gods of the Roman religion. The outcome of all this was that the Britons acquired a social status far superior to that which had obtained prior to the Roman In- vasion. Industries were formed; trades were started with other lands, while the whole coun- try gradually underwent a transformation. But by-and-bye there arose an outcry that they must have a different form of government to that which was prevalent just then. They must have a king to rule them all, said one lot; while another lot said that they should have a king to rule over a part of the coun- try here, and another ruler there. Anyway, these kings were instituted as the most pow- erful men in the land. They were given do- solute control. The result of this was that they began to lavish favours upon certain fav- ourites whom they chose. They made them lords or barons over certain villages, and gave them castles to live in. To keep up their households in a manner befitting their ranks, they (the lords) imposed exorbitant taxes upon the vil- lagers. These the latter were supposed to payor be made into serfs to serve in the house- holds of the lords. The masses bore this quietly for some time, but gradually they be- gan to be weighted with a sense of their op- pression, and to i-Is;o in indignation against their exploiters. Into this arrived William of Normandy who. as recorded in official histoi<y, conquered Harold at Hastings and instituted Norman rule in England. There followed the usual discuss-ion, which was indulged in with great zeal by the members Applications for membership should be ad- dressed to the Secretary—Mr J. T. Oakley, 45 Williams Street, Blackwood, Mon.

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