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Jones, in his cross-examination by Mr. Morgan, who ap- peared for the defendant, said, that he called at the shops of Messrs. Phillips, Jenkins, and M'c Carthy agreeably to the directions of his supeiiqr. He was not aware that sulphur of brimstone and spirits of wine were used as medicine. He Went to Mr. Phillips simply because such, compounds might be had there. On calling at the shop of Mr. Phillips he does not recollect seeing any body there he knew but that gentleman. He was not disguised for the object of his call. He wore then, as far as he could recollect, the clothes lie now wore. Mr. West re-examined: Could not say possitively whether the spirits of wine are unadulterated, or whether they have a portion of potash mixed up. Mr. Clements said that the character of Mr. Phillips was a guarantee that the-liquid was genuine and unadulterated. Nichol Bradley examined Is an apprentice of Mr. Philips's. Never recollect Mr. Phillips having old spirits of wine but as medicine. The quantity sold in the shop is In general very small. This closed the evidence in support of the information. Mr. Henry Morgan.addressed the bench for the de- fendants. He contended that the Act of Parliament under which the present information was laid was to prevent a fraud on the revenue. Although it might be admitted that spirit of wine were sold by Mr. Phillips, yet they were old as medicine; tiid 110 intention to de- fraud the revenue. There was, he contended, in this case 110 violation of the act. I Ie relied on the protective intention or the act,, as regards medicine vendors, and on the absence of any proved or alleg.d intention to defraud the revenue. INFORMATION AGAINST MR. M'C CARTHY. On the same day (March 18), Jones, the Excise-officer, said he purchased, at the shop of Mr. M'Carthy, a half- quarter of sulphur of brimstone, and a half-pint of spirits of wine. They were given him by Mrs. M'c Carthy, for which he paid Is. 9d. He did not buy the articles for any medical purpose. He coud not say how many were in the shop at the time. He did not ask for the medicine for the cure of rheumatism. He is quite sure of that. Is aware that the articles bought are good for that distemper. Jacob Harding, assistant to Mr. M'Carthy, deposed to the application of the last witness for the sulphur, and that he Wanted it for the cure of rheumatism.' He also took the spirits of wine. Both were in separate parcels. When such articles are sold in the shop, they are in general for the cure of the rheumatism. Mr. Morgan offered to produce Mrs. M'Carthy in corro boration of his deposition, but the proposition was declined as inadmissable.. This closed the case on the part of the prosecutio'n. INFORMATION AGAINST MR. JENKINS. Jones stated that on the 18th March, 1843, lie called at the shop of Mr. Jenkins, in Angel-street, and bought two ounces of sulphur, and a half-pint of the spirits of wine, for which he paid. Mr. Jenkins, on giving him the articles, observed that he knew of a case of recent occurrence in London where a chemist was fined £ 50 for selling spirits of wine without a license. The spirits of wine, as in the pre- ceding cases, was produced and tested. Witness could not recollect who was in the shop at the time. The bottle now produced was the one in which the wine was originally given. Is quite positive that it was not a black bottle labelled. He got the bottle from Mrs. Thomas, of the Red Cow. The bottle has been kept in his box. Mr. Morgan contended that in this case Mr. Jenkins sold the article as medicated, a circumstance that showed clearly the absence of fraudulent intention. Jones, in reply to a question from the bench, said that his object in asking for the sulphur in connection with the spirits of wine, was to effect the object he had in view. Henry Gibbie, St. Mary-street, was then proceeded against, for having sold, on the 10th March, a quarter-pint of gin without a license. Jones stated that' on the day in 'question, he went to Gibbie's house, and had some beer, and then the quantity ot gin charged in the information. It was mixed with hot Water and sugar, and served by Gibbie himself. Jones paid the sum demanded to Gibbie. Gibbie denied that he had served the witness Jones on the day in question. He admitted that lie had not a license to sell spirits. Gibbie declined to produce any witnesses in support of his denial of the transaction. The Mayor said, that with such a clear case there was no alternative, but inflict the full penalty, £ 50, reducing it, however, to the sum of £ 12 10s., which as the lowest in the discretionary power of mitigation, vested in them, they could reduce it to, with the forfeiture of the license consequent on this the second conviction. In the other cases the magistrates retired, and after a short absence, returned into court. The Mayor then sai.l, this appears to be an information by the Excise against the defendants, respectable chemists in this town, for a violation of the excise laws, in selling spirits of wine without a license. The case, as charged by the Excise, has been proved to the satisfaction of the magis- trates—that the quantity of spirits of wine stated in the information had been sold. Mr. Morgan, who so judiciously defended the parties, urged that there was no intention to defraud the revenue, and quoted, in support of his allega- tion, an extract from the 9th of George II., commonly called the Apothecary's Act." Upon the whole it did not appear to them that a fraud had been intended • yet he could not help saying that parties in the trade should he aware what was or was not an actual violation of the law in their partic- ular transactions. In the present case a license had been required to legalise the sale of the spirits of wine and they were of opinion that nothing had oce urredtotake the cases out of the act under which a conviction was sought. It was with regret, therefore, that they came to an adverse conclu- sion against respectable tradesmen and neighbours. They were of opinion that there should be a fine in each case in the full penalty of E50, mitigated, however, to a fourth, which is the lowest sum in their magisterial discretion, that under the circumstances, they could reduce it to. At the same time he should observe, that Mr. Lewis would join with him in memorialising the board of Excise for a further remission. Mr. Lewis concurred in the judgment pronounced by the mayor, and would be happy to co-operate with him in so desirable an object. SOUTH WALES CIRCUIT. SUMMER ASSIZES, 1843, BEFORE Mit. BARON ROLFE. Cardiff. Monday, July 10. Carmarthen. Saturday, July 15. Haverfordwest and Town. Saturday, July 22. Cardigan Wednesday, July 26. '.I.. Brecon Saturday, July 29. Presteign Wednesday, August 2. COWBRIDGE RACES. Notwithstanding the severity of the weather for the season there was a pretty good attendance of professionals and others on the ground on Friday se'nnight, to witness the 'ports of the day. We are glad to find that notwithstanding a vigorous competition, two of our townsmen, as will be seen by the following list, carried off the honours of the day, and won a high reputation for nag's flesh, besides golden opinions :.— Sweepstakes of 3 sovs., with ;£20 added. 'Al r. Sait's Consul, 4 yrs., 9 st. 1 1 At r. Bradley's The Duke, 6 yrs., 10 st. 7 lb 2 3 ■ Mr. Lucas's St. David, 4 yrs. 9st. 71b. 3 2 Sweepstakes of 1 sow, £ 15 added, for farmers. Mr. Sant's Landaw Lass, 6 yrs. 10 st. 7 lb I 1 lilr,- Basset's Gay Lass, (j yrs. 10 st. 7 lb 2 3 Mr. L. Thomas's Maid of the Mill, (j yrs., 1 Ost 71b 3 2 Mr. Palmer's Cremona, aged, 13 st. 7 lb 4 Mr. Whapham's Young Tom, 3 yrs., 8 st. 7 lb. Bolted. Handicap of I sov. E 10 added, for horses not exceeding 14 hands 2 inches in height. Mr, J. Thomas's Cardiff Lass 1 1 jkf r. Bsssett's Annie 2 2 Mr. H. Thomas's Ugly Buck 3 3 Mr, Evans's Cremelin 4 4 Open Handicap. Mr. Vivian's 1 I Mr. Bullen's 2 dr. Handicap for beaten horses. Mr. J. Thomas's Cardiff Lass 1 1 Mr. Sant's Landaw Lass 2 2 Mr, Bullen's 3 Mi; Whaphàm's 4 Pony race. 'Mr. J\feaz)'sJemm)' 1 1 Mr. Jenkin's Colivinstone Lass 2 2 M i-, W. Tiiowis's Squirrel 3 3 Air. Jenkin's Useful Bolted. BRIDGEND PETTY SESSIONS. JULY lst.Magistrates present-R. T. Turberville, Esq., and the Rev. Messrs. Knight and Blosse. John Morgan, Jeremiah Lelwne, and flees Meyick, were convicted of poaching on Sunday, the 18th ult., and lined El. Is. each, including costs, or one month's imprisonment. Lehone and Meyrick paid. Morgan was committed to Swansea house of correction. John Bees, an complaint by the constabulary, was con- victed and lined for exhibiting a stallion in .the streets of llridgend. Nine young men, on complaint by the constabulary, were convicted and fined for a drunken affray and assault at Kenfig, on the 23rd ult. Rees Dyer, was convicted of having threatened to kill one Thomas Jones, upon whose testimony the said Dyer had been convicted of poaching. He was ordered to find sureties to keep the peace, and in default was committed to Swansea house of correction. NEATH. QUARTER SESSIONS.—The following case was accidentally omitted last week :-Jolili Rees, servant to David Morgan, of Fonmon Farm, pleaded guilty to stealing money from the pocket of a fellow servant. Six weeks' hard labour in the -House of Correction at Cardiff. NEATH BOARD OF GUARDIANS.—At a meeting of the Neath Board of Guardians, held at the Board Room, 011 Tuesday, the 4th instant, the Rev. D. Jeffreys, late of St. -Brides Major, and now curate of Neath, was elected to the office of Chaplain to the above union, by a majority of eleven, the numbers being for the appointment thirteen, against it tioo The two dissentients our correspondent inform us, were Mr. Jonathan Rees, ironmonger, and Mr. Nathaniel Tregelles, both Quakers, who no doubt were yctmted by matters of conscience. NEATII TOWN-HALL, Friday, June 30th.—[Before F. Fred ricks, H.Gwyn, H.Thomas, and G. Llewellyn, Esqrs.] -John Rees, David Davies, David Williams, and William Hussy, labourers, of the parish of Neath, were summoned by P.C. John Morgan, charged by Mr. Wm. Williams, agent to the Neath Canal Co., with having thrown a quantity of rubbish into the said canal, contrary to Act of Parliament. The defendants acknowledged that it was done through ignorance, and said they felt exceedingly sorry for it. Dis- charged by paying costs, which was done.—David Williams, farmer, was summoned by Win. Rees, overseer of the Hamlet ofilIichaebtone Higher, in the parish of Bagland, for refusing to pay poor-rates. Ordered to pay, with costs: paid.— Zachariah Thomas, alias Luke," a notorious blackguard, was placcd at the bar by P.S. Jones, No. 10, charged with having, on the night of the 21st, violently assaulted George Bagaiago, a copper-smith, of the parish of Cadoxton, juxta Neath. The case was clearly proved. The defendant called a witness on his behalf, who supported the charge preferred against him. Their Worships fined him in the sum of 1;2, including costs, or one month's hard labour in the house of correction. The amount was paid, on which he received a severe reprimand, and should he again be brought before them for a similar offence, he should be more severely dealt with.—John Thomas, alias Luke," and his wife, were placed at the bar, by the same policeman, also charged with having, on the night of the 21th, committed an assault on Margaret Williams, of the parish of Cadoxton, juxta Neath. The case was proved, and the defendants were ordered to pay £ 1, including costs, or two weeks' imprisonment: paid. —David Thomas, alias" Luke," another member of the family of Luke," was charged by the same policeman with having, on the night of the 24th, violently and in a most brutal manner, assaulted David Hopkins, moulder, of the parish of Cadoxton, juxta Neath, by biting off a part of his nose. The charge was fully proved. Jas. Trench, Esq., surgeon, also proved that a portion of the nose had been taken off; but the complainant would be very little disfigured. Their Worships seveiely reprimanded the prisoner for his unmanly conduct, and convicted him for the assault in the sum of £ 5, or be imprisoned in the Swansea house of cor- rection for the term of two months, and there to be kept to hard labour. The fine was paid.—Leyshon Lougher, of Neath, was charged by Wm, Harris with illegally removing his goods, in order to evade the payment of rent. Settled out of court.—Mr. Hutchingson, of Neath, was charged by Jas. Alford with refusing to pay him Gs. 10jd., wages due. The defendant admitted the debt, but claimed 6s. for ashes, which the complainant. had had of him. The de- fendant was discharged on payment of the balance, lOd., and the costs. rOllTH CAWL IKON AND COAL COMPANY.—-—A special general meeting of this company was held at the North and South American coffee-house, on Tuesday, the 27th ult., for the purpose of confirming the resolutions passed at the meet- ing held on the 20th ult., of which a report appeared in this Journal. A strong feeling was again manifested in favour of the formation of the new galvanised iron company, and the resolutions were confirmed almost unanimously, the dis- sentients intimating, at the same time, the best feeling towards the project, their objections being founded on the circumstances of their individual position. A vote of confi- dence in the directors was unanimously passed, and, after an expression of the high sense entertained of their services, the meeting broke up. It was mentioned incidentally, that the demand for galvanised iron was daily increasing. MERTHYR. MERTHYR AUXILIARY BIBLE MEETING. This meeting was held at the English Wesleyan chapel on Monday evening last, Sir J. J. Guest, Bart., M.P., in the chair. It was commenced by singing a few appropriate verses, and prayer by the Rev. Mr. Worth, minister of the chapel. The worthy chairman briefly opened the business of the. meeting, and read a part of Dr. Bunting's letter when the Wesleyan connexion so generously voted the sum ofEIOOO from their fund to the British and Foreign Bible Society, and called on the Rev. Edward Griffith, one of the secreta- ries, to read the financial report, which, if we understood him, announced that f39 had been paid for books during the past year, EO 3s. fid. sent to the Parent. Society as free contribution, E4 having been received from Pontmorlais Sunday school, t3 5s. collected at the last anniversary and that there was one subscriber, Wm. James, Esq., merchant, who gives aiiiitially tl. The number of Bibles and Testa- ments distributed amounted to 730 copies. The Rev. E. Davies, Classicsl Tutor of Brecon College, one of the deputation, moved the first resolution,— That this meeting, rejoicing in the extensive and ex- tended operations of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and being fully persuaded that the Bibles without note or comment ought to be distributed to all mankind, pledge itself to do more for this society, whose principle is to unite all classes of'the Christian community in the work of faith and labour of love it contemplates." The reverend gentleman spoke in his usual eloquent style on the different topics in the resolution, which we cannot insert for want of room. This was most ably seconded by the Rev. T. Harries, Assistant. Curate, who remarked that much might be done to disseminate the Scriptures, even with the waste money of &c. The second resolution was—"That this meeting is mournfully persuaded that many in this town are perishing for the want of the bread of life," earnestly appeals to the friends of the Redeemer to endeavour, by all means in their power, to discover those who havli not the Word of God, and induce them to obtain it j" and moved by the Rev. T. Phillips, agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society, in his address, entered into some details to prove that most ot the charitable institutions in the United Kingdom, as well as all the Missionary Societies, were greatly indebted to the British and Foreign Bible Society for large grants of Bibles and Testaments to assist them to carry their benevo- lent. operations forward in foreign countries. The account he gave to the meeting of a large Bible meeting among the negroes, that they agreed all to give something,—to give liberally,—and to give cheerfully,—:was highly interesting. The resolution was seconded by Mr. Watkins, grocer, amidst loud laughing and tremendous cheering of the meet- ing, when he stated his intention of giving five guineas to the worthy chairman for the Auxiliary, and that he had in- creased his yearly subscription by half-a-guinea since he had become a teetotaller, lie warmly eulogised Sir John for the kind manner he had assisted him and his friends in L6ndon some years ago. The third resolution, respecting the appointment of officers, was moved by the Rev. J. Harris, and seconded by the Rev. Wm. Evans, Wesleyan minister, and was, like the preceding one, carried unanimously. A vote of thanks having been passed to the lion. chairman for his kindness in presiding over the meeting, which was acknowledged in a short but eloquent speech by Sir John, Mr. Watkins was called upon to conclude with prayer, which he did by supplicating blessings to the audience, to the chairman, Lady Charlotte, and all the family, the in- habitants of Merthyr and Dowlais, and the iron-masters in general. The Rev. Mr. Worth pronounced the benediction, and the separated, apparently highly pleased with the proceedings. The sum of X3 Os. :ltd. was collected, which, with Mr. Mr. Watkins's subscription, amounts to £ 8 5s. 3|d. As the conservative guardians of the rights and liberties, life and limb of our fellow-townsmen, we have had frequent opportunties of calling 011 our under-ground brethren, who arc engaged in the coal work, to provide themselves with safety-lamps. Want, of attention to admonitions, often given before, has proved the death of Wm. Taylor, a married man, who was killed at one of the Cyfarthfa levels on Wednesday morning, besides severe injuries sustained by three young lads. T i-k-PARTY.-Oll Wednesday last, the English Indepen- dents had about 800 visiters to partake of tea, the profits being appropriated to liquidate the debt of the chapel. It was truly gratifying to see everything conducted so or.lerly. The singing was excellent; and the addresses at the close were characterised by brotherly love and Christian union. STIPENDIARY ?lIAG1>'TTtATE.-T. W. Hill, Esq., Barrister- at-Law, on the South Wales circuit, it'is understood has been appointed lo the office of Police Magistrate for the Merthyr District, with a salary ofjEoOO. per annum. The professional capabilities of this gentleman are highly spoken of. MERTHYR.—Acting on the principle that" Example is more powerful and seducive than precept," we have just been informed by good authority that two clergymen, eminent for their learning and ministerial labours, have em- braced the principles of total abstinence from alcoholic drinks. The disgusting scenes ensuing by the late reduction in the price of beer, we are told, has influenced them to adopt the pledge. THE IRON TRADE.—-Notwithstanding that late immense order for rails received at Dowlais from the Russian Govern- ment, sueh is the depression of the trade that 200 miners and 150 colliers are to be discharged almost immediately. It is also reported that the most drunken and disorderly, to make up the number, are to go elsewhere to seek for em- ployment. THE RIVER TAFF.—On Sunday, by the red appearance of its waters, gave sufficient pioof of heavy rains on the Breconshire hills. Upon the whole, the weather is remark- ably favourable for vegetation, though not hay harvest. WATER VERSUS BEER. -The temperance men of Merthyr, we are informed, held a public meeting on Monday evening last, near the Breweries, at Caedraw, to the great terror of those who assembled for a drop of beer, &c., on this sultry weather, when Mr. Thomas, formerly of Varteg, and a reformed drunkard from Dowlais, &c., spoke in favour of pure water as a beverage, but they were opposed by a young man named Bowen Clayton, of Llanidloes, who, it is said, was well pressed to speak in favour of bitter hops and malt mixed with that useful element. More discussions will fol- low most probably 011 this interesting subject. MYRTLE FLOWER POT.Mr. Adams, of Penydarran I Gate, having missed an article of this kind, recently ob- served it in some window upstairs, had the landlady ot the house taken up, but as she pleaded her ignorance how it came there, she was liberated. PERCH NET. -A man from Aberdare was put in custody on Tuesday last, for\ coveting a net of this kind. The '8 Merthyr lock-up house ii a poor place to make use of such a long article. He egregiously cried in his attempt. Honesty is the best policy," "W. DREADFUL EFFECTS OF EVIL PASSIONS.—A quarrel I having ensued between two married women near the Red Gate, PenydalTan, on Tuesday last, one took up a poker and struck the other most dreadfully on the head, so that her life is in great danger, if not despaired of. The passionate poker woman was taken into custody immediately, and will, of course, be brought before the bench the first sessions. -0- THE IRON TRADE. (From the Morning Herald.) The disturbances in Carmarthenshire among a population purely rural, mainly attributable to local grievances, tend naturally enough to increase the uneasiness even in high quarters in respect of the condition and prospects, of the dense masses of population agglomerated in the contiguous mining districts of the two Welsh counties Monmouth and Glamorgan, for Monmouth, legislative enactments notwith- standing, remains as homogeneously Welsh as before the conquest. The grounds of this uneasiness do not refer so much to the political considerations suggested by former oc- currences, although.doubtless they must have left a consider- able leaven of discontent behind, but to the exceedingly depressed state of mining industry, coal and iron, but in especial of the latter. In illustration of the present and past state of the iron trade and the mining population the com- munication of some leading particulars may not therefore be inopportune. The aggregate population of the two counties it may be premised does not probably fall short of 240,000 souls, of which far the larger proportion are located in tile hills," pr mining districts comprising Merthyr Tydvil, Dowlais, Ynisfach and Aberdare, which may be said to form one town just as Westminster, the City and Southwark, and as such join in the right of returning one member, the population cannot fall greatly belyw 50,000. The district is doubtless the principal scat, of the iron manufacture of South Wales, itself the centre of the largest production of British iron, as will be seen by the following statement for 1842, extracted from a jonrnal quoting from the Merthyr Guardian, but how or whether officially derived does not appear. Tons. 1842.-Total make of pig-iron, England, Wales, Scotland 1,210,550 Of which in South Wales, 453.890 • In Staffordshire. 321,570 In Scotland. 196,900 The make in South Wales entered therefore for more than one-third into the total production. According to the valu- able work of Mr. Musket on the iron trade, entitled Papers on Iron and Steel," the total make of pig iron Tons. In 1839 reached to 1,248,721 Of which in South Wales. 453,SSO In Staffordshire 304,413 In Scotland. 19(5.900 Of this total yield for South Wales the quantity attributed to the iron works of Merthyr, Dowlais, Ynisfach and Aberdare, alone was 202,000 tons, being the product of 70 furnaces then in blast. It will be noted that there is a falling-off in the total make of the United Kingdom for 1842 as compared with 1839 of 37,431 tous. This arose from a judicious agreement amongst the principal iron- masters at the latter end of 1841 to reduce the make at the rate of 25 per cent. on the calculated product of the first half-year of 1841, which reduction commenced with 1842 and was stipulated for six months. Since Merthyr, with its circumjacent district, produces therefore nearly three-fifths of the total make of South Wales, with a population altogether dependent on the iron works of from 45 to 50,000 souls, it is not too much to assume that one-half the aggregate population of Monmouth and Glam- organ counties, say 120,000, are directly engaged in or dependent upon iron and coal mining industry. Notwithstanding the undeniable state of depression under which the iron trade labours, and the decrease of demand from the United States, it would seem to be a fact, unac- countable as it may be, that exportation continues on the increase, as the following official returns will show. The quantities for 1842 are given in round number from the return recently made to Parliament, the total numbers of which under each head of the various sorts exported are roughly but not with material inexactitude computed by ourselves. Tons. 1840. Exports of iron and steel, wrought and unwrought 208 328 1842. Id. Id 309^400 The export of 1840, it must be observed, was the largest on record. Such however was the extraordinary delusion in the value of the commodity that, with upwards of 100,000 tons of exported bulk, an increase of nearly, or say at the rate of 40 per cent., more in 1842 over 1840, the declared values were less by £ 71,000, as thus 1840. Declared values of iron and steel, wrought and unwrought, 1812. Id. Id. 2,453,892 Difference less 1842 £ 70,907 Assuming the same rates of values for 1842 as for 1840, the declared values of the former should, as calculated by quantities, exceed those of the latter by about one million steiling. The rapid decline in prices of iron, as attested by the market lists, will however sufficiently account far the deficiency in total values. The remarkable fluctuations in these is evidenced by the yearly tables of rates given in his interesting" History of the Iron Trade" by Mr. if any Scrivener of Blaenavou, from which the following' for brevity alone are taken as instances: In 1825 the prices of Staffordshire- forge pigs ranged from £ 7 os. Od. to LS Os per ton 1830. Id. Id £ 3 OS. OLI. to t 3 15s „ 1835. Id. Id £ 3 12s. Od. to £ 4 15s „ 1836, Id. Id £ 5 15s. Ocl. to ;C (; 10 s „ 1840. Id. -Id £ 4 0s. Od. to £ 5 0(s At this present time pig iron may be had at less than 40s. per ton at the place of production. The iron of South Wales and Monmouth is chiefly, almost wholly, sold in the shape of bars, a more advanced stage of manufacture. The fluctuations in the prices of this article in the London market have been as follow, after the same authority, omitting intermediate years :— Per ton. 1825 Welsh bar iron from£ 11 0 to E 1-) 10 1830 Id. id (i 5 to 7 0 1835 Id. id G 5 to 8 0 183G Id. id. 9 0 to 12 0 1840 Id. ij, 7 15 to 9 0 The price in the London market rules generally, it is said, 80s. per ton above the prices at'Newport and Cardiff, from whence shipped, and 10s. higher than in Liverpool. The market price of bar iron is now below 10s. per ton, a lower rate than ever before known and it is understood that the prime cost of production, all profit out of the question, and at the present low rate of wages, cannot be estimated at less than i-I 15s. per ton. The range of prices indicated above is given from lowest to highest, it must be noted, and without reference to the time of year, or the order, in which the variations occurred. In fact, however, these are not fluctuations merely but revolutions in values, frightfully destructive of property and industry when on the side of decline, and deranging all cal- culations as well as subversive of all sobriety of business when as suddenly and extravagantly on the advance. There is nothing in the history of any trade to compare with these remarkable annihilations or prodigal enhancements of values. Aladdin with his wonderful lamp scarcely afforded examples of more surprising metemorphoses of fortune. In 1812 the price of bar iron was quoted as high as L 10 10s. per ton; in 1842, thirty years after, as low as £ 4. The effect upon property and enterprise, for whilst a depression in the rates of wages has not failed to lollow upon a large decline of prices, it has not followed with the same regularity that wages have advanced as prices re-ascend. One of the causes of this apparent inconsistency is sutRciently obvious. The large and liberal wages, as compared with those to be earned in other branches of industry elsewhere, still paid in the Welsh mining districts, or which were until a recent period, notwithstanding frequent reductions, naturally attracted and absorbed not only a constant increase of labour hands from the neighbouring rural districts, but also an inpouiiug from Ireland in particular. Hence the outcry for years past, the persecution in various shapes, and the rooted dislike still against the intrusive Irish hands, accused of beatiim- down the rates of wages in the labour market, as in the rural and manufacturing districts of England was the case also. That the unskilled Irish labourer should be content to accept less than his long-skilled fellow-workman 'in South Wales was however to be expected. The feud between the two classes was long kept up in consequence, and is far yet from being pacified, although its outbreaks are less frequent and tuibulent. The "Scotch cattle" are not now so uproar- ious and daring- in their midnight onslaughts upon the poor Irishmen. But some years ago scarcely one of the jdark nights passed without- some mischevous assault or murderous attack upon such as were most obnoxious and therefore marked out for punishment. The secret confederacy took the name of "Scotch cattle" from their imitation of the noises of those animals on approaching the scene of action wheie the victim was to be found. They were all so disguised as to render detection and identification difficult, so that the combination could never be properly discovered and broken up by the force of law. From this brief sketch of the past and present state of the iron trade, combined with the recent disastrous results of its exteme depression at Sirhowy and Ebbw Yale, it is evident that the position of all engaged in it, of masters 110 less than men, is deeply discouraging, and unless a change for the better supervene, and that without much delay, it may be feared that the consequences will be deplorable. Caimarthen is in a state of tranquillity, and as peaceful as previous to Rebecca's last visit. It is reported that govern- ment intend prosecuting the Rebeccaites that are in custody or held to bail at the ensuing assizes, and Mr. Maule, the crown solicitor is expected in Carmarthen daily. A reward T>- has just been issued and signed by Colonel George Rice irevor, ice Lieutenant of the county, for the appre- hension and conviction of the chief ringleader in the riot at Tallog, and assault on the special constables, in endeavouring to effect distress warrants, on the 12th of June last, as given in one of our former panels. The reward will 1e lJaiù by her majesty's gQYQxmmjut.



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