HOW TO INJURE WATERING PLACES. LAST year, in the middle of July, the members of the Aberystwyth Town Council began a dis- cussion which lasted the remainder of the season, on the water supplied to the town. The atten- tion of visitors was thus prominently called to the .doubts which then existed as to the quantity and quality of the water. Last Tuesday, one of the Councillors, feeling prcbably that the summer season is approaching, again started, this ruinous discussion. In draining the Flats, it seems a large number of small springs have been tapped, and the Councillor referred to is anxious to secure the water from these springs for the use of the town That more water is needed was admitted by the Surveyor, and was not disputed by any- body but are the inhabitants and visitors of Aberystwyth reduced to such a wretched plight that they must be content with the water dis- covered in cutting surface drains on a marshy piece of land ? Let the inhabitants of Aber- ystwyth after they have read the report of the proceedings at the last meeting of the Town Council ask themselves whether the water. that will flow through the drains on '^the Flats is the sort of liquid that ought to ba offered to the visitors of a high class watering place. Will the lodging house keepers, who are deeply interested in this question, ask themselves what visitors would say and do when they learnt what they were drinking, if the drainage water should be utilized. The SUKVEYOR, on being pressed, said he would not be afraid to drink the water. Very likely not. He is a brave man enough, and would, perhaps, with a little pressure, run considerable risks for the good of the town by doing more than drink dirty water. The question, however, is not whether the SURVEYOR dare drink water which has been tapped in cutting ordinary surface drains, but whether that water, apart altogether from the opinion of the SURVEYOR as to its quality, should be utilized for a flourishing Welsh water- ing place. This, it must be remembered, is not a question we have raised, nor do we think it is a question that ought to have been raised at all; but, seeing it is brought forward and discussed by the representatives of the ratepayers, we have no alternative but to deal with it. Already there are visitors in the town who will read the foolish words spoken on Tuesday, and the only hope for the town is that they will think the whole thing was a joke. Fortunately, sensible men will never believe that, any rational being actually proposed z, in sober earnest that springs discovered in digging a four foot drain, on agricultural land should be utilized for drinking purposes That this was the nature of the proposition can be seen from our report, which reveals the extraordinary fact that several sapient Councillors were disposed to treat the matter with most unbecoming gravity. Happily there is no danger of the drainage water, or any portion of it, being pumped up for the refresh- ment of visitors. The supply may run short, or it may meet the requirements, but one thing is certain, that long before anything so suicidal as the proposal made on Tuesday is carried out, a great deal more will be said about it. The foolish and ruinous discussion commenced and carried on last Tuesday by the i( True Friends of the Town will most likely be continued fortnightly during the season for the special benefit of lodging-house keepers. There surely is not a ratepayer in the town who does not see that the Councilmen who commenced the discussion last Tuesday ought to be held responsible for all its ill effects, and that, if continued, it will have ill effects we have no manner of doubt. As long as the Flats are used for supplying the town with water this ruinous annual discussion must be held. Nothing can prevent it. The SURVEYOR is not to blame. He was questioned and did his best to give satis- factory answers. He had, wisely, not tasted the water, but he would not be afraid to drink it The suggestion that the town should be supplied with the surface water from the Flats is the most frugal-minded scheme yet advanced by these long-headed rulers, and is well worthy of its source. It is some consolation to know that Aberystwyth has not yet sunk so low that it must go to the mouth of a drain for its supply of water. Pumping is a grand thing, but we cannot tolerate surface drain spring" water even for the exquisite pleasure of possessing two entire pumps!
:==- BUSINESS ADDRESSES. 'ASERYSTWrriL IMPORTANT! jf yon ^yant Good Boots, If you TVant Cheap Boots, If you Want Strong Boots, If you Wanl i Light Boots, If you Want Summer Boots, I f you vVant Fashionable Boots, I f you Want White Boots, If you Want Bronze Boots, A. If you yyant Men's Boots, Jf you ^yant Women's Boots, If you yyant Boys' Boots, Jf you ^y ant Girls' Boots, I f you AV an' Children's Boots, you yyant Guttapercha Bottomed Boots, I f you yyant Solid Leather Boots, If you yyant Boots that will Wear, jf you yy ant Boots that will give satisfaction, Jf you yy ant Boots to keep the Feet dry, jf you yyant Boots you can recommend, If you vVant Boots repaired with Leather, Jf you yyant Bootsrepaired with Guttapercha, Jfyou yyant Boots repaired Neatly and Cheap, If you yyant VALUE FOR YOUR MONEY, GO TO DICK'S, 16, GREAT DARKGATE-STREET, ABERYSTWYTH DICK'S, MAEXGWYN-STREET, MACHYNLLETH DICIÇS, HIGH-STREET, LAMPETER DICK'S, CHURCH-STREET, B ARMOUTH DICK'S, VICTORIA BUILDINGS, DOLGELLEY. t SHOPS IX NEARLY EVERY TOWN OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, IRELAND, AND THE CHANNEL ISLES. '| SECOND HAND MACHINERY DEPOT. 1 NOTICE c To Iine and Quarry Proprietors, Agents, &c. McILQUHAM, MACHINE BROKER, ABERYST- WYTH, HAS always Mine and Quarry Plant and Machinery for sale, and is openatalltinieseit.hertopurchaseorsellthe same on commission. Wanted wrought scrap iron, condemned hemp and Manilla ropes, metal, &c. Now on sale- Waterwheels, 2. 80ft. x 3ft. breast price, £ 70 each, where they stand in Carnarvon- shire. 1, COft.xSft. breast; price, £150. 1, 18ft. x "ft. breast; quite new, price £ 40, as it stands in Carnarvonshire. A large quan- tity of good second hand India Rubber < strapping. 5 'J tons new Bridge Kails from 14 np to 3 lbs, at t:6 10s. per ton, in not less than ton lots, nett cash, in truck at Aber- ystwvth. A quantity of air pipes, steel borers, miners' tools,, &c., &c. Several good second hand Steam Engines, Boilers, &c., Ac.. Pruning Machine. HEART OF OAK HOUSE 23. Great Darkgate-street, Aberystwyth, ITALIAN WAREHOUSE AND TiLANBADARN CANDLE MANUFACTORY. DAVID RICHARDS. ] ] EDE'S, EDE'S, EDE'S, Tite Cheap Provision Merchant of Aberystwyth, H S taken the large premises known as MADOC HOUSE, PORTMADOC, where he in- tends to sell all kinds GROCERY and PROVISIONS of the very Best Quality, at the Lowest Possible Prices, Wholesale and Retail. BACON, prime quality, 6|d. per. lb.; do. Cumberland' cut ~6id. • "-ood American, 4Ad.; shoulders (Alkington Patent), best quality, 5Ad. and 6kh; Atkinson's patent mild-cured hams, 6d. and nd. Finest American CHEESE, Sid. per lb. BEEF, in 21b. tins-Best quality, (jd. per lb. MUTTON, do. do. do. 71d. Finest Welsh BUTTER, 15. 4d. per lb.; two pounds, tia. Gd. Good Salt do. Is. 2d. per lb. SWEETS IN EVERY VARIETY, FROM 60. PER LB. One pound and a-half of Lump Sugar and a quarter of a pound of Excellent Tea for One Shilling. BxSCJIT5rCOFjEVEKT|DESCRIPTX03r nov 4tD. A POUND, 100 Pounds of Splendid Irish Rock Potatoes, for 6s. 9d. A LOT OF SEED POTATOES, 100 POUNDS, 7s. 9d. The Business, carried on as usual, at- 12, CHALYBEATE TERRACE, ABERYSTWYTH, AND BLAMN-AUSFESTINIOG. Any of the above Goods will be carefully packed and forwarded to any address on receipt of P.O.O. to EDES NEW SHOP, PORTMADOC. # 1 ORDERS FOR PRINTING AND BOOKBINDING BECEIVKD BY j. GIBSON, 3,'Queen's-road, Abemtwytii. .J"r- BUSINESS ADDRESSES. \V'V'rl.v'V'I'I,V' Ipswich may be described as the birthplace of Chemical Manures. JOSEPH FISON & Co., IPSWICH, i MANUFACTURERS OF (J SULPHURIC ACID AND CHEMICAL MANURES. (One of the Oldest Firms in the Trade.) "VV I "I Mes«rs JOSEPH FISON & Co., having established a Depot at Swansea, are now prepare to deuver tnelr :hnures free by Railway at any Statiou iu South Wales, and the neighbouring counties. To These I, ave been found not only to produce a large yield, but also to improve the quality of the crops for ,v ich they are applied, to strengthen the soil, and to bene tit succeeding crops. F, ull particulars may be obtained m application to any of the Agents of the Firin, or to the Head Offices. To Ilo-chaiits, Fal";¡¡e1"S, and others hariiz,7 a connection 1Vith N.B.-No SUB-Agents are appointed, but all Agents being in direct communication mth the Firm, onlei received throvnhthem will hare the same attention as if handed to theprincipa.s. 2, LITTLE DARK-GATE STREET, ABERYSTWYTH, APRIL 20TH, 1878: ————————— HUGH R. PUG-HE, Jones, dectased) with a CHOICE SELECTION OF DRAPERY GOODS, THE LATEST NOVELTIES IN MOONSHINE, RAINBOW, AND SILK TRIMMINGS, FRINGES, RIBBONS, AND EVERY ARTICLE IN THE DRAPERY TRADE. RESPECTFULLY SOLICITING YOUR KIND SUPPORT AND PATRONAGE. ALL GOODS MARKED IN PLAIN FIGURES. GROSSE & BLACKWELLS MALT VI N EGAR, PURE PICKLES, SAUCES, POTTED MEA1 AND FISH, PREPARED SOUPS, CALVES' FEET JELLY, JAMS AND ORANGE MARMALADE, ALWAYS BEAR THEIR NAMES AND ADDRESS ON THE LABELS, And may be obtained of Grocers and Italian Warehousemen throughout the Wolil CROSSE & BLACKWELL, PURVEYORS TO THE QUEEN. SOllO SQUARE. LONDON. OES Y BYD I'll IAITH GYMRAEG. ) | EISTEDDFOD GADEIRIOL MALDWYN, 1878. CYNHELIR YR EISTEDDFOD rCHOD ELEXI YN LLANBRYNMAIR, M E D 1 ped, 18 7 8, Pryd y Gwobrwyir yr Yingeiswyr Buddugol mewn Barddoniaetli, Ilhyddiaeth, Cerddoriaetli, &c. L L Y W Y D D 1 0 N SYP. W. W. WYNN, BARWNIG, A.S.; SYR JOHN CONROY, BARWNIG DAVID HOWELL, Ysw. BEIRNIAID BARDOONiAETH.-Tanj-marian, Derwenog, Gutyn Padarn, a Nicola. TIIAETHODAU.-Nicola, Qnellyn, ac S.R. CEKDDOUIAETH.—'Eos -Alorlaisi Tanymarian. Ceir Rhestr o'r Testynau ond anfon lie. mewn stamps i'r Ysgrifenvddion, 2 JOHN EDWARDS, Post Office, Llanbrynmair, JOHN WILLIAMS, Bryn Derwen, Llanbrynmair. RAILWAY NOTICES. GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY. CHESTER RACES (CUP DAY). ON WEDNESDAY. MAY 13th, CHEAP EX- CURSION TRAINS for CHESTER will leave DOLGELTJSY at 8 30 a.m., Bout Newydd 8 39, Drws- DOLGELLEY t 8 30 a.m., Bout Newydd 8 39, Drws- y-Nant 8 4'.), Llanuwchllyn 9 5, BALA <) I:), Ijlandderfel y 25, Llaudrillo 9 30, Cynwyd 0 40, COKWEN 6 50, Carroir <3 57, Glvndvfrdwy 7 3, Berwyn 7 13, Llangollen 8 45, Trevor 8 55, Acre fair 9 0, and Ruabon 10 40 a.m. Passengers for stations east of Corwen inclusive in the order named, return the same day, and those for other stations on the following day. For fares and full particulars see special bills. J. GRIERSOX, Paddington Terminus. General Manager. CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. TOURIST ARRANGEMENTS, 1878. FIRST, Second, and Third Class TOURIST TICKETS, available for two months, will be issued from May 1st to the 31st October, 1878. For particulars see Time Tables and Tourist pro- grammes issued by the Company. HENRY CATTLE, Traffic Manager. Oswestry, May 1st. 1878. CAMBRIAN "AND LONDON AND NORTH- WESTERN RAILWAYS. CHESTER RACES. GRAND CUP DAY, WEDNESDAY, MAY 15, 1878. ON the above date, Cheap Excursion Bookings to CHESTER, at tie undermentioned times and fares:- Fares for the Double Journey. 3rd 1st class. class. FROM ma. s. d. s. Llanidioes .dep. 5 0 6s. 10s. Moat Lane 5 30 "j Newtown „ 5 41 f 5s_ 9g# Montgomery 6 6 j For(len 6 11 J Welshpool ), 6 40. Buttington 2 Qa Four Crosses >> 1 r 4s. 83. Llanymynech u 7 8} Llynclys 7 16 Oswestry ,» 7 35N \Vhittington T 30 EUesmer'e I •• 2s. Cd. 5s. W elshpmpton 8 0 Bettisfield ,,84i Fenn's Bank 8 12 Returning from Chester (General Station) the same evening at 5 33 p.m. HENRY CATTLE, Traffic Manager. Oswestry May, 1378. TO CONTRACTORS AND BUILDERS. vrOW Landing, an excellent cargo of PITCH iN PINE ex Glanalvon," from Darien.—Carefully I selected June, 1877. A Cargo of FLOOR BOARDS, planed and square- jointed. °Very clean and well manufactured. Worthy of inspection.—June, 18<v. Per Martha SQUARE TIMBER, RED DEALS, AND BAT- TENS. Very long lengths the usual widths, 4, 3, and 2 inches thick. A choice cargo.—July, 1877. SEVERAL CARGOES EXPECTED TO ARRIVE. WINDOWS, DOORS, all sorts of MOULDINGS, Angle Beads, &c., manufactured on the premises. JONES AND GRIFFITHS, ABERDOVEY, YNYSLAS, AND MACHYNLLETH. e- Orders to be sent to Aberdovey. Saw Mills at Ynyslaa. October, 1877. BRECON AND MERTHYR RAILWAY (61 miles open).— Traffic Statement for the week ending May 5, 1878. Passengers, parcels, &c., 2248 Is. lOd. goods and live stock, 42966 19s. 6d.; total, £1,215 Is. 4d.; E19 18s. 5d. per mile per week. Corresponding week last year—(61 miles open): Passengers, parcels, &c., JE398 lls. fJd; goods andilive stock, £ 903 Us. 9d total, £1,302 3s. 6d.; £ 21 6s. lid. jper mile per week.—Decrease for this week, £ 87. 2s. 11. Aggregate for IS weeks, 1878, £ 19,733 0s. 7d. a-Tegate for 3'3 v.-e-?ks, 1877, £ 20,845 17s. Od. Decrease for 18 weeks, £ 1,1121&. 5d. i THE GREAT FIRE AT SPRING MILLS, LLANIDLOES. SALVAGE STOCK, 15,000. THOMAS AND JONES BEG respectfully to inform the Public at large that tliey have purchased by Private Contract, at a Great Discount, the whole of the above SALVAGE STOCK from Messrs. THOMAS JONES & Co., and sha prepared to OFFSR THE SAME FOR SALE AT THE PUBLIC ROOMS, LLANIDLOES, Ox SATURDAY, MAY 11, 18, AND 25, 1878, And on the Intermediate Days. THE STOCK CONSISTS OF 2,550 yds. Real Welsh Woollen Cloths, Plain and Fancy Suitings. 16,059 yds. do. White Flannels, low, medium, and Super 2^093 yds. do. Coloured ditto, Scarlet, Pink, and Blue 14,431 yds. do. Fancy Shirtings in Great Variety and Patterns 5,766 yds. do. South Wales Shirtings well known for their Durability 1,935 yds. do. Home-made or Caerphilly, well known for their Durability 2,018 Real Welsh Ready-made Shirts, in various Qualities 867 yds. do. Aproning, in various widths 1,858 yds. do. Grey Flannel (Charity Flannel) 514 yds. do. Webbs and Serges, in various qualities 759 yds. do. Blanketing, in Single and Double Widths 163 Pairs Real Welsh Stockings, Plain and Ribbed. 673 lbs. do. Stocking Yarns in various shades and qualities. 129 do. White Severn Valley Shawls. Well 207 do. Coloured do. ( known 514 do. Fancy do. ( to the 89 do. do. Shawlets. J Public. 1,775 do. 5-4 handkerchiefs in various designs. I u L 4,850 do. 4-4 do. do. IgreaL variety). 527 yds.do. Remnants, plain and fancy Flannels. 0We have every confidence in recommending the above stock to the notice of the public, as the goods manufac- tured by Messrs. Thos. Jones and Co. are celebrated throughout Wales for their purity and durability. This Stock is not in any way damaged by fire, and only a small portion of it is slightly soiled. We therefore anticipate a speedy clearance owing to the extraordinary and unprecedentedly low prices at which we shall offer the stock. All goods marked in plain figures. Parties unable to attend the sale may have samples sent post-free. TEKMS: CASH ONLY. NO SYSTEM OF CREDIT RECOGNISED. &ii~ On Saturday, May the 11th, the Cam- brian Railways Co. will issue cheap tickets from Machynlleth, Oswestry, and intermediate sta- tions to Llanidloes by ordinary trains available to re- turn on day of issue by ordinary trains, and by a special leaving Moat Lane for Machynlleth and intermediate stations at 8'15 p.m. in connection with the 7'35 p.m ordi- nary train. —The Mid wales Railway Company will also issue cheap tickets from Brecon and intermediate stations to Llanidloes available to return on day of issue by ordinary trains. SUMMER NOVELTIES.—Our Mr. Jones has, within the last few days, visited the London Market, where we have made extensive purchases of the leading novelties of the season in all the different departments, which we shall be prepared to submit for the inspection of the public at our premises in Long Bridge-street, Llanidloes. THOMAS & JONES, Wholesale and Retail Drapers, LLANIDLOES. JUST PUBLISHED. PORTRAITS OF THE LATE MYNYDDOG." CARTES-DE-VISITE 6d. and Is. each. CABINETS 2s. „ IMPERIALS 4s. „ Free by post for one extra stamp. N.B.—THE TRADE SUPPLIED. J 0 W E N, BROAD STREET, NEWTOWN. gPECTACLES, SPECTACLES. C. B. RADCLIFFE, Esq., M.D., 25, Cavendish Square, ondoii, Consulting Physician to the Westminster Hospital, writes :—■" No Spectacles could possibly suit better than HENRY LAURENCES." EDWARD KNOCKER, Esq., J.P., Dover, late Mayor of Dover, writpq "i\Tv sig-ht has improved since using HENRY LAURENCE'S SPECTACLE'S." JOHN DEATH, Esq., J P., Cambridge, late Mayor of Cambridge, writes :—" .Mrs. Death's sight has been much strengthened by the use of HENRY LAURENCE'S SPECTACLES." rS. SMITH ROWE, Esq., M.D., Mar-ate, Senior Surgeon to the Royal Sea Bathing Infirmary, Margate, wri(e, I regret that I did not use HENRY LAU- RENCE'S SPECTACLES long since." HENRY LAURENCE'S' SPECTACLES Are the CLEAREST, COOLEST, and BEST for the Sight. Thousands have been benefited by their use when all other Spectacles have failed. A list of the Testimonials can beliad from the agent, from whom the Spectacles can only be obtained. All Spectacles stamped H.L. AGENT FoR ABERYITWYTII- A. MAJOR, JEWELLER AND OPTICIAN.
AGRICULTURE. (No. 4.) THE hill farmers of Wales devote themselves mainly to the rearing of sheep, and deserve far more attention and encouragement than they receive. Living far away among the hills, they make few claims upon public attention, except when an unintelligible I C) boundary case has to be tried, or an equally unin- telligible dispute arises as to the allotment of a mountain over which rights of common have been so long exercised that the land is claimed out and out by the adjacent freeholders. In some parts of Waies hill farms have been greatly increased in value by being fenced, and in some cases planted but by far the larger portion of the laud is unfenced, and no inconsiderable extent of it is not allotted. Partly in consequence of the un- fenced state of the farms, and the general back- ward condition of agriculture, together with the absence of lowland pastures and the neglect of root crops, the breed of sheep instead of being carefully attended to, is allowed to deteriorate year after year. Indeed, in some parts of Wales, Cardiganshire for instance, mountain sheep are said to be the least in the world. They can jump like greyhounds, run like hares, and get through nearly any fence that cannot stop a rabbit. Almost every farmer keeps a greater number of these sheep than his own land will maintain, and consequently they pass over the boundaries, and are hunted back by the adjoining tenants, who are equally anxious to feed sheep on their neigh- bour's land. To still further complicate the relations of hill farmers, the boundaries, when marked at all, are seldom marked accurately, and are therefore continually shifting as the one farmer becomes more watchful, or the other more negligf nt, The coursing of sheep, as the practice of driving them over the boundaries is called, is full of evil effects, some of which are obvious enoagh, but others, none the less real and injurious, are not so easily traced. The custom is one of the results of not fencing mountain farms, but by no meam the only one. The shelter that would he afforded by fences is in itself a loss of no slight magnitude, as may be understood by anyone who has watched sheep tfke refuge under trees, behind hedges, and in gravel pits. They always avail themselves of every scrap of cover they can find. It would be thought that this love of shelter would long ago have taught sheep farmers lessons, that if learnt, would save them large sums annually. Of course the work of fencing, if there were no questions as to ownership and boundaries, requires great capital, and should be undertaken jointly; but the increase in the yearly value of sheep walks, merely by fencing them is so great that the outlay is soon returned. In some counties the work has been successfully accomplished to the great advantage both of owner and tenant. Besides all this, in many parts of Wales there is a class of people who reside in hilly districts miners, blacksmiths, and others who, although they occupy very little land, if any, manage to keep from half a dozen to a score of sheep. These landless owners of sheep, are a continual source of great discomfort to the regular sheepmaster who, although quite certain his animals are in the pos- session of his landless neighbour, cannot prove it. His marks have been interfered with and others have been added until it is impossible to say whether the sheep have been marked by design or by accident. It is not difficult to understand that in a country where fences are the exception, and where the coursing of sheep is an established custom, estrays will be numerous. The characters of the es- cheators who take charge of all estrays, and the methods of escheating 0 on the different manors and lordships, are naturally of great interest to the owners of flocks. The escheator, who is appointed by the Crown, is supposed to take charge of estrays, and to give notice in the church and in two market towns next adjoining the place where they are found, of the meetings held at regular intervals, when the farmers are called together to pick out the animals they recognize as former members of their flocks. In some dis- tricts the business of the escheator is fairly carried out, but in others there are strong com- plaints of the mysterions way sheep disappear, and the equally mysterious way escheators be- come well-to-do owners of small flocks. There are farmers who unhesitatingly denounce escheating as authorized sheep stealing, and doubtless the system in the hands of men of dubious honesty may be made to tell with serious effect upon hill fences. Closely connected with the rights and wrongs of escheating, which are aggravated by the absence of farmers, is that of sheep marks. In Wales no register of marks is kept, and consequently from time to time disputes arise between parties anxious enough to do right, but unable to settle nice points respecting marks which are neither plain nor uniform. This con- fusion respecting marks is strongly in favour of sheep stealers, who know equally well how to confuse a mark and how to swear it is their own. Of course, just a,s one dog that worries lambs is a nuisance in a district to be got rid of with all possible speed, so one purloiner of sheep may be & scourge to a wide neighbourhood of honest men. Sheepmasters in Wales might with a little combination establish the registration of marks, and secure much greater freedom than they now possess from the objectionable prac- tices of escheators and landless owners of flocks. It is to be regretted that sheep marking not only frequently fails in its first object-that of enabling owners to identify their animala-nrbut is often accompanied by a good deal of unnecessary cruelty. The animals' ears, for instance, are sometimes split in a way that ean only be justi- fied bv the erroneous assumption that sheep are as fond of having their ears split as foxes are of being followed by a pack of bounds Nothing so conveniently disposes of arguments against cruelty as confident assurances that the animals enjoy what by simpie people is called punishment. There is a practice, not it is to be hoped extensively followed, among sheep farmers in Wales of shearing lambs in autumn, and thus depriving them of their natural and very necessary protection against the weather. Lambs shorn before they ajje about eighteen months old are rendered *tl(h more liable to contract diseases than if left in their wool, and, it is scarcely necessary to say, the farmer loses more by death and disease than I h3 gains by the wool. There is a tendency, which agricultural societies would do well to encourage, to replace the small Welsh mountain sheep by larger breeds from Scotland. Unfortunately the prizes offered at some shows are not for the best mountain sheep, but for the best Welsh mountain sheep which are too small to be profitable. Suc- cess in breeding and feeding sheep depends largely upon the cultivation of root crops, which are neglected in many parts of Wales far more than they ought to be. Cardiganshire is well adapted for turnips, but they are not nearly so generally grown as wheat, which often costs more to grow than it fetches in the market. Without winter pasture and winter feed it is impossible for sheep to do more than keep themselves alive on the high lands. In connection with sheep farming.in Wales it is pleasant to note one great improvement due mainly to Mr. ELLIS, of Bala, who has been the means of successfully establishing sheep dog trials in the country. These trials are very in- teresting as spectacles, and fortunately one of their effects has been to induce agricultural societies to give prizes for the best sheep dogs in the district. The more hill farmers can be in- duced to take interest in their important business, and to study how to improve it, the sooner will landowners see the wisdom of fencing their lands so that it might be brought into better cultivation.
THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF WALES. THE Lords of the Committee of Council on Edu- cation have approved of the University College of Wales as one of the three institutions in the United Kingdom where Government Scholarships for the Principles of Agriculture may be held. The other two institutions where holders of those scholarships may enter, arc the Government School of Science, London, and the Royal Col- lege of Science, Dublin. At present it is im- possible to estimate all the important beneficial effects that will arise from this selection of the Aberystwyth College as one of the places where agricultural scholarships may be held, but one immediate consequence will be the establishment of an agricultural department of instruction which will almost certainly add a score of students to the register and may attract forty or fifty. The prospectus of the department of agricultural science has been issued, from which it appears that in addition to Professor TANNER, to whom, we believe, the College is mainly indebted for its recognition by Government, and the regular staff of Professors, there has been added the name of Professor BUCKIIIN, late Professor of Natural History at the Royal Agricultural College. The department of agriculture "has been established for the purpose of supplying, at a moderate cost, a thoroughly good course of instruction in the sciences connected with agriculture. It has not been arranged for giving instruction in the prac- tice of farming, so much as for imparting a tice of farming, so much as for imparting a tolerably complete acquaintance with those natural laws which control every operation carried out bv the' farmer. The student may thereby become a more intelligent observer of every farm- ing operation, and be better prepared for detecting the various causes of failure or success. He has also the opportunity of becoming a more thorough- ly educated man, and in some degree is prepared for keeping pace with the rapid progress which is being made in scientific discoveries, and in their application not only to agriculture but to all our national industries." Thus are the objects of the new department of College work at Aberystwyth set forth in the prospectus which has been issued, and which, by the way, includes Professor GRIMLEY and frotessor CKAIG, but omits Professor ANGUS, Professor ETHE, and Professor PARRY. This is one of those little characteristic defects which stamp unfavourably almost everything connected with the institution. The prospectus either in- cludes too much or too little, and is calculated barely to do justice to the College, or to do more than justice to the staff of teachers coanected with the department of Agriculture. It may be explained that about three or four years ago agri- culture was added to the science departments at public schools, and Professor TANNER, as most of our readers know, is the examiner under this de- partment. The first year about 150 pupils were examined the second year the number was at least trebled, and this year considerably more than a thousand scholars will be examined. This rapid growth speaks well for the interest taken in scien- tific agriculture in the kingdom, but we fear there are not as yet in Wales many public schools which are examined by Professor TANNER. With a view of still further stimulating public interest there is a scheme on foot for estab- lishing county scholarships throughout the United Kingdom by means of Chambers of Agriculture connected with the Central Chamber. For every sum of R25 raised by these Chambers for scholar- ships the Government gives another --v25, subject to certain conditions, and one of these conditions is that the scholarships must be held at one of the three places of instruction already named. For f50 a student can reside at the Aberystwyth College, and it is expected that this fact will be the means of attracting a large number of men from Eng- land who do not hold scholarships, but who are anxious to avail themselves of the excellent course of scientific instruction afforded in the agricultural department. The fee for this de- partment is 220 for the regular College course, £ 10. We presume ordinary students could enter the agricultural department for an additional 210, and that those who enter this department may avail themselves of all the classes if so disposed, so that prictically the agricultural department is an extra," for which £ 10 will have to be paid by a class of students whose great difficulty in reference to the Aberystwyth College is due to y the extraordinary lowness of the fees and charges. We triiat the new department may be as success- ful as Professor TANNER desires to see it. Whe- ther it will be so or not mainly depends upon the authorities, who seem to be possessed of more than average skill in damping enthusiasm.
LOCAL AND DISTRICT NOTES. Mr, W. J aSES, Llwynygroes, has been appointed chair- man of the Lampeter Board of Guardians for about the twentieth time. Perhaps Lampeter Board is the most militant in the LT, Dited Kingdom. It would be llifficult to say whether the Chairman, the Clrk, or the members are the most ready to fight. ■J5* The badness of trade may be "measured to some extent by the increasing number of vagrants who seek relief at workhouses. Of course it must also be remembered that when work is scarce the lazy vagrant has an excellent excuse for not working, and he avails himself of it. -:It- If the recent election for Guardians at Aberystwyth hinges at all upon the satisfac- tion of the candidates, it will certainly have to be held again. Mr. JAMES JOXES, Piercefield, is certainly not satisfied; Mr. SZLCMPF.R, who tied with him, de- manded a scrutiny and Mr. GRIFFITH WILLIAMS, it is said, is not satisfied. Of course the elected candidates do not complain, but seeing how very irregular the election was, it is to be regretted they do not join in informing the Local Government Board that the only satisfactory way out of the difficulty would be to order a fresh election. If the ratepayers are again called upon to vote, the persoas who generously went about filling papers on the last occasion would do well to exercise great care and keep within the law, or they may hear more of it, and be pro- vided with rare but not much sought-after opportunities for meditation. At the last meeting of the Aberystwyth Board of Guardians, one of the members said he had been unfairly attacked in a leading article published in this paper. The curious part of the charge is that he has not even been mentioned or referred to, much less attacked. This is how wonderful tales get abroad that fall away as soon as they are touched. Mr. HAMER at the same meeting did good service by calling attention to an exaggerated statement respecting the amount of soap used at one of the work- houses to which letters had been sent asking for quanti- ties. Perfectly accurate statements are far more service- able than loose assertions, however telling they may be for the moment. Can an employer compel the people employed by him to work on Good Friday. This question was raised at T^e'rddol Petty Sessions last Thursday week. He can certainly decline to employ men who will not work on that day, which will practically come to the same thing. It would not be difficult to imagine a case where refusal to work on Good Friday would cause great loss and iD- convenience—on a railway or in a newspaper office for instance. ¥■ At Llanilar Petty Sessions on Friday last a youth was charged with trespassing in search of game in the day time, on lands belonging to the Earl of LISBI?RNB. The gamekeeper, in giving his evidence, said that there were two offenders, but one of them had been forgiven. The reason why the other had not been forgiven was that he had refused to part with his dog. The defendant was asked by the Bench why he had not got rid of the dog, and said he wished to sell it for the five shillings the licence had cost him. The most ardent opponents of the game laws will admit that Lord LISBURNE'S rule is a very merciful one. Well known poachers seem to obtain par- don the firstime they are caught unless they prefer to come before the Bench rather than give up dogs kept for no other purpose than poaching. ♦ The condition of Pen parke is far from satisfactory. The Council certainly ought to give the Surveyor express in- structions to prevent pigs from being kept near the houses and the road, and to put an end to the accumulation of manure heaps. The mortality at Penparke ought to have acted as a warning, but the place was perhaps never more lost in filth tHkn at the present time. At the adjourned Llanilar Sessions held on Wednesday, May 8, a man named DAVID ROWLANDS, Tyllwyd,who had been in London, where he had contracted small-pox, was charged with having exposed himself in a public place with- out having taken the necessary precautions. The full facts are stated in the report of the Aberystwyth Board of Guardians' proceedings. At the hearing before the magistrates it was pointed out in favour of the defendant that he had disinfected his house, and had buried a child that died of small-pox the day after its death. The Bench inflicted a fine of 22, and costs, amounting to about 17s. The officers of the Rural Sanitary Authority are doing all they can to prevent the spread of the disease, and no doubt the infliction of this penalty will prevent the people from visiting patients suffering from braau-pox, and will prevent the patients themselves from moving about until they have received the sanction of the medical officers. There is little danger of the disease spreading. Mr. B. T. WILLIAMS, Recorder of Carmarthen, the candidate for the representation in Parliament of the Carmarthen Boroughs, will be elected without opposition in the stead of Col. STEPNEY, who has resigned through ill-health. It- The annual meeting of subscribers to the Montgomery- shire Agricultural Society was held at Machynlleth on Wednesday, May 8, under the presidency of the Marquess of LONDONDERRY. A fa.Yonra.Me. statement. of accounts was presented, and it was i:ecid^d to hold the next show at the town of Montg-o Yi ry. Captain MYTTON was ap-