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FRANCE. The most interesting part of the French n\ts relatgs to a French between M. Thiers and GehetH.1 Cavaignac. At the sitting of the Assembly on Wednesday the public tribunes were crowded, great curiosity being felt to see M. Thiers for the fh'st tittle iri the tribune of the new chamber. M. Thiers (amidst marks of great interest) ascended the tribune to present a report on the proposition of M. Proud- hon, to have one third of the revenue kept back from all the revenues of landowners, mortgage creditors, and other per- sons of property—one-half of which sum should be appro- priated to the farmer tenants, mortgage debtors, &c.; and the other half to the State, in order to enable it to give an impulse to credit. The Finance Committee, he said, was of opinion, that the proposition could not be entertained. As a financial measure it was quite unworthy of notice; yet, as the committee considered that propositions like the pre- sent would be attended with danger if left unrefuted, it had deputed him to lay its views at some length before the As- sembly. The object of the measure was said by the author to be two-fold—to give relief to the poorer classes of society, and to help the State in its efforts to raise public credit. On the first point, M. Proudhon said that there would be a reciprocity of advantage by the adoption of the proposition for both the tenants and the landlords: the former obtain- ing a certain sum each to spend in addition to the usual re- venue and the latter finding all the usual articles of daily use cheaper by the additional movement given to business. All this the committee had commissioned him to declare it could not in any way perceive, even after the explanations by the hon. proposer himself. The honourable representa- tive spoke in the strongest terms against the anti-social doctrines set forth by M. Proudhon, and observed that the Finance Committee had been unanimous in thinking that he ought to have shown more respect to the Assembly than to bring forward this measure, after his journal had been seized for similar doctrines. (The conclusion of the report dwelt strongly on the impropriety of these doctrines, and ended by recommending the Assembly to reject it.) (The honourable gentleman was listened to with the greatest possible attention throughout, and was very frequently ap- plauded.) M. Proudhon observed that the report just read was al- most an accusation. It would be necessary for him to have the document before him, in order to answer it properly. His proposition had been rather misrepresented than ex- plained, and as a great number of figures were set down in the report, which would require a close examination, he should propose to have a day appointed for a discussion of his proposition (hear, hear). He should name Saturday next for that purpose. This was agreed to. An altercation then ensued between M. Thiers and Gene- ral Cavaignac with respect to some observations the former made use of when speaking of the bill introduced by the Government on the Legacy Duty. Much angry feeling was exhibited amidst the impatience of the Assembly. The attack made by M. Thiers has operated injuriously for him. General Cavaignac, so far from having sufferedi from it, has attained to greater popularity, although nearly coincidental with that attack came a petition to the Assem- bly from M. Emile de Girardin, complaining in strong terms b of the treatment to which he had been subjected on the part of the chief of the State. In that petition M. de Girardin charges General Cavaignac with having allowed the late insurrection to become formidable while he could easily have crushed it; and this with a view to the Dictatorship and ultimately to the Presidency of the Republic. The Government seized on Thursday the journal La Pa- trie and others, which published the petition of M. Emile de Girardin to the Assembly. It was a question whether M. de Girardin should not be again thrown into prison, and several of the ministers are said to have urged that measure upon General Cavaignac, who refused, on the ground that the question was a personal one. The Count de Montalembert has given notice of his intention to bring the petition of M. de Girardin under the attention of the Assembly. Referring to the report of M. Thiers on the proposition of M. Proudhon to plunder the landed proprietors of France of one-third of their income, the Reforme says :— "Not content with having crushed M. Proudhon by a skilful ricochet, M. Thiers wished to strike the Government through one of its most honourable propositions. He condemned, by anticipa- tion and without discussion, that progressive tax which M. Goud- chaux wishes to apply on property acquired by inheritance. The manner of M. Thiers has not improved, although the Spirit of God, if we must believe his floetoral letters, has visited his heart; his polemics are of the bad Voltairean school, relieved by the imperti- nence of the parvenu; no general views, no serious or profound doctrines sarcasms instead of principles little disdains instead of proofs. M. Theirs dissects details instead of going to the bottom of things he reproaches his adversary with not having boldly ex- posed his fundamental theories, and he himself only makes phrases on these grave questions, which are, however, the controversy of the century. To suppress the arguments, true or false, of the measure to be discussed, to pull to pieces in detail instead of expos- ing by masses, and concluding scientifically, to escape from the problem and take amusement in sallies—to insult instead of dis- cussing with severe probity; such arc the proceedings of the great logician." The bill for the rcgularisation of the clubs and secret so- cieties occupied the afternoon of the National Assembly during the whole of the sitting of Thursday. The clause I uuder discussion was the 13th, the object of which is to sup- press secret societies; and the great difficulty was to define what wan meant by a secret society. It was remarked that, under the denomination of secret societies, the most useful institutions, such as literary, scientific, and charitable socie- ties, might be suppressed and M. Jules Favre proposed as on amendment, that the law should affect only those socie- ties which had a political object. This was opposed by the Minister of the Interior, on the ground fht it was better to s-ippvess all secret or unauthorised societies, as it was very evident that the Minister of the Interior, for the time being-, whatever might be his polities, would not be inclined to suppress those that were useful. The clause was accord- vurly passed: and the consequence is, that henceforth in France the Government will have an absolute and unlimited right to put down all societies of whatever kind and what- ever may be their object.' One of the clauses of the old law, which used to be most abused, was that which prevented more than twenty per- sons from holding a meeting without the authority of the Government. This provision has now been suppressed by M. Senard, on the ground that he does not choose to have • til. intentions of the law evaded by people meeting in par- tics of nineteen each, so that the new Jaw leaves to the minister for the time being the arbitrary power of prevent- iug the smallest number of people from assembling (what- ever their real object may be), on the pretext that their meeting was c:;ntrilry to law. The Constituthnnel remarks, that for rigour this clause of the bill goes far beyond any law of the Empire or. Restoration, to say nothing of the law of 1834, which allows meetings of twenty persons. Two of the members who rose to oppose this severe clause were M. Dufaure, formerly minister under Louis Philippe, and M. de Fallonx, a Legitimist. M. Dupin supported the clause. The Montagne, with the exception of M. Bac and M. Durien, took no part in the debate. The Committee of the National Assembly on foreign affairs has come to the determination of entrusting several of its members to draw tip, reports on the different questions of' foreign politics, which at present occupy the attention of Europe. M. Drouyn de l'Huys, the President of the Com- mittee, who was formerly charge d'affaires in Madrid, is to draw ii]) a report on Spanish affairs; M. d'Aragon, who is married to the sister of the Princess of Belgiogoso, is to draw up a report on the affairs of Italy; M. Xavier Dumeu, on the affairs of Russia; M. Edmond Lafayette on the Moldavo- Y*V;lachian question; M. Payer, the late chef dll cabinet under M. de Lamartine, on the German Confederation M. de Voissins, on the questions of the East; and M. de Heckeren (who killed the famous Russian poet Pouehkin in a duel), on the question of the relations of Prussia with Prussian Poland. The commission on the constitution has been occupied during three sittings in hearing the arguments of the dele- gates from the standing committees of the National Assem- bly for and against the question of the right of employment. Seven of the committees declared in favour of the right of; employment as wpecified in the preamble of the project of the Constitution, qi}d eight decided against it. The right to employment; was defended by MM. Cremieux and Victor LefranC, and opposed by MM. Thiers, Berryer, and Duver- gier tie Hauram% in the n^me of their respective.. c,om- mittees. The questions oil Avliich the delegates have still to speak in presence of the commission are-the mode of elect- ing the President of the Republic, the system of two Cham- bers, and the formation of a Council of State. It is believed that the delegates will have concluded their arguments in the course of the next week, and that the Report of the Commission may be presented to the National Assembly between the 10th and 15th of August. The Municipal Council of the city of Paris have concluded a loan of 10,000,000f. ( £ 400,000) with the Bank of Frapee at four per cent. It has been resolved, moreover, to re-im- pose the entrance-tax on butcher's meat, removed by the Provisional Government, and by the loss of which the city was. deprived of an annual revenue of 6,000,000L ( £ 240,000.) The Bank of France is continuing to diminish its dis- counts, those in Paris being five millions less in the week, and in the country eight millions. The currency goes on steadily advancing, being three millions more for Paris, and about the same increase for the branch banks. The Court of Assizes of Paris delivered its judgment on Wednesday in the cases of the individuals convicted of hay- ing destroyed all the stations of the Northern Railroad from St. Denis to Beaumont on the 24th of February last. Two were sntencd to hard labour for life, one to seven years' imprisonment, six to five years' imprisonment, &c. The 3loniteur announces the death of General Rigeau, at Vaucluse, of sporadic cholera. Our private letters surmise, from certain precautionary measures of the police, that the arrival of the disease in the French capital was deemed probable. > M. Ducoux, the new prefect of police, issued a proclama- tion on Tuesday, the 25th ultimo, in which he states that work was being resumed with considerable activity in the different branches of Parisian industry, He observes, that, On the 22nd ultimo, out of the 30,992 operatives who lived in the lodging-houses of the capital, 19,227 were engaged at work in their respective professions. The opera- tions of the pawnbrokers' offices likewise demonstrated that the situation is improving. On no former occasion were fewer attempts committed against persons and property. Between the 20th and 24th only five attempts against persons, and seven against pro- perty, were brought before to the authorities. The offences amenable to the correctional courts were more numerous, but the cases of robbery and swindling did not exc eed thirty- five. The number of ordinary prisoners was 3;Z01 on the 20th of July; and, on the 24th, it reached 3,282, which is a new proof of the activity displayed by the police; but, we should not be inclined to regard it as a proof of the diminu- tion of crime.

SPAIN.

t).ITALY.

NAPLES AND SICILY.

ROME.

AUSTRIA.

IGERMANY.

PRUSSIA.

THE DANUBIAN PROVINCES.

HUNGARY.

i ."IRELAND.