WILLS AND BEQUESTS. The will (dated July 20, 1889), with two codicils (dated September 28, 1893, and May 31, 1894), of Mr. Edward Hollingworth Penfold, of Winchester, who tUld on July 24 at Bournemouth, was proved on September 27 by General William Charles Forrest, the surviving executor, the value of the personal estate amounting to upwards of £ 79,000. The tes- tator bequeaths £ 500 to the vicar and churchwardens of the parish of Loose, Kent, to invest same and dis- tribute the income among such poor, well-conducted inhabitants of the said parish not receiving paro- chial relief,"as the vicar shall select; 200 guineas each to the West Kent General Hospital (Maidstone), the Royal School for Officers' Daughters (Bath), the Hos- pital for Incurables (Putney-heath), the National Life- boat Institution, the Royal Asylum of St. Anne's Society, the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic (Queen-square), and the United Kingdom Beneficent Association; 100 guineas each to the Ophthalmic Hospital (Maidstone), the Hants County Hospital, the Bonchurch Convalescent Home in connection with the Royal Hants County Hospital, the Sussex County Hospital (Brighton), the Hospital for Con- sumption (Brompton), the Cancer Hospital (Bromp- ton), the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the Royal Military Benevolent Fund, the Royal Agricultural Benevolent Institution, St. John's School for Sons of Clergymen, the Cambridge Asylum for Soldiers' Widows, and the Soldiers' Daughters' Home (Hamp- stead); and 50 guineas each to the Brighton and Hove Dispensary, and the Sussex and Brighton Infirmary for Diseases of the Eye, all free of legacy duty. He also bequeaths all his plate, pictures, and orna- mental china to his brother-in-law, General W. C. Forrest, for life, and then to Colonel Thomas Heath- cote Stisted and considerable legacies to cousins and other relatives, servants, and others. The residue of his personal estate he gives to General Forrest; and all his real estate he devises to Colonel T. H. Stisted and his heirs. The will (dated February 26, 1874), with seven codicils, of Mrs. Eliza Ann Forster, widow of the late Mr. John Forster, of Palace-gate House, Ken- sington, who died on August 8, was proved on Sep- tember 29 by Sir Joseph William Chitty, one of the executors, the value of the personal estate amounting to over £ 21,000. The testatrix leaves all the real and personal estate which she has power to dispose of to the executors of her husband's will, to blend and go with his estate, and the residue of her property not otherwise disposed of, to her nieces, Fannie Crosbie and Maria Crosbie. There are numerous legacies, pecuniary and specific, to relatives, friends, and servants. Mr. Forster, by his will, bequeathed his library of printed and other books, manuscripts, and autographs, and the paintings, pictures, drawings, and engravings as per a schedule annexed thereto, on the death of his wife, to the Department of Science and Art incorporated by Royal Charter, on certain conditions; and Mrs. Forster now gives the portrait of Lord Lytton, Governor-General of India, by Millais, and the S>rtrait of her husband, by C. E. Perugini, to the epartment of Science and Art, to go with her husband's collection. By the death of his wife, legacies under Mr. Forster's will to two daughters and the sister-in-law of Charles Dickens, to several members of the Chitty family and others, become payable. The will (dated October 5, 1893) of Miss Jane Aked, of Kershaw House, Luddenden, Halifax, York- shire, who died on August 17, was proved on Sep- tember 26 by William Henry Boocock and John Ambler, the executors, the value of the personal estate amounting to over £ 18,000. The testatrix gives her furniture and effects to her sister Ellen Aked, and leaves all her real estate and the residue of her personal estate, i upon trust, for her said sister for life. At her sister's death she bequeaths E1000, to be called Aked's Trust," to be invested and the income applied, at Christmas or Midsummer, for the benefit of the deserving poor of that part of the township of Midgley residing at or in the im- mediate neighbourhood of BoDth as the minister and deacons of Booth Independent Chapel may select, preference being given to spinsters. As to the ulti- mate residue of her property, she leaves two-fifths (less £ 500 to be held upon trust, for ^3e1rr e Gertrude Caw) to her nephew, Samuel Milne Milne; and three-fifths, upon trust, for her niece, Ellen Wilders, for life, and then for her two daughters. The will and codicil of Mr. Charles Cholmelej Dowling, of 13, Eaton-square, who died on June 27, have been proved by Mrs. Lavinia Dowling, the widow and sole executrix, the value of the personal estate amounting to E8898. The will of Mr. Henry John Borrow, of Mashona- land, South Africa, in the employ of the British South Africa Company, who died on December 4 on the north bank of the Shangani River, Matabeleland, was proved on September 15 by the Rev. Henry John Borrow, the father, the value of the personal estate amounting to £ 7836. The will of Mr. Hugh Fraser, her Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in Japan, who died at Tokio on June 4, was proved on September 27 by Mrs. Mary Fraser, the widow and sole executrix, the value of the personal estat* amounting to £ 5673.—Illustrated London Newt,
MR. RUSKIN AT BRANTWOOD. Here is a description of Mr. Ruskin at Brantwood written by a Leeds enthusiast:—Forming the advance- guard was a fine collie, which looked like its owner, advancing in years. Not daring to speak to the Master, I spoke to the dog, which gave a short bark as I drew near, and seemed inclined to be friendly. Patting the dog's head without stopping I passed along. What seemed to be an attendant formed the rear-guard, who seemed bent upon devouring the con- tents of a newspaper. As I passed, Mr. Ruskin looked at me quite as curiously as I looked at him. I had one good look, and then turned my head, so as not to appear too vulgar. He seemed to be a man from seventy to eighty years of age, and to be of medium height if he stood erect. But owing, I imagine, to his studious habits, he is quite round- shouldered. He has a long, white beard, not a snowy white, but a yellowish white. He wore a frock coat, buttoned up, and carried a stick under his arm. He walked along in a rather brisk manner, with his hands behind his back. I had previously been given to understand that he was very feeble, but from this casual glance I am pleased to say his walk indicated that his years did not press too heavily upon him. He seemed to have no occasion to use his stick, but rather carried it for a bit of company than from necessity.
I TIPPING IN COUNTRY HOUSES. I The question of tipping servants in country houses is discussed by a writer in the National Review in a very practical manner. Apparently the object of the writer had been to answer that much-debated ques- tion, What's the very least I can give without looking mean ?" and some hints are given from the economical point of view, and some advice also, which may be summed up in the words, Don't trouble what other people think of you." First the writer expresses the opinion that the "record" tips occa- I sionally mentioned as being given in the mansions of the great are usually the results of exaggeration or imagination: When little Tom Eaves boasts at his club that it is really too much of a good thing to go to the Duke of Dorking's—'They expect such infernal big tips '— and goes on to declare that the butler at Chanticlere returns anything but paper, you may be sure he has never been there. The best people are not the people who give the best tips. Those who tip profusely and outrageously are the nouveaux riches.' Indeed, the really smart man might almost be known by the dis- cretion and moderation of his tips. He knows when, where, and how to bestow them, and never tips for the sake of tipping. Sir Gorgious Mida and Lady,' and still more young Midas, seem on the contrary to act on the principle—' wherever you see a hand tip it,' and pass from house to house in a perfect shower of gold. Perhaps it will be said, however, that this does not greatly matter, and that we need not trouble ourselves over the way in which the millionaire scatters his money." The people who are troubled by the tipping ques- tion, however, are neither the nouveaux riches nor the smart" people, but respectable members of the visiting class," who are neither self-confident nor courageous, and while anxious to be economical, are haunted by the dread of appearing mean. As the writer proceeds to point out, the most troublesome thing about tips is their uncertainty. As long as a man can tell what he ought to give he may feel tole- rably happy. When, however, all is doubt, hesita- tion, and pain," it becomes absolutely maddening, and it is this perplexity which is largely accountable for the vice of over-tipping. To such people the writer gives some practical advice. To begin with, let us take the simplest case, that of an unmarried man who stops from Saturday till Mon- day in the house of a friend who only keeps a parlour- maid or single man-servant. Here half-a-crown should be quite enough for the servant. In the case of a married couple the lady, if without a maid, adds half-a-crown for the housemaid. The coachman, if there is one, must have his shilling after driving you to the station. If the visitors stops for a week he should make his donation four shillings. He should allow that is about sixpence a night and sixpence over, as a sort of ground tax. We come next to thlcase I of Saturday to Monday in a more elaborate establish- ment, i.e., where a butler and footman are kept. Here the Saturday to Monday guest must distinguish. If the footman looks after him the footman should have half-a-crown and the butler also half-a-crown- in consideration of the fact that the butler will pro- bably order your fly for you and look you out your trains. If, however, the footman is kept in the back- ground altogether and the butler valets you, the butler takes the whole five shillings. If you stop for a longer time, say a week, these sums should be raised to four or five shillings in each case. If the visitor brings a man of his own the tip to the footman, of course, disappears, but that to the butler usually remains. When the really great establishments are reached, different rules pre- vail the ordinary bachelor guest need, perhaps, only trouble himself about the special footman told off to wait on him. Unless the butler is an old friend, or has to be asked to do something out of the way, there is no cause to tip him. ) The question whether "tipping" should be abolished altogether is also discussed, without, how- ever, much hopes of such a reform being generally effected. As the writer points out, tipping saves much trouble in the servants' hall. What is wanted is a general understanding not to give too largely.
A FINE OLD ADMIRAL. Admiral Sir Walter Hunt-Grubbe, who has just re- ceived the important post of President of the Royal Naval College at Greenwich, has been nearly 50 years in the navy, and is a fine type of the bluff, breezy sailor, who, however, dresses well, speaks well, and works well. The two most important positions which he has held in his long and not undistinguished career are those of Commander-in-Chief at the Cape of Good Hope and Superintendent of Devonport Dockyard. However, the two posi- tions which were more in harmony with his fighting temperament were those of commander of the Naval Brigade in the Ashantee War and com- mander of a division of the fleet at the bombardment of Alexandria. Before Alexandria he certainly had no great opportunity of distinguishing himself but against the warriors of Ashantee he fought with a dashing daring that secured for him a good deal of oflicial appreciation. It is 34 years since Sir Walter secured his commandership; five years later he became captain, 18 years after that rear-admiral, and in 1890 vice-admiral. His knighthood came to him nfter his not very doughty deeds at Alexandria.
A COSTLY SANDWICH. These are the days of the big gooseberry and tne gea-serpent with the American newspaper men. But they have added to the category of fiction. They are discussing a big bank-note story. One of the Phila- delphia journals tells us it is said of a certain Southern squire that, on a recent festive occasion, he, together with a party of gentlemen, began discussing their capacities for eating. After a heated discus- sion the squire wagered that he could eat more than any other guest present—they to be the judges. The bet was taken, and all hands ate until they could eat no more. Are you all done ?" inquired the squire. The rest admitted that they were, and claimed the squire bad not fulfilled his promise as he had eaten nothing. The squire pulled out his capacious pocket- book, took therefrom a lOOdol. note, and placing the bill between two thin slices of buttered bread, de- voured the costly sandwich. He won the bet.
A DRAMA OF POVERTY. Poverty, despair, and murder are the leading elements in a dreadful drama which has created intense sensation in Paris. Close to the park of Montsouris lived a workman, his wife, and his five children. He had been out of work for weeks, and nothing but starvation stared them in the face. The rent was due two days ago, but no one would assist them, and so the poor mother conceived the awful idea of asphyxiating herself and her little ones. She scrawled a letter to say so. The eldest child, Victoire, was 10; the second, Martha, eight; the youngest of the band only a year old. She told Victoire and Martha what she was going to do, and asked them to lie down quietly on the bed with their brothers and sisters, which, it appears from the letter, they did. She made the room air-tight, and, having sat near the pan of charcoal, was probably the first to die. When Hoffmann returned, the door was locked inside. No answer being given to his knocks and calls it was forced open. Six corpses were discovered.
JUDICIAL DIGNITY. The dignity of the French judicial bench must be protected at all costs. In a single day it was assailed no less than three times by prisoners at the Nancy Assizes the other day. But the functionaries of the law were equal to the occasion. One Leuis Steiner, who described them as a lot of good-for-nothing fellows (" taz de vauriens"), was ordered to be im- prisoned on this account for two years over and above the term of the sentence, which was confirmed. Francis Racqinet, who applied to the judges an opprobrious epithet reflecting upon the morality of their wives, received an extra term of three years; and Louis Briot, who called them a set of cows," came off worst of all, for five years were added to his sentence for thus relieving his pent-up feelings.
A BIG PROJECT. A Special Commission has been appointed to study the question of the making of a canal between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The Commission will have to consider the following points: Under what conditions the canal could be dug and worked what would be its practical utility as regards the navy, commerce, agriculture, and industry the cost; and to decide whether the concessions applied for should be taken into consideration. The notion originated 14 years ago among a group of Frenchmen, who advanced, as the chief argument for the scheme, the theory that the Atlantic Fleet could reach the Mediterranean without running the gauntlet of Gib- raltar, or encountering the British Fleet in the event of a war with England.
THE YOUNG DUKE OF ALBANY. The little Duke of Albany, who is being educated at Sandroyd School, near Esher, has for his master the Rev. H. Wellesley-Wesley, who claims to be connected with both branches of the family which has given to the world the leader of the Methodists and the first of British generals. Mr. Wesley's school is situated close to the famous fair mile" on the Portsmouth road, surrounded by beautiful scenery, within a two- mile drive of Claremont, where the delicate little duke breathes the purest Surrey air. The school- house walls are covered with pictures of Wesleys and Wellesleys of every age and capacity, and in every posture, forming a pictorial history of the great John Wesley and the Iron Duke. Mr. Wellesley-Wesley is an alumnus of Durham and vicar of Hatchford, a pretty village some four miles from the school.
WHAT BOOKS CAN DO. | The Autlwr for this month publishes some figures which show how seldom public beuefioence can assume a better form than the equipment of libraries for the use of the mass of workers. The mere fact that there are in the United Kingdom only 400,000 families whose income exceeds X200 a year is enough proof that book-buyers must be a comparatively limited class in our population of 38 millions. The mass of workers are equally unable to afford subscription to the large circulating libraries. In the free library is their only chance. The free library is the great instrument for converting the population into a nation of readers. Multitudes of working people would read if they had the opportunity, and the lists of books issued by the free libraries shows that the average reader will prefer good literature to trash when he has the choice. The new report of the Hammersmith free library states that besides works of fiction, 65,000 books of history, art, science, philosophy, and travel were read during the year. The readers were nearly all work- ing people, and most of their reading was done in the winter and spring months, when the attractions of outdoor recreation are least. The free library must have drawn away most of the readers from the public-house. It is doing more than church and chapel for the humanising of the people.
A SERIES of experimental negatives taken by Warren de la Rue in the very early days of astro- nomical photography are also exhibited. Many of the impressions taken in the winter 1857-1858 show nothing at all. The star images have completely dis. appeared, even those which were described and labelled "intense" by de la Rue. This fact has an important bearing on the necessity of measuring lates as soon as they are taken.
MARKET NEWS. MA=.L"z.-The grain trade remains quiet. T sales of home-grown wheat in England and Wal during the first seven weeks of the season wei4j 305,644qrs. against 379,228qrs. last year, the ave$ age being 19s lOd against 26s 8d per qr.; barlea 291,707qrs. against 548,95Sqrs., at an average of 23s IOd against 28s per qr.; and oats, 88,680qrs., against 101,426qrs., at an average of 15s 2d against 17s lOdperqr. English wheat changed hands slowly, at late rates. For foreign wheat the demand was quiet, at previous currencies. The flour market was inactive, and prices remained about the same. In barley, not much was done, and there was no alteration in values. Oats moved off slowly, at about late rates. Maize wap quiet, and without change. Beans and peas were dis- posed of on former terms. METROPOLITAN CATTLE.—The cattle trade has been quiet and without any new feature. The supply of beasts was larger than usual, and the quality and con- dition were in the main satisfactory. The tone of the market was strong, and whilst choice qualities were steady in value, other descriptions had a drooping tendency. The best Scots went at 4s 8d, -Norfolks lk &c., 4s 8d, and heavy Lincolns at 4s to 4s 4d per 81b. The sheep pens were fairly well filled. There was a quiet but firm trade, and prices were well maintained. The best 9-stone Downs made 5s lOd to 6s IC-stone, 5s 8d to 5s lOd lOst. half-breds, 5s 6<1 to 58 8d; 12-stone Lincolns, 4s lOd to 5s; and 10st. Down ewes, 4s 6d per 81b. Calves sold slowly at late currencies. Tne following were the closing quotations: Coarse and inferior beasts, 2s 6d to 3s Od; second quality ditto, 3s 2d to 35 lOd primo large oxen, 4s Od to 4s 6d; ditto Scots, &c., 4s 6d tQ 4s 8d; coarse and inferior sheep, 3s 6d to 4s 4d second quality ditto, 4s 6d to 5s 4d prime coarse-woolled ditto, 5s 6d to 5s 8d; prime South- down ditto, 5s lOd to 6s Od; large coarse calves. 3s 2d to 4s 2d prime small ditto, 4s 6d to 5s 2d per 81b. to sink the offal. METROPOLITAN MEAT. The hade opened better, and higher prices were made, the supply all round not being excessive. There was very little demand for inferior meat, but the market was clear and the pro- spects better. The following are the quotations In-« ferior beef, 2s to 2s 4d middling ditto, 2s 8d to 3s 2d; prime ditto, 3s 4d to 3s Sd; Scotch ditto, 4s Od to 4s 2d; Scotch short sides ditto, 4s 6d to 4s 8d; American, Liverpool killed, 3s 2d to 3s 6d ditto, killed, hindquarters, 3s 4d to 4s Od exceptionally, 4s 2d; ditto, ditto, fore-quarters, Is 8d to 2s English veal, 3s 4d to 4s 8d; Dutch ditto, 3s Od to. 4s 8d inferior mutton, 2s 4d to 3s; middling ditto1, 3s 4d to 4s Od; prime ditto, 4s 6d to 4s lOd Scotch ditto, 4s 8d to 5s Od; New Zealand ditto, 2s 2d tdf 2s 6d; Dutch ditto, 3s 8d to 4s Od English lambj 4s 8d to 5s Od; New Zealand ditto, 3s 4d to 3s Sd large pork, 3s to 3s 8d; small ditto, 4s Od to 4s 8a per 81b. by the carcase. GAME AND POULTILY.-Young cock pheasants, 3s 3d to 3s 6d young partridges, Is 9d to Is lOd old dittos 9d to Is 6d; young grouse, 2s 6d to 3s 6d old ditto, 2s to 2s 4d; black cocks, 2s 6d to 2s lOd; grey hens; Is 6d to 2s wild ducks, Is 9d to 2s widgeons, Is 4d to 2s 6d; large hares, 3s 3d to 4s small ditto, 2s tQ 2s 8d large tame rabbits, Is 6d to Is lOd; wild ditto, 8d to Is; large English fowls, 3s 6d to 4s; small ditto, Is 9d to 2s 3d pullets, 2s to 2s 6d large! ducks, 2s to 2s 4d; small ditto, Is 9d to Is 6d; and woodcocks, 3s to 3s 4d each. BILLINGSGATE Fisn.-Fair supply; good demancf. Prices Wholesale: Turbot, 9s to lis brill, 8s ti)" 9s; halibut. 6s Od lemon soles, 4s Od per stone; 2 soles Is 2d to Is 4d; slips, lOJ; red mullets, Is 6d per lb. plaice, 14s to 22s 6d; cod, 12s to 14s; mackerel, 12s; skate, 10s; whiting, 5s; smelts, 2s; sea bream, 10s; bloaters, 3s kippeis, 2s 3d to 2fe 9d per box; fresh haddocks. 10s to 12s per trunk; ditto, 18s per turn live eels, 18s; dead eels, 12s to 14s per draft; conger eels, 22s 6d per barrel; fresh herrings 12s per box; lobsters, 20s to 35s per score; crabs, 16s per hamper; oysters, 8s to 12s; natives, 21s per 100; shrimps, 10s; winkles, 8s; whelks, 5s per bushel; dried haddocks, 3s to 6s pe* dozen. Retail: Turbot, Is to Is 2d; brill, lOd to lid soles, Is 4d to Is 8d; slips, Is; halibut, Sd; red mullets, Is 6d to 2s; John Dorys, 4d to 6d; skate, 4d to 6d; plaice, 5d; cod, 4d to 6d hake, 4d; sea bream, 4d to 6d; lemon soles, 6d live eelff, Is to Is 2d; dead eels, 8d to 9d; conger eels, 4d; fresh haddocks, 3d to 4d per lb.; mackerel, 3d to 6d; whiting, 2d to 4d; lobsters, Is to 2s 6d; craw- fish, Is 6d to 3s; crabs, 9d to 2s 6d dried haddock 4d to 6d each. BOROUGH AND SFITALFIELDS POTATO.—There was ft good supply of potatoes on offer, which meA with a fair demand, at the following prices Magnum Bonums, 50s to 70s; Hebrons, 60s to 90s; Snowdrops, 70s to 90s; Imperators, 60s to 90s; kidneys, 60s to 70s; and Regents, 50s to 70s per ton. SEED TRADE.—A quiet sale for winter tares. Quotations have now fallen to a holding-over leveL Seed rye is steady. New mustard comes forward at reasonable rates. Rapeseed is now extremely cheap, American cloverseed is cabled higher. Alsike ex- hibits a considerable drop from opening priced White is still very dear. Birdseeds sell slowly. Peas and haiicots unchanged. COVENT GARDEN FRUIT AKD N'EGIMTABLW. The market is fairly well stocked with most articles, and a fair inquiry prevails. Greenstuffs Dutch oniong, 2s 6d to 3s per bag; Yalentia onions, 6s 6d to 7$ per case English onions, 4s to 5s per cwt.; parsley, Is; mint, 2s to 2s 6d turnips, Is 6d carrots, la to Is 6d per do7en bunches; washed carrots, 2s 6d per bag; cauliflowers, 3s 6d to 5s; marrows, 6s to 6s 6d per tally; horseradish, Is 3d to Is 6d pet bundle; cucumbers, Is to 2s 3d; artichokes, 2s 6d per dozen; mushrooms, Is to Is 3d per lb.; pota- toes, 45s to 90s per ton. Fruit: Englsh grapes, Is to Is 3d; muscats, 2s to 4s Belgian grapes, 6d to lOd Jersey grapes, 4d to Is; muscats, Is 6d to 2s; and tomatoes, 4d to 7d per lb.; Bordeaux toma- toes, Is 3d to 2s per case; bananas, 7s to 128 per bunch; damsons, 2s 6d to 3s 6d per half-sieve; pears, Is to 2s 6d; apples, 2s 6d to 6s per bushel; Californian pears, 5s to 8s per case; Canadian apples, 10s to 16s 6d per barrel; St. Michael's pineaples, 28 to 5s each; walnuts, 7s to 9s per bag, and 10s to 138 per sack Kentish cob nuts, 24s to 27s per 1001b. ENGLISH WOOL.—The English wool trade shows little change, transactions still being on a limited scale. There may possibly be a little more inquiry, and efforts made to purchase at lower rates than those current, but this does not stimulate business. Holders as a rule are firm and adopt a waiting atti- tude, the only weakness disclosed being in instances where a desire to sell exists, and in these cases terms in favour of buyers have to be submitted to. Demand for wool does not yet increase, and spinners report that their customers hold out very little encourage- ment to them to give the slightest advance. Good wools still hold their own, but inferior qualities are not wanted. Downs, d to 10ad; Kents, 9d to 9d; half-breds, 9d. CAMBRIDGE CATTLE.—A large show of store beasts, and not quite all cleared. Good shows of fat beasts, and trade slow at somewhat lower prices. Trade not so good for fat sheep, of which there were a good number to hand. Only a few lots of stores shown. Large show of fat pigs, and prices lower. Hay, straw, and roots not a very brisk business. Beef, 6s 6d to 7s 3d; mutton, 4s lOd to 58 8d pork, 5s 3d to 6s. READING CATTLE.—The market was fairly well attended. Beef made a moderate show; business proceeded slowlv at 4s 6d to 4s 8d per stone for prime animals, and 4s to 4s 4d for secondary sorts. Mutton was in average supply, and found purchasers at the following prices: Prime small sheep, 5s 8d to 5s lid larger animals, 5s to 5s 4d per stone. Calves changed hands at former quotations. CORK BUTTFR.-Ordinary: Firsts, 78s; seconds, 73s thirds, 64s; fourths, 58s. Mild-cured firkins: Superfine, 85s fine, 77s; mild, 71s. GRIMSBY Fisii.-Modern-e supply; good demand. Prices as follows Brill, Is; live cod, 3s to 8s dead, 2s to 6s each salt, 10s Od per cwt.; coal- fish, 20s to 40s; catfish, 15s to 40s per score; codlings, lis to 14s; gurnets, 5s to 7s per box; live halibut, 7s 6d to 8s 6d; dead, 5s 6d to 6s 6d per stone; haddocks, 32s to 38s per kit; round, 10s to 16s per box; finnan, 3s 3d per stone; hake, 2s to 5s each: kippers, 2s 6d per box; live ling, 2s 6d to 5s each dead, 2s to 4s each lobsters, Is 6d per lb. oysters, unaltered; plaice, 2s to Ss 6d per stone; roker, 14s to 18s per score; soles, Is 4d to Is 6d per lb.; lemon, 7s 6d per stone live skate; 3s to 5s; dead. 2s to 4s each; turbot, lOd to Is per lb.; tusks, 15s to 35s per score; whitches, is 6d to 5s 6d; dead whiting, 4s per stone.
IT is a remarkable fact that while the spread of education in Great Britain has been attended by a decrease in poverty xnd crime, it has produced a con- traiy rwault in France, where crimes and offences against the law increase every year. But the most alarming feature is the increase in the number of youthful delinquents and criminals.
THE DISABILITIES OF MILLIONAIRES. [ "What," asks the Spectator, commenting on Mr. jtf'Calmont's recent inheritance of nearly £ 4,000,00(\ daunts the millionaires that tney shrink, with such few exceptions, from even making an effort to benefit their kind? We do not believe it is selfishness, for, after all, the man who does not muddle away money, or gamble, or ileep a racing- btud, or purchase unworthy women, can get out of EW,000 a year all that the world has to give of personal enjoyment, even if it takes the form of owning splendid scenery. Nor can the deterring influence be merely fear of worry. Millionaires are worried, no doubt, for money in the most shame- less way, sometimes with covert threats; but still, with a little nerve, good private secretaries, and relations with Scotland-yard, they can meet all that at least as easily as less wealthy individuals meet the beggars, burglars, or the friends who try to sponge. Nor can the reason be what is so often alleged—that mil- lionaires never feel themselves rich, the appreciation of their special position belonging to outsiders rather than themselves. We fancy the true reason is very often, at least, an incurable doubt whether they can do any substantial good with their wealth, can even avoid doing very real harm. There is some reason for that fear, for bene- factions are very seldom beneficial. Godwin indi- cated some of the reasons for that in St. Leon," big notion, however, being founded on a false conception of the ingratitude of mankind, and the clever author of Six Thousand Tons of Gold," has worked out the disabilities of a billionaire even more artistically, the mammoth fortune working pure ruin, as it were automatically, without either intention on its owner's part or failure in his intelligence. There is reason for the fear, which we believe often besets millionaires. They do not wish to give in what is called charity, for that often pauperises; they dislike doing the work communities ought to do, and they are afraid of pledging themselves to undertak- ings, the accomplishment of which would take years. That last, indeed, is a highly operative cause. The very rich shrink from binding themselves and destroy- ing their own freedom of volition, just as Kings do and yet if they resolve to keep their capital, they can do nothing very great in less than a generation. A man with four millions has only, if his money is to be safe, about £ 120,000 a year, and deducting £ 30,000 a year for himself, there remains only £ 90,000 to be given away, which in any one year will not accomplish much. Supposing him very reasonable and very benevolent, he will find that he is limited, after all, to certain courses of action. He must either make experiments, for which he has seldom the imagination, or he must improve the health of a district, or the intelligence of a district, or the comfort of a district that is, to put the matter in less abstract terms, he must either furnish a district, say a big town, with open spaces, or with free libraries, or with rebuilt houses on an extensive scale. There have been large benefactions given by the rich even in their own life- time but steady, dogged persistence for 40 years in a benevolent labour of love displayed by an immense owner of ready money, is in our social history the very rarest of incidents. The benefactors, in fact, want quick returns, and under that impulse, scarcely any income is sufficient for any very great work. One year of Mr. McCalmont's income will hardly erect one set of Peabody-buildings, certainly would not tixert the smallest perceptible effect upon the slums Vf London; and it is perceptible effect for which the very rich man who is also benevolent usually longs."
A PLAGUE OF SANDFLIES. The missionaries and others in the interior of Africa send harrowing tales of the misery caused by the plague of sandflies, particularly in the province of Bunijako. Guillemme, a Catholic missionary, writes that people are brought to him constantly with the most painful wounds all over their bodies, but more particularly in the hands and feet. In some cases the flesh on the toes and feet is entirely eaten away, and the bones are exposed. The insect Pulex Penetrans" burrows in the flesh, particularly under the finger or toe-nails, and there lays its eggs. The wound immediately sets up an inflammation, which spreads rapidly, eating away the flesh. In many villages natives are to be foulidwhohave entirely lost the use of their limbs through being attacked by the fly funza," as it is called by the Africans. The insect, it is said, was only introduced to Banten a few years since by a ship from Brazil laden with sand, in which the funzas were buried. Since that time the insects have increased with alarming rapidity. Unfortu- nately, Father Guillemme writes, there appears to be no real cure for the evil. Though personal cleanli- ness is to some extent a safeguard against the ravages of the fly, it often attacks Europeans. If the wound is examined at once, the eggs removed, and the part treated with iodoform," the danger is not so great; but unfortunately the wounds are often left till it is too late. The natives, after being stung, wrap up the wounded part in banana leaves for 24 hours. Father Guillemme (the head of the station Mpala), in concluding his report, begs that doctors in Europe will direct their attention to finding some remedy which will do something to alleviate the sufferings of the victims of the funza,"which cause the hearts of the missionaries to bleed all the more, as they can render them no assistance in their pain.
A CRIMEAN HERO. A good deal of interest (says the Newcastle Chronicle) is at present being taken by some of the inhabitants of North Seaton and Newbiggin-by-the- Sea in the case of Mr. Robert Stephenson, an ex- corporal of the Coldstream Guards. Mr. Stephenson, who is at present engaged as a shoemaker, is one of the Crimean soldiers who, on returning to England in ill-health, received more than the usual share of neglect from an ungrateful country. He enlisted in the Coldstream Guards (regimental number 4054) in Darn Crook, Newcastle, and on February 17, 1854, sailed with his regiment from Southampton for Malta, being ultimately landed with his comrades for active service in the Crimea on September 14, 1854. The sufferings that our brave soldiers endured, and in too many cases succumbed to, during the Crimean campaign are graphically told in a letter-now worn with age-which Mr. Stephenson wrote during the war to his sister, Miss Elizabeth Stephenson, of Ellington, and which is 'preserved as a precious relic in the family. It is indited from the heights above Sevasto po), February 16, 1855," and in the course of his missive the writer remarks: Our regiment is just now fit to come home, for out of 1100 we have only 64 men now. I am one of the lucky lot, the others have either been shot or are sick, and 64 is all that we can muster for duty. Our men are dying fast, we have lost a great many by being frost- bitten, and some of them have had to have their feet taken off through the effects of the frost; but thank God, I have got through it so far. I have been on the trenches lately, up to the eyes in snow, three or four nights at a time, a duty that has killed many of our men. I have not got the parcel which you sent, it is not everything us poor soldiers get that is sent out to us. Tell father I should like to acknowledge a receipt from him before I perhaps get popped off the hooks. We are under fire every day on the batteries, which we are repairing, and when we are on the top they (the Russians) send the shot whizzing about and over our ears very thick. As soon as we see the smoke we have to jump down, and very quick too, oi we are so near to their batteries. All that I could tell you about the fighting you will see in the newspapers, but we have got our name up, at any rate. I just write this before I go to the trenches to-night." The writer was present at the battles of Alma and Inkerman, he witnessed the magnificent charge on the part of the gallant 600 at Balaclava, and took part in the engagement of that day, and was present at the siege of Sebastopol. When he returned, with the remnant of his regiment, to England, he was declared, owing to the state of his health, to be unfitted for duty, and was recom- mended to go into hospital. But, though he was suffering from a wound in the chest, one of two small shell wounds that he received during the war—the north-country soldier declined the recommendation, and returned to his friends near Ellington. He has been denied a pensiou because the sufferings he en- dured in the Crimea unfitted him for duty. The case of the North-country hero is considered by many an exceptionally hard one, and an effort is being made to draw the attention of the present Government to it.
DR. OERTEL, who was an assistant at the Hygieian Institute at Hamburg, was making experiments with infected water drawn from the Vistula. He had been successful in breeding bacilli in this medium, but un- fortunately contracted Asiatic cholera. He is now dead. A SHERIFF'S posse which was sent in pursuit of the three robbers who held up" a Southern Pacific train near Maricopa, in Arizona, a few nights since, overtook the fugitives near Phoenix. The robbers opened fire on the posse, and a brisk fight ensued. One of the robbers was shot in five places, and was captured, but his two companions escaped. IF the wealth of the United States could be realised and were equally divided, there would be for each of the inhabitants a sum equal to about £ 200; while the assumption is that the wealth of the United Kingdom is equal to about 4:350 per inhabitant. IN reply to a letter of inquiry, Mr. Harlev, the postmaster of Manchester, states that the Manchester Post-office ranks next to London as the largest ofliee in the kingdom in regard both to postal and telegraph business. It is much ahead of Liverpool. ° THE steady increase in the use of steel over iron may be realised from a glance at railway statistics. In 1880, of the 115,647 miles of railroad in the United States, 81,967 miles, or 70'9 per cent., were laid with iron tracks. In 1883, 191,857 miles of road were equipped with steel out of a total mileage of 229,012, the percentage being 83"8. A SUIT for E3000 damages has just been brought by a Tennessee man against a neighbour who, by means i •a su,n~p'assi burned all the hair off the com- plainants head while he was asleep. A WONDERFUL FACT.-Mrs. Smith, who is quite a reader of thmgs in nature and science, was furnishing her husband, a plain sort of a man, with some valu- able information concerning the depth of the sea. "Did you know, Henry, she said, "the remarkable fact that the deepest parts of the sea are in all cases verv near the land ? I didn't, my dear," he re- sponded that is, I did, but I never happened to think of it. In fact, it was such a plain case that I hardly thought it worth mentioning." This talk on the part of Mr. Smith more than surprised his wife. "Why," she exclaimed, "how did you know it ? I never heard of it before. Mr. Smith gazed at her innocently, My dear," ho said, the deepest parts are bound to be nearest the land because the deeper you go the nearer the bottom you get, don't you ?" and Mr. Smith couldn't for the life of him under- stand what was remarkable about that, ]
NO ROOM FOR EMIGRANTS, The intending British emigrant must Jind the notifications issued every month by the Emigrants' Information Office anything but pleasant reading. Read them as hopefully as he may, says the Globe, they appear to shut the door of the outside world in his face-that is, unless he happens to be endowed with capital; in that case, plenty of invitations await his acceptance. The latest circular issued from the office blocks out Canada, New South Wales, Victoria-, South Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, and South Africa. In all of these portions of the empire, British labour, both skilled and unskilled, both clerical and manual, is at a heavy discount. Even from such brand new countries as Masbonaland and Matabeleland comes the dismal story, "No opening for emigrants without capital." The United States are in even worse case for the absorption of addi- tional labour; there is no part of the civilised world where "the bitter cry of the unemployed" makes so much noise just at present. Some parts of South America hold out, it is true, the hand of friendly invitation, but certain Brazilian incidents have brought that part of the world into disrepute among Englishmen anxious to seek their fortune* abroad. Thus, there is no room at all outre mer," and these isles are likely, therefore, to become still more overcrowded than they are already. The moral lies so plainly on the surface that even the most purblind trade unions should read it aright. Labour is a saleable commodity, and now that the external demand for it has ceased, the home supply is bound to fall in value owing to its continuous aug- mentation.
STONE BROTH. The old recipe for stone broth has gone out of fashion, but the principle involved in it is at the root of many inventions of modern times. We are told (says tne British Medical Journal) to boil a smooth pebble from the brook, a little salt and pepper, pebble from the brook, a little salt and pepper, together with an onion and divers vegetables being added as a relish, while the flavour was improved by the addition of a mutton bone. No doubt the broth was good, and equally no doubt the modern sugges- tion that ladies and gentlemen suffering from insomnia should go hopping in Kent is good also, notwith- standing the feeble hypnotic influence of the hop. The well-to-do hop-pickers give their labour for nothing, and the farmer in return provides them with bed and board of a simple character. It is quite idyllic, and if one considers the causes of nine-tenths of the insomnia from which people suffer nowadays "hopping" ought to be a cure. The fresh air, the long hours of not too laborious work, the simple diet, the absence of responsibility, and the probably hard bed give as complete change as possible from the habits of mental worry and bodily indulgence so often at the root of the malady. We have the greatest possible respect for the therapeutic virtues of the hop, but when prescribed in this form we are reminded of the pebble in the stone broth, and attribute the excel- lence of the prescription to its other ingredients.
II INEQUALITIES OF TRAIN RATES. The battle of railway rates is as yet by no means won. Concessions, it is true, have been made in I certain directions. At the same time many gross inequalities still exist and require redress. Thus the fishers of St. Ives pay E9000 for the carriage of fish of the value of E15,000, and the farmers of the I Eastern Counties are mulcted in 9400,000 for send- ing to market potatoes that realise £ 1,000,000; whereas the importers of foreign meat for the journey from Liverpool to London have only to pay a paltry £ 1125 for the carcases that fetch in the market no less a sum than £ 15,000. Figures such as these (says the City Press) might be quoted by the score to show how greatly the rates new charged favour the foreigner.
AT Chaska, Minnesota, as a man named Scharf and his family were returning from a fair, Scharf, owing to the darkness, missed the road and drove into a river. Mrs. Scharf and five children, as well as Miss Rokus, a friend, were drowned. IT has been discovered by a contemporary that in j his youth M. Casimir-Perier, the French President, was an art critic. His first work, published in 1868. was entitled A Seeker in the Salon of 1868. The Unknown, the Too-little-Known, the Misunderstood, New Men and Young Men. By Paul Pierre." That Paul Pierre was M. Perier was proved by his next work, Art Gossip on the occasion of the Salon of 1869," being published with his full oame in the fol- 1lowing year, the previous book being there given as being by the same author." As an art critic M. Casimir-Perier was among the revolutionaries.
THK COASTGUARD IN WAR-TIME. There have been several misconceptions and mis- takes made by writers recently (says the Army and Navy Gazette) who have dealt with the important subject of Manning the Fleet," and this is espe- cially the case with reference to enumerations of the first reserve or coastguard. The total numbers of this branch of naval personnel are: Inspecting officers, 81; chief officers and chief boatmen in charge (station officers), 508; chief, commissioned, and boatmen, 3504, of whom about 750 were stokers before joining the coastguard; divisional carpenters, 83 district paymasters and clerks to them, 24 this gives a total of 4200. These officers and men, with the exception of the divisional officers, paymasters, and their staff, are equally divided into two parts, commonly called the "embarking" and "non- embarking" sections. The former of these sections— comprising, therefore, 2050 officers and men—is available for the partial mobilisation which takes place every year; and for several years past we may say that, leaving out the sick and certain special cases, upwards of 2000 coastguardmen have been added to the personnel of the navy afloat for a month or six weeks' training. When, therefore, an estimate of our available naval personnel is made, it must be remem- bered that should war be declared, we have 4000 highly trained warrant and petty officers ready to set en board the reserve ships and form a nucleus for their crews. We say petty officers advisedly, because for some years past it has been held, and proved, that even the boatmen who form the lowest rank in the coastguard are capable of perform- ing the duties of a first-class petty officer. That it should be so is by no means surprising when we realise that before joining the coastguard, men have been from seven to 10 years in the service, and must be without exception of good character and ability. A difficulty respecting the embarkation of the coast- guard is connected with chief boatmen in charge. Some 80 of these are told off for signal stations but the other 200, though officers in command of stations on shore, are but chief petty officers on board, and it would be inadvisable from a disciplinary point of view that they should be placed in the same messes with men who had been under their command on shore. We do not see our way at present to solve this little difficulty; but it should not be insuperable. Many, if not all, of these men are capable of perform- ing a warrant officer's duties, and they might well be appointed to small ships to do duty in this rank. It should not be forgotten that all chief officers have passed in navigation, and are thus qualified to take command of the extemporised scouting and despatch vessels that will be a necessary addition to our fleet on the home station, and their local knowledge as to the pilotage of our coasts and harbours would Drove to be most valuable.
A COLUMN OF FIRE. The pretty little town of Wels, in Upper Austria, has one of the most remarkable supplies of gas in the world. The gas is given off from the earth, wherever a hole is bored, and a great number of private houses are lighted and warmed by gas which comes from a hole bored in the cellars of the house. Even motors can be worked in this way. On Thurs- day some workmen started boring a well in order to tap the supply, but they had not gone down many feet when the gas burst through and caught fire, and has been burning since, in the form of a huge column of fire. All attempts to extinguish the flame have so far proved unsuccessful. A natural fountain has also broken out, and all around the water jets of gas which come up with it are alight.
A FRENCH CONCEPTION OF A BOARD OF TRADE. The desire of France to extend her colonies and thus increase her commercial relations with foreign parts, is undoubted—the heated discussion of the hour regarding Madagascar and African affairs is proof enough-and an important step has just been taken (Engineering says) in the appointment, by a decree of the President, of a permanent consulta- tive commission for commerce and industry, just such a commission, in fact, a8 should exist at our Board of Trade. In France, of course, there is a Minister of Commerce, and in 1882 what was called a superior council was con- stituted to assist in the solution of questions affect- ing industrial and commercial interests, and to inform the executive as to the real needs of national industry. This council has done splendid service but as the Minister of Commerce pointed out in pro- moting an extension of the idea, the council was too numerous to be called frequently together. To use the official language, "The constantly-increasing in- tensitv of the economic life of nations and the keen- ness of commercial and industrial competition, both at home and abroad, have multiplied the occasions on which it is advantageous for the Minister to seek the opinion of the authorised represen- tatives of commerce and industry;" and thus by a Presidential decree a commission of 20 is being appointed. The advantages of such a Board are much more obvious in the case of Britain, and the movement by France ought to encourage the many who consider some reform necessary in the working of our Board of Trade. We have fre- quently had occasion to refer to the absence of a spirit of sympathy with modern ideas in engineering and other industries on the part of the permanent officials, who, after all, guide the president, ap- pointed more for his political than his commercial acumen and there can be little doubt that with a consultative Commission, composed of reprcsenta- tives of commerce and industry and other interests, progress, on approved lines, would be more readily tolerated, without the public safety L,,eing in the smallest degree affected injuriously. There is, in nearly all our public departments, a conservative tendency almost inherent to the service, and this is the more pronounced in officials whose workshop experience, if they have any, is not of to-day or even of yesterday, 80 that the advantage of the men of commerce or industry going straight from the workshop to Whitehall regularly would be very considerable. Moreover, the status of the oermanent official would not be affected. A year or two ago Lloyds appointed such a consultative com- mittee which has done good work, and the staff feel that their authority has been strengthened, while, at the same time, the shipping community are greatly pleased with the result. In the case of the Board of Trade, the necessity is even greater, in view espe- cially of the competition of nations, and of the need for a spirit of sympathy for progressive methods in all things, and the advantage would be correspond- ingly satisfactory.
TUB notorious Sardinian brigands De Rosas and Angius have been sentenced to the galleys for life. THE Empress of Austria has her hair shampooed once a month. The secret of the preparation would be worth a good deal to many ladies, for the Empress's hair is still luxuriant. It exhibits no streaks of grey, and touches the ground when she stands upright, The hair wash requires 40 eggs, and there are no fewer than 20 other ingredients. TilE Queen in her 57 years of power has seen every throne in the world vacated at least once, and some of them several times. IN China they tie a red cord round a baby's wrists so that, it may grow up quiet and obedient. Should a child turn out bad, they say, His parents forgot to bind his wrists." IT is not generally known that a licerise is required to sell ginger-beer after ten o'clock at night. Some small shopkeepers at Battersea were fined for selling the harmless beverage after that hour, although they oleaded ignorance of the law.
THE VIRTUE OF COMPETITION. Mr. White, the Chief Constructor of the Navy, pays a neat compliment to the competitive examination as a test for the fitness of public servants. I am," he declared, while sitting in his office in the Admiralty, an outcome of the competitive examination system. That is how I am sitting in this room to-day." In eight and a-half years-from October, 1885, to April, 1894- Mr. White designed 131 ships, a few of which are still being built. These 131 ships represent an aggregate displace- ment of half a million tons, a million horse- power, or thereabouts, and between 20 and 30,000,000 sterling, exclusive of armaments. It is rather curious that Mr. White, like his predecessor, Sir Edward Reed, owns literature as the mistress of his spare hours. If his life had not been spent in the building of ships, it might have been devoted to the making of books. Even now, perhaps, he has not quite abandoned all idea of some day taking up his pen and leaving his mark on the literature of the period.
SIR G. BROWN'S WAGER. General Sir E. Wood has been paying a visit to I Sebastopol and its neighbourhood, which forms the subject of an article in the Fortnightly Review, en- titled The Crimea in 1854 and 1894." From it we extract the following good story The men of the Light Division always spoke of him (Sir G Brown) as The General,' as was then, and is still, though in a lesser degree, the habit of soldiers possibly from not knowing the name of the immediate leader. This ignorance cost Sir George £ 1. During the worst of the winter he had seized an opportunity of meeting Lord Raglan to urge the desirability of his showing himself more frequently in the camps. What good will it do?' 'Oh! twill cheer the men up. Why, sir, number* of my men don't know vour name.' But they don t know your name, George!' Every man in the Light Division knows my name.' 'I'll bet you £1 the first man we ask does not.' 'Done!' said Sir George and they rode to the Light Division camp. 'Come here, my man. Who am I?' The soldier halted at three paces, straight as a ramrod. You're the General, sir!' But my name ?' You're the General, sirand nothing more could be elicited from him. Sir G. Brown paid up on the spot."