WAR NEWS- CONSTANTINOPLE, Sept. l. The Porte bas published the following despatch from his Excellency Mehemet All Pacha:—" On the morning of the 30th of August, in consequence of the offensive movements effected by the troops from Rasgrad ana Sari Nassoulilar, a desperate battle was fought in the neighbourhood of the village of Kara llassalllar. After this village had been successively captured and recaptured the Imperial army remained master of the field of battle. The enemy was com- pletely defeated, and was pursued by our troops, who inflicted great losses upon him, and completed his rout. Towards evening two columns detached from the camp of Sari Nassoulilar crossed the river Lom and forced the Russians, after a violent artillery and musketry engage- ment, to abandon the villages of Haider and Agaz and fall back upon that of Wow. Our troops took from the enemy a gun, four ammunition wag¡,¡ons, 2,000 rifles, the same num- berof great coats, some uniforms, and other articles of equip- ment; as well as a certain number of carts containing bis- cuits. The Russian losses exceed 4,000 men hors de combat ours are relatively inconsiderable." RUSSIAN HEAD-QUARTERS (GOKNJI STUDEN), Aug. 31. (Russian Official Dispatch.) "The Turks yesterday attacked the advanced guard of the Rustchuk column, which fell back from Sadiona, Kara Hassankoi, and Haydarkoi upon our principal position. General Leonoff telegraphs at three o'clock this after- noon that several Turkish attacks had been heroically re- pulsed. A second dispatch reports that yesterday's engagement at Kara Hassankoi between our advanced guards and the Turks was a severely contested affair. General Leonoff held his ground for twelve hours against twelve thousand Turks, with a far inferior force. The village was six times taken and retaken but at length General Leonoff found himself compelled to retreat step by step. He reached head quarters at eight o'clock in the evening, bringing all wounded, four hundred in number, with him. "From an early hour this morning the Turks have been concentrating in strong force at Gudowa and Popkoi. At the same time eight Turkish battalions, accompanied by a cavalry detachment, assembled on the road between Rustchuk and Rasgrad and commenced advancing towards Kadikoi. So further details have yet been received. At nine o'clock this morning a strong Turkish force from Plevna attacked our positions at Pelischat and Sclaitza. A heavy cannonade, with musketry tiring, was proceeding at ten o'clock this morning. "All is quiet in the Shipka Pass, apparently in conse- quence of the unsuccessful attacks made by Suleiman Pacha during several days upon the positions of the Russian troops, who continue, as before, to hold the pass." The Daily News Correspondent writing from the camp of
Balkans, writes:—" I am sorry to say that the greatest barbarities are being committed on hoth sides, and, as usual in this wretched quarrel, are all falling on the de- fenceless women and children and the old people. Of mas- sacres it is now the Turks who -eem to be the victims, as the Russian armies and their Bulgarian allies retire before the Turkish armies. On our side there are no massacres, for the very excellent reason that there is hardly a living soul in the land through which we have passed, as they have all already been massacred or have tied to Adrianople and other towns. Hut whit can be done to complete the rum of the land is carried out effectually, and the sky at night is illumined by the blazing villages. At this part of the valley, and probably as far as the Shipka, the crops have all been gathered and thrashed, and the Russians must have secured enormous quantities of grain for the Cavalry. For rs there is nothing left but the great stacks of straw outside the village of llain, and it is already becoming extremely difficult to procure any forage. I believe the Turkish Cavalry exists entirely on what the country produces, and that is fast disappearing, for, in addition to the horses of Artillery and Cavalry, there are the bullocks and great strings of pack mules and donkeys, who all expect to get something to live on, though it is astonishing with how little the poor beasts can work." "The European Powers are entitled to say that a war car-
ried on as this war is being carried on is intolerable, and that peace must be conceded on the only terms oil which it could be maintained, security for the existence of the Christian population. Turkey victorious could not plead that such a concession was a sacrifice 01 national dignity, and as for Rus- sia, on that side the Emperor William would be able to exer- cise a powerful influence in the interests of peace. His in- tervention in favour of humanity at Constantinople has been »Te:ted with enthusiasm by the Russian*Press. That the eyes of Eus^ans are gradually opening to the difficulty of their original enterprise we already «now, and there are (jther difficulties besides T!'1<¡o, slacks yet to be ex- perienced. We have had many ominous rumours of the suf- ferings of the Russian soldiers from the heat of the last few weeks. The change, however, to wet in the valley of the Danube may bring still worse mischiefs, and the difficulty of maintaining communications will be prodigiously increased. The argmr:cms which ought to weigh in favour of peace are innumerable. Let us hope that, in the co-operation of the Se:iti-<tl rowers, of which we have sen the commenceineii made by this ueruian remonstrance on behalf of the Geneva Convention, there will be found an opportunity for pressing tfie arguments of humanity horn. 'n tlu, reason and the ex- perience of the combatants."—Leader in The Times, All over Europe there are signs that the autumn is com-
ing on much earlier than usual, and the rains may set in be- tore the Russians are in a position to commence their attack. In that case all hope of any great success during this year's campaign will be at an end, and the Russians will have be- fore them the option of retreating across the Danube, or of fighting with cold, wet, hunger, disease, and the Turks through the winter. The prospect of retreat may be dis- couraging, but that step would assuredly be the wisest of the two alternatives. "-The Standard. Baker Pasha has been decorated with the Order of the
Osmanli. Both he and Colonel Briscoe had their horses struck by a shell in the fighting on the Lom on Thursday in last week—Baker's on the hip, and Briscoe's by a splinter going between the leg and the saddle. A Correspondent of The Times says that the Turkish fleet now keeps such a good look out that Hobart Pasha himself nearly came to grief trying an "alarm the other evening. Without making his purpose known to any one in the Fleet, he started in his galley one night to go the round, but had not proceeded very far before a gruff hail and a rifle bullet Unpleasantly close warned him to stop, and the next moment a heavy ship's launch came swiftly alongside, almost cutting him down, and before anything could be said cutlasses were flashing about, and the Admiral was a prisoner to his own men. The Turks are like burnt children now, and it will not be their fault if they are ever caught nappingagain. The guns are kept loaded at night, as well as the mitrailleuses, of which every ship has two or three pointed over her gun- wales, and the crew under arms keep watch and watch." Prince Charles has published an address to the Roumanian Army on the occasion of their crossing the Danube. He tells them that if the Turks should prove victorious in the present struggle their country would be invaded and be made a scene of desolation; therefore he argues, it is their duty to march and encounter the Turks on their own terri- tory. He announces that the Czar has entrusted to him the supreme command of the two armies before Plevna, and pre- dicts that his troops will shortly return home, made free by their own efforts. The Paris Correspondent of the Standard saysIt is announced that the whole of the Roumanian army has crossed the Danube to support the Russians, who are slowly falling baek towards Sistova and Nicopolis. It is also re- ported, but not on trustworthy authority, that the Russians are about to send a division into Servia to operate against the rear of Osman Pacha. The Daily News Correspondent with the Turkish army, in a telegram dated Erzeroum, Monday, says :—Advices from Kars fctate that great operations are imminent, and that the ■lurkish army is preparing to march on Alexaudropol.
THE THIRD BATTLE OF PLEVNA. The following is an interesting extract from the letter of the Special Correspondent (latsly with General G ulirko) of the Daily News, under date, Poredin, August 31:— The third battle of Plevna has just been fought. The Turks this morning at eight o'clock made a furious attack on the Russian positions here, which resulted in one of the most hardly-fought battles of the war. The Turks some time ago made a feeble recon- naissance or two, which resulted in one or two slight cavalry skirmishes, a most unusual thing for the Turks and about the time the attack was made on the Shipka they made a demonstration here which kept us on the alert, but which resulted in nothing else, and it seemed certain the Turks would not attack here, and as it was evident the Russians were not ready to resume the offensive for some days, perhaps some weeks yet, the Correspondents had all gone away in despair. I myself had saddled my horse to follow their example, when about eight o'clock my ear caught a dull, scarcely audible thumping that sounded more like a horse stamping at flies than the booming of artillery. Artillery it proved to be, nevertheless, for in' a few minutes it grew louder, and clearer; and looking towards the line of low hills in the direction of Plevna, some four miles distant, we saw several columns of white smoke rising behind them, showing where the artillery Was already hard at work. The indistinctness of the Bound was caused by a slight breeze blowing towards Plevna, for the distance from Poredin to our extreme front is scarcely five miles. Was it a real attack or Was it a feigned one, and would not the real battle take place on our right wing, formed by the Rou- xaanian troops, were the questions which occurred to everybody. As I rode out towards Pelisat I met great crowds of Bulgarian refugees, some of whom had fled from the Turkish advance in front of the Russian lines, others from the villaga of Pelisat itself,, where there would probably be hard fighting in eate of a battle. The Whole population had put all their moveable effects into waggons and carts, with the women and children, and were driving their live stock before them. The country behind the Russian lines everywhere, I may remark, is covered with refugees camped in waggons, ftnd in hastily constructed straw huts. They retreat With the Russians, and again move forward with them With unabated confidence when the Russians make even a slight movement in advance. In a few minutes I had passed over the level plain oetwefa Poredin and Pelisat, a plain planted with Indian com and vines. The ambulance waggons were coming back with wounded. The vine hills between Pelisat and Zgalince were covered with clouds of smoke, which rose up in great white flecked balls that rolled off and disappeared in the direction of Plevna, while the deep savage roar of small arms mingled with the thunder of artillery in a way that showed if the Turks were making a demonstration it was a very violent one. to say the least of it. Jus-, to the right of Pelisat was a Russian battery throwing shells that went skimming along over the hill that rose beyond, and exploded out of sight, right in the direction of a Russian redoubt which I knew was about a mile in front of Pelisat. This waa a most alarming circumstance. If the Russians were shelling their own redoubt it could only be by a fearful mis- take, orelse because the Turks had taken it, in which case our left wing must have already been driven back on Pelisat, and in danger of being turned. But strange to ay, there were very few balls falling here, while the fight seemed to grow more terrible towards the centre in the direction of Zgalince. Full of anxiety, I gallopped forward to the hill just to the left of Pelisat, which promised a view of what' was going on at the front. I found a squadron of dragoons hovering just behind the crest of this hill, and with half a dozen officers on the top watching the progress of events. I was now on the extreme Russian left, and, as I soon ascertained, on the extreme front likewise. In front and beyond Pelisat the ground rose in a lazy incline for a distance of a mile. About the point where was the Russian redoubt stood, which was not, however, visible, a miie and a half to the right, was the village of Zgalince, the Russian centre, before which was another redoubt, and a series of trenches. Forward towards Plevna the ground still rose higher, so that the Russan positions were, and are commanded by the positions taken by the Turks in their forward move- ment. The disadvantage cannot be avoided by the Russians without falling back several miles. The Russian redoubt a mile in front of Pelisat had been taken by the Turks early in the fight. The Russian left wing had been driven back on Pelisat. in front of which trenches had been dug and lined with troops. The battle began to look like a serious one indeed. It bad been raging more than an hour since we heard the first gun fired, and in that time the redoubt had been taken by the Turks, retaken by the Russians, and retaken again by the Turks. This accounted for the strange firing of the battery in the centre in the direc- tion of Zgalince t" the right of Pelisat, which was still blazing away, sending its shells screaming along the ground, as they rose with the hill before us and exploded beyond. I had not been at my new standpoint more than five minutes, when the crest of the hill, a mile in front, suddenly grew black as with a line of ink drawn along the sky. What was it ? We applied our glasses, and soon made it out to be the enemy who had just crowned the hill after taking the redoubt behind, and was now preparing for an assault on the Russian centre. Their presence there showed that the redoubt must have been again captured by the Turks, though for a minute we could not make out whether they were infantry or cavalry. In less than a minute they began to descend the hill right in our direction, as though determined to drive our left out of Pelisat, and turn it. The battery to the right of the village now limbered up, and retreated back on the plain about a quarter of a mile, and again took up position. My own position, with a handful of cavalry behind the hill, now became rather disa- greeable. If we were pressed back on the plain we could see nothing. If we remained where we were there was an extreme probability of being cut off and obliged to make a wide circuit to rejoin the army, not to speak of the probability of being directly in the line of fire. In less than five minutes the Turks began to descend the hill in our direction, not with a rush, but leisurely, and without firing, not in masses nor lines, but scattered and diffused. They came down about half way in this manner, the Russian artillery tearing up the groups among them all the time in the most savage manner. I was just beginning to think of the expediency of clearing oui. when there was a change. The Russian infantry fire, which had for the last five minutes been very heavy about Zgaiince, now began to roll along the hill crest in our direction, and the Turks, who were just coming into range, began to drop rapidly. I do not know whether the Turks originally intended to attack our left or not, but the fact is that there was a change in the direction of the attack. The advance now veered to the left, and went at, the Russian trenches -on the crest of the hills half way between Pelisat and Zgalince, with a shout, opening fire at the same time. When they descended into the little hollow and were lost to sight for a time, while ';the Russian trenches flamed and smoked, a storm of balls was poured into the advancing Turks. This must have lasted fifteen or twenty minutes, during which time a fearful loss of life must have occurred. Then we saw them begin to withdraw as they went carrying off the wounded. But they had not yet had enough. Encouraged by their success in taking the redoubt, and believing they could also take this line, they had no sooner withdrawn from the Russian fire than they formed and went at it again. They dived down into the Valley of Death to struggle there amid smoke and fire, a death struggle of giants; for there is nothing to choose between Russian and Turk on the score of bravery. Many bodies of Turks were found within ten feet of the Russian trenches. The little slope, on the crest of which the trenches were situated, was literally covered with dead. I counted seven on a space of not more than ten feet square. The battle here was ter- rible, but the Turks were again repulsed, and again they retreated up the hill. It will hardly be believed that they went at it again and yet they did so. To us who had watched the two preceding assaults it seemed madness, because we could see that the Rus- sian tire never slackened an instant, aud that the Russian line neh -"avered, while we knew the Rus- sian reserves were waiting behind ready to fall in at tfie least sign of wavering. The scene of carnage was again repeated, but it only lasted a moment. The Turks, completely broken, withdrew, sullenly firing, and taking time to carry off thfir wounded and many of their dead. till they held the redoubt, upon which they fell back appa- rently with the intention of holding it. but they were not allowed to remain long there. The attack on the redoubt in the Russian centre had been equally unsuccessful as that on the Russian trenches on the left. The Russians pursued them with a murderous fire, and then six companies went at them with the bayonet and swept them out of the redoubt like a whirlwind, At four o'clock the Turks were in retreat every- where. The Russians occupied the whole of their first positions, besides pursuing the Turks a short distance with cavalry. The Russians were about 20,000. Their loo is esti- mated at 500, and the Turkish loss at 2,000 killed and wounded. T
THE WHEAT CROP. The Times of Saturday last published the following Sir,-The agricultural returns having been issued this year nearly a month earlier than hitherto it is possible, even with a late harvest, to arrive at a fairly accurate estimate of the crop some weeks sooner than in preceding years. The extent of wheat is greater by nearly 200,000 acres than last year, but 400,000 acres or one-ninth, below the average of the ten preceding years. The season has been too wet for all clay soils and on poor and imperfectly drained land the crop has been starved. On good deep, well-drained land and on well-farmed dry land, there will be an average crop where it is sufficiently early and has been or will be, well harvested. On poor, sandy soils, through which the continued rainfall washed out much of the manure, the crop is thin and scanty. The returns obtained, by the Agricultural Gazette from farmers in the various parts of the country show, according to the Editor, a poorer account of the wheat crop than has appeared in any of the preceding 34 years of its .existence. On a careful analysis of these I find that in the 12 principal wheat counties, which represent one- half of the wheat growth of the kingdom, three-fourths of the returns show a crop below average, while one- fourth give an average cr,,p. For the remainder of the country the deficiency is somewhat less in proportion. But neither my own observation nor experience of the yield this year would lead me to conclude that the crop is the poorest of 34 years, nor do I think that the returns are meant to convey that impression. I read them as expressing a very general deficiency. They are below an average crop, but not greatly be- low it. The general yield is better than that of 1853, or 1867, or 1875, the three worst crops in that period. But I fear it will not be equal even to the defective crop of last year. and that notwithstanding the increased we "1-, 411 not have more than between nine and ten miliioiicluarter3 of a home crop. The average consumption of the past ten years has been 5 bushels per head of the population. At that rate, with a population of 33,600,000, we should re- quire for a complete year 23,100,000 qrs. But a rise in price will check consumption by probably I-20th, and the latenesfe of the harvest may save three weeks of an ordinary year's supply. These savings may re- duce the year's requirements to 20,500,000 qrs., under the two conditions of a strict economy in the consump- tion and an early harvest next year; and the foreign supply we should in these circumstan ces require might be limited to 11,000,000 qrs. This takes the most favourable view of our pakitior), for north of the Trent the most of the crop is still unharvested, and is subject to the risks of a late season and very unsettled weather. If we were the only country that required help, and if we could rely on a continuance of the large scale of foreign imports which has marked the last four years, there would be little cause for apprehension. But, with the exception of some part of Spain, all Western i .urope is deficient, and the ports of the Black Sea are close I, while the renewal with greater severity of the famine in India can hardly admit of any increase of the large supply we have received from that quarter during the present yaar. We must therefore look to America for a considerably increase even on her great exports of the last four years, and if the *ar in Turkey continues the vast resources of the United States and Canada will, indeed, be severely taxed to make good the wants of this country and Western Europe. But these resources are great. The largest ex- ?onnn evf 1,nade w,as. m f18™> when it reached 12 000,000 qrs. I have advice from Chicago of the 14th inst. that the crops of wheat in th* Eastern and estern btates and Canada are very good, above average, and now all gathered. In California there is a deficiency, but the produce of that State does not comprise a sixteenth part of the American crop A high price of wheat will lead to a great economy of consumption there, for Indian corn in its various forms is a favourite article of food in that country, and can and will be largely substituted for wheat if the price is sufficiently tempting. And we shall have to economize severely at home. The fine crop of 1874 with the large imports of that year, afforded six bushels of wheat per head for the consumption of this country. The small crop of 1875, supplemented by the largest import we have ever yet received, afforded 5A bushels per head. The deficient crop of 1876, with an import which somewhat exceeds 12 million quarters, has afforded very little over five bushels. If the Black Sea ports continue closed for the coming harvest year we may have to restrict the consumption to consider- ably less than five bushels a head. The other home- growfl. crops promise little aid, barley being deficient, and oats not above an aveiage, while potatoes are much diseased. At this season ast year I estimated the require- ments of this country beyond the home crop at 13 million quarters of wheat, from stocks in hand arid foreign imports. The 12 million quarters imported and the stock we then commenced with confirm that expectation. But I stated at the same time that, to prevent any considerable diminution or foreign growth, I should be glad to see a somewhat higher and more remunerative price than that of the two preceding years. The average price was then 45s. It gradually rose to 55s.. and when war was declared to 65s. In 1866 and 1867, when from two deficient crops and comparatively small imports, the quan- tity of wheat for consumption fell below five bushels a head, the price was 64s. In the past 25 years the quantity has on several occasions fallen below that mark, and the price of these years has averaged 60s. If, therefore, the Black Sea ports continue closed during the coming harvest year, we may be thankful if it goes no higlier.-I am, sir, your obedient servant, JAMES CAIRD. August 31
THE TURKISH ARMY IN THE BALKANS. The following interesting extracts are from a letter in The Times under the title, "With Suleiman Pasha in the Balkans." written by a Naval Correspondent, under date, "Head-Quarters, Army of the Balkans, Furdich Boghaz.1D the Tundja Valley, Aug. 13 As far as our information goes on this side of the armies facing each other, it is impossible to form any idea of the actual numbers of the Russians, and the reconnaissances which are made result in nothing but the discovery of large bodies of armed Bulgarians who retire on tlw approach of the Turks. At present the belief here iu the camp is that the Russians are in force at Kezanlik, and that they intend to make a stand there, as it covers the Shipka pass. In the mean- while Suleiman Pasha is occupying the whole valley of the Tundja, his lines extending from the village of At-Kieu, about three miles east of the Furdick Pass, to Hain Boghaz, a distance of about seven miles. The valley of the Tundja at this part is about one and a half to two miles wide, lying between the true Balkans and a low range of hills, some 1,500 ft. to 2,000 ft. high, runnirg parallel to them. The river winds over shallow shingle beds, and presents no kind of feature in itself of strategical importance, except that by the gradual denudation of the valley, and alterations in the bed of the stream, spurs of rock, covered with short scrub a'jd grass, lie diagonally across the plain, and would afford shelter for infantry or commanding posi- tions for artillery. The plain is extremely fertile, considering its altitude of upwards of 1,200ft. to 1,400ft. above the sea level, and at the present time affords abundant pasture for the cattle and forage for the horses, as the maize crops are still luxuriantly green, and the oats and barley are ready for the sickle which will never cut them. The scenery is of great beauty, owing not so much to variety of form as richness of colours, for the hills present rather uniform roundness of outline with very little difference in their height; but the profusion of rich greens in the plain and the patches of golden corn, the dark forests of the lower range, and the purple mountains beyond, contribute to make the valley of the Tundja one of the scenes that we retain an impression of for years without carrying away any decided mind-picture of the features of the country. It was most painful to see the desolation that has overtaken this once most peaceful pirt of the Turkish Empire. The villages, which are numerous and were apparently extremely well-built, have all been burnt-Turk and Bulgarian alike-more or less. In many where the trees met over head in the lanes and so carried the flames over the fields, the very hedges and fences have been entirely obliterated, and leave nothing but a blackened heap of cinders to mark out the divisions of the once flourishing gardens. The blackened stumps of trees with a few twisted and con- torted branches give evidence of the tremendous fury of the flames, and it is difficult to suppose that in some of these places any of the inhabitants could have escaped. It was a strange sight to watch this great army of 30.000 men, with the vast trains of bullock-waggons and pack-horses, winding through the valley for up- wards of seven or eight miles in extent. The head of the columns had already vanished out of sight, and still onward and onward, tramp, tramp, tramp came the infantry and the artillery lumbering along in the rear, while as far as the eye could reach streamed the long lines of bollock waggons, 3,000 or 4,000 in number, with the rear-guard only discernible with the strongest glasses like ants on the hills in the distance. The entire army is bivouacked in the open and in the positions they take up. At night the camp n js light up the country and hill sides for miles around, and the far off specks of light among the woods and forests on the mountains point out the position of the videttes and outposts. As night comes on, silence settles down on the great camp. only broken by some far off bugle ca,U, or the neighing of the horses tethered in the standing corn. The Commander-in-Chief himself, Suleiman Pasha, is a most unostentatious and reserved man. His head- quarters are the very reverse of the gorgeous establish- ments one sees with many Generals of much less pre- tence than this the most successful and favoured of the Sultan's Field-Marshals. His tent consists of a simple piece of canvas stretched across two sticks, under which he crawls at night and sleeps on the ground, and, being once in, leaves no room to spare for a shake down for anybody else. Guards, sentries, orderlies, and all the pomp and circumstance of military rank are dispensed with, and his two or three aides-de-camp bivouack in like style near him. His two horses are picketed in front of his tent, with their saddles on their backs, and take their chance of toratre with the rest of the Cavalry in the same way that their master expects no different fare from the rest of the army. He is a man of about 40 to 45, tall and strongly built, with a rough weather-beaten face, a forehead very much wrinkled, and a short red beard and mous- tache. He s Jeaks French a little. His character seems singularly simple and self-reliant, and presents contrasts which make it still more exceptional. In detail and in matters of organization he seems to have great readiness, a quick perception of what is neces- sary as to provisioning, forwarding ammunition, or any other administrative part of generalship, while at the same time he appears to have the intuitive qualities of a born commander, which enable him to carry out a plan rapidly and successfully without going through any of the accepted and roundabout methods of modern warfare. I would instance in this respect the extraordinary way in whichx in a few hours- I believe in 48-he transported the whole of his army from Adrianople to Karabunar. If he had had the ordinary machinery of an army to carry out his plans, Quartermasters-General, Adjutants of the same ilk, commissariat, ambulance, and so forth, it would have been simply impossible to have given a plain order in plain language, and know that it would be carried out. At the order, Go, the army went. With no further ado the divisions massed rapidly on the railway station, and*the men crowded into every conceivable corner of the train, from the tender to the guard's van, each man with his am- munition already in his pouches, three days' biscuit in his haversack, and his water bottle full. Train followed train in rapid succession, and as each arrived at its destination, it shunted and waited for the next. Then as the provisions arrived, the men were brought down in thousands, and every man hoisted a sack of biscuits on his back, and carried them to the pile where they were sto wed, without the inter- vention of half-a-dozen commissaries to count and keep tally, and without having waited for orders from at least four different departments. It is easy to under- stand the up-lifted hands of the stereotyped soldier at all this shocking irregularity, but I have no hesitation m saying that on this particular occasion it saved lurkey, and possibly Europe, from a great deal of bloodshed. The order Vas given, and it was carried out without apparently any prominent occasion of failure, or without any of that redupli- cation of bungling to which we are not altogether unaccustomed, and as regiment followed regiment into the camp at Karabunar each bivouacked in its place, ]Hl..d their arms, soaked their hard biscuits in the wa,ter, prostrated themselves before the Great and only Allah, their God and friend, aud lay down to sleep on the grass. It is therefore with a system which leaves him untrammelled, when his mind 'is not distracted by the memory of all kinds of obscure forms or haunted by the idea of hurting some touchy sensi- bilities^ relative rank, that a man of talent and 0f self-reliant nature is able promptly to carry out a plan without the aid of complicated machinery, and it is this which I imagine will be found to distinguish Suleiman Pasha from the run of ordinary Generals.
HOSPITAL SATURDAY IN LONDON. The seventh annual street collection in aid of the public hospitals took place last Saturday in London, when from centre to circumference of the metropolis every main thoroughfare was sentinelled by ladies- in all numbering about !50—seeking assistance in what every one will acknowledge to be a noble cause. This fair army was made up of ladies of various ages, and drawn from many ranks of society—for, in the cause of humanity, "one touch of nature makes the whole world kin." It is our pleasure to record the fact (says the Standard) that the ladies who under- tooK the extraordinary task of Saturday performed it with an affability and patience which it is to be hoped will, when the returns come to be made up, be found to have met with that acknowledgment which, there can be no doubt, each of them most ardently desire. About nine o'clock in the morning the majority of lady collectors took up their stations, where they remained some till three and four in the afternoon, and others as late as six and seven in the evening. Each lady, as her district became deserted by the homeward-bound men of business, proceeded by cab to the banking establishment of Mess. Hoare's Meet-street, where she delivered her box to have the contents counted. This year the managers very properly dispensed with the useless parade of an attendant boy at each stall, in gaudy livery and this they did, it is stated, at the express desire of the lathes themselves. The boy in past years was no doubt intended as a protection, instead of which he became an object of curiosity and amusement to the passers by; and, indeed, such a parade of protection was quite unnecessary, for even in the roughest quarters (j the town these self-sai-riticing ladies were treated witii almost invariable civility, not to say that courtesy which we see sometimes offered in the streets by gentlemen to a passing Sosur do Oharite. Had any rudeness been offered, the offender would soon have found himself face to (aGe with a policeman. In some quartei s of the City where early merchants most do congregate several ladies took up their position even before eight o'clock and at various public places— such as Covent-garden. the Metropolitan Meat Market, and Leadeuhall Market, gentlemen collectors were receiving collections as early as four o'clock, whilst others did duty up to a late hour on Saturday night at the principal London railway termini.
THE RELIEF OF THE DISTRESS IN TURKEY. The following dispatch was received at the Foreign Office on the 21st ultimo, from Mr. Layard, dated Therapia August 27,1877 My Lord,—I have brought to your lordship's notice, on many occasions, the cruel way in which the war waged against Turkey is carried on, and the misery that it is entailing upon her defenceless populations, Mahometan and Christian. The number of fugitives, the vast majority of whom are women and children whose husbands and fathers have been slaughtered, is daily increasing. Their homes have been burnt by Russians, Bulgarians, Bashi-Bazouks, and Circas- sians, and they are wandering over the face of the country in the most terrible misery, having saved nothing, scarcely even their clothes. Disease is be- ginning to appear amongst them, and when the cold weather sets in their sufferings will be dreadful, and the loss of life great. I have, in a previous despatch, stated that Mr. Young, the representative of the Red Cross Association for Relief of Sick and Wounded Soldiers, had informed me that, in one spot, he had found, without shelter and food, about two thousand Mussulman woman and children, many of whom were wmuded. Colonel Lennox, in a telegram, which I have transmitted to your lordship, says that in East Bulgaria there are crowds of these fugitives bivouacking over the country. At Eski Djumna alone there are fifteen thousand families in the utmost want. The Turkish government is doing what little it can to support these poor people, and is endeavour- ing to distribute them amongst different towns in the European aud Asiatic provinces, making no distinc- tion between Mahometans and Christians. The Turkish population, and in some places the Greek, is endeavouring to supply them with sufficient for the mere support of life. Whilst the weather is warm, unless disease on a large scale sets in amongst them- a not improbable event-they can be kept alive for the present. The Baroness Burdett-Coutts, with her boundless generosity and benevolence, has authorised me to employ £4,000 subscribed by herself and her friends, for the relief of the Turkish women and children, and already a part of this sum has been most usefully expended. I enclose a copy of a letter from her Majesty's Consul-General, Mr. Fawcett, who kindly undertook to go to Rodosto to distribute food amongst the fugi- tives who had been sent to that town, and who now amount to between 4,000 and 5,000 souls, chiefly women and children, 3,000 more having, I am in- formed, been sent there since Mr. Fawcett's visit. The money supplied by me to Mr. Fawcett to buy provisions came from Baroness Burdett-Coutts' fund, and I have sent her ladyship a copy of his letter. According to the last accounts that I have received from Adrianople there must be altogether nearly 13,000 fugitives at this time in that city, for the most part women and children, including many wounded. I have sent s sum of money from Baroness Burdett- Coutts' fund to a committee, of which Consul Blunt is a member, for their relief. Mr. Consul Reade writes from Smyrna that a Turkish transport had arrived there from Kustendje with 1,500 Mussulman refugees from Bulgaria. These poor people," he states, consist of old men, women, and children, in a state of most abject desti- tution. Their emaciated and squalid appearance, most of them in rags, and many all but naked, excited very general compassion. The authorities have done all in their power to relieve their distress." Vice-Consul Brophy describes the shocking suffer- ings of the Mussulmans and Christians in the districts |°uth of the Balkans which were invadad by the Russians, where one out of fifteen of the villages had alone, according to his estimate, been saved from destruction, the surviving inhabitants of the remainder having taken refuge in the mountains and forests. At Philippopolis there are, I understoc d, some 7^000 or8,ooofugit principally Mussulman and Christian women and children, many wounded, in the greatest. distress and want. I have sent to Mr. Vice-Consul Calvert a small sum from Baroness Burdett-Coutts' fund, towerds their relief. I have also sent some money to Consul Reade for the suffering refugees at Shumula. There is scarcely a town in the east of Roumelia which is not crowded with fugitives. I am unable to state accurately the number of refugees that are at present in Constantinople, but it must amount to many thousands. It is increasing every day, and as I am writing two large transports are passing my window crowded with old men, women, and children. The Sultan has placed one of his palaces (that of Beylerby) and its very extensive dependencies at the disposal of the authorities, for the reception of fugi- tives of all classes, and has ordered that other build- ings belonging to him should be prepared for their reception. A great many have besji taken into private houses, and some Turkish gentlemen, of whom Ahmet Vefyk Pacha is at the head, are endeavouring to pro- cure clothing and other necessaries for distribution amongst them when the cold weather comes on. It would be difficult at this moment to form an esti- mate of the entire number of persons that have been driven out of their villages in consequence of the Russian invasion, and are wandering about, or are collected together in Constantinople and in other cities and towns in a state of complete destitution nor of the number of those who have already perished from want, or have been slaughtered by Cossacks, Bul- garians, and Turkish irregulars, without counting those who may have fall-n with arms in their hands. They must be counted by tens of thousands. Provision for the Turkish sick'and wounded in war has already been made thi ough the generous benevo- lence of Englishmen whose-sentiments of humanity are not affected by questions cr race and creed. But as yet the Compassionate Fund, E.3 nobly begur. by Baroness Burdett-Coutts, is the onty attempt made to afford relief to the innocent Turkish women and children and the old men who are suffering from the invasion of their country. I canned doubt that an appeal to British charity in their behalf would not be without its effect, and I venture to express my hope that your lordship will allow the substance of this despatch to be made public.—I have, &c., (Signed) A. H. LAYARD. Enclosed in the above was the following letter from Consul General Fawcett to Mr. Layard :— Rodosto, August 18, 1877. Dear Mr. Layard,—Salih Pacha promised to let me have a government boat in a few day^but as the matter seemed pressing I prevailed on Smart to let me have his tug for the price coals only. Captain Blunt, who kindly came h and myself arrived here this morning, at seven^ id were nut by the English Vice-Consul. Mr. Hi son was good enough to buy twenty sacks of rice, five of beans, and a sack ef coffee, which we brought with us. I regret to say there is no exaggeration. There are 252 Bul- garian women and children, in two schools and an old church, in a most deplorable state. Many of the children are suffering from fever and dysentery ac- quired by the hardships of the road and from eating unripe fruit and vegetables. There are- infants dying °f h-.oger, as their mothers' milk has failed them, and tliere is none else. There is only one wounded Bul- garian woman. They say that most of the men are lost or dead. If, however, the state of the Bulgarians is bad, that of the Turkish women and children is, if possible, worse. There are 781 of these helpless creatures in 51 houses in the town, and 288 in the adjoining villages. We have during the day seen many of these people, and find them in the greatest distress mentally and physically; nearly all their children also have fever and diarrhoea. The women all tell the same story, that the moment the Russians crossed the Balkans they gave arms to their neighbours the Bulgarians, who fell on them and killed their male relatives and. burnt their houses. Some also say their fathers or brothers were killed by the Cossacks. They have the air of decent farming people. Some are wounded; I saw with my own eyes a girl of 16 who had one bullet-wound right through her arm, and another in her side which had lodged internally. The doctor showed me both wounds himself, and the girl is recovering, which is re- markable. It is most fortunate that I brought rice and coffee, as the doctor says they are the best things. I also brought a large quantity of quinine, some Swiss condensed milk, and other things, for which the doctor is most grateful. We shall be able to give an oke and a half of rice per head and some coffee, and we propose to give them a few piastres each. We are going this evening to make the distribution ourselves from house to house, taking the things in an araba. The authorities give these people half an oke of bread per day for an adult, and one quarter for those under fifteen years of age. I 1 must say that from the governor dowe.wards Loth Turks and Greeks are bohaving well. To the people they are as kind as they can be, and nearly the whole municipality went round with us to the various houses, and were most grateful for the relief we brought. Some of the poor women gave a m<p £ graphic description of the way their husbands &ad fathers were killed; and one old Turk, who had. four girls with him, said these were all out of a family of eighteen. They were all tied together. These four escaped, the rest were hacked to pieces with knives and axes. The lamentations of the women were bad enough but to see the poor little helpless iofants dying of hunger and fever was really very trying. There is only one doctor in the whole place. lie is an intelligent and active young man, but wholly unable to cope with such an amount of sickness. He has scarcely any medicine. I have telegraphed to Mr. Pratt; of the Red Cross, to kindly send a case hi-r,, A,t. enee--if- his orders allow him to do so. Of course an assistant or two would be of the greatest use. The doctor expects an epidemic of cholera or typhus to break out immediately. I regret to say this is not all. The Governor com- putes that in the district-there are no less than three ho us and, and more fugitives may be expected here. They are now at Lule Bourgas, Kharabal, Tchokow, Heraglea, Visa Media, Melgera-villages from four to eight hours' journey from here, so that at present I could not get at them. All these fugitives are from Eski-Zaghra, Yamboli, Kyzanlik, and villages round those places. The people .here say they would camp them out if they could, but there are no tents. We hope to finish distribution to-morrow and go on to Adrianople the day after, where I will see whether Mr. Blunt can send auy assist ance to the people in the outlying villages I have mentioned above. The rice, medicines, &c., will come to about £ 50, and we propose to distribute £ 50 in caiiue here to enable them to get some little necessaries, as most of them have nothing except a few old rags. About twenty Bul- garian girls have got work. If you have any direc- tions, a telegram will reach me till Monday morning. Excuse this, written in haste in the corner of a magazine.-I have, &c., (Signed) J. HENAY FAwcETT.
SEEING IT FOR THE FipsT TIMEI-A lady in Cali- fornia gives an amusing iveidontin her travels :—"In 1854 my husband went to Texas to buy a drove of cattle, and I went with him. I^rottt Little Rock, in. Arkansas, we travelled by land. One day the pole of the carriage broke, and we had to stop at a farm- house while the driver went back several miles to get the pole mended. Among my baggage I had my guitar, and I took it out to wile away the hours. The women and children of the house heard the music, and gathered around me to listen. At length the old lady held up both her hands, and exclaimed, Well, the laud's sake! I've hearn tell of pyannen, but I never seed one afore.
CRICKET AS A CIVILISER. The oricket field, infinitely mora than the hunting field, is entitled to rank as a true national civiliser. It is almost a commonplace to say that it provides those opportunities for general intercourse on a footing of equality, in country districts and in urban neighbour- hoods as well, which hunting can only afford to a comparatively limited number. It really places a thou- sand joys of life within the reach of those who, without thesolace of their prowess with the bat aud ball would find existence ina very humdrum and monotonous affair. It acts as the social cement of classes, and it is a legiti- mate outlet for whatever democratic aspirations there may be in the English breast. Whether he be an impecunious subaltern in a regiment quartered in a garrison town, or whether he be the son of some local professional man, the cricketer-some degree of pro- ficiency must of course be postulated—carries with him his own credentials. His skill in the game graduallv superinduces a recognition of excellence of cha- racter, which would certainly otherwise have been ignored. He makes friends, and he has the entrSe of agreeable and eligible houses. It is no exaggeration to say—and the statement, which is here not rashly made may be weighed with satisfaction by the parents and guardians of young athletes who have loved cricket perhaps not wisely but too well that more valuable a,c juaintances more permanent and fruitful friendships, have been made in the cricket- field than in any other social rendezvous of the United Kingdom. The cricketer's life is certainly the m, ,st purely enjoyable which any youngmancouhllead. Is there any week in England, or in the world like the Canterbury week ? It is of c rarse crowded with amusements of every kind-balls, dinners, private theatricals, and what not. Yet each of these enter- tainments belongs to the list of the social accessories of the cricketer's career. -From" All The Year Bound."
THE SULTAN AND THE ARMENIAN PATRIARCH. I have received, on very high authority, the following account of a private audience granted by the Sultan to the Armenian Patriarch," writes the Constantinople correspon- dent of The Times:- The day before yesterday, the 22od, Monsignor Nerses, Armenian Patriarch, went to Yildi Kiosque, at the special invitation of the Sultan. Arriving at the Palace, he was met by the Master of the Ceremonies, who conducted him to a private wait- ing-room, whence, after the short space of a quarter of an hour, he was ushered into a mag- nificent reception chamber. His Holiness pre- pared on entering to make the usual low obeisance, but the Sultan advanced immediately to shake hands and to prevent this act of homage, and invited the Patriarch to take a seat in an arm-chair placed close in front of the Sultan's seat. "Sire," said the Patriarch, "in the presence of a Sovereign like your Majesty it is honour even to stand." Pray be seated," replied the Sultan, and the Patriarch then took the chair, making a low salutation. "How are you?" con- tinued the Sultan, also seating himself. I hope your health is good. I have long desired to see you, but waited a favourable opportunity. I have great regard for you. Consider yourself at home here, and come to me whenever you please." Sire, we do not think of ourselves, but all the yearn- ings of our nation are turned towards your Majesty and the Ottoman Army, for whose welfare we con- stantly pray." His Majesty replied, I truly deplore the present times. I, who would not willingly orush an insect, am deeply pained at the shedding of so much innocent blood. God knows, however, I am not responsible for this war." You are truly the greatest of Monarchs; Sire, you have surpassed predecessors who came to the ThroDe of Osman m prosperous times, while you have shed glory over the Ottoman banner in time of trouble and adversity." Since my accession to the Throne I have not enjoyed an instant's peace." "Therein is your Majesty's greatness. The whole nation prays day and night that your Majesty may carry out during your reign the promises of reform contained in your solemn Imperial decrees the advancement of agriculture, commerce, industry, and public instruction." "I am much satisfied with my Armenian nation, and return them my best thanks. I desire you to communicate, to the Armenian nation the expression of my satisfaction, and assure them of my affection." I can assure your Majesty that the paternal rule of your glorious "dynasty is cherished and venerated not only by the Armenians of Turkey, but by all Armenians of all countries." "I thank you, and repeat that the sentiments are reciprocated on my part. I charge you to say so to the nation. I am equally well pleased with the Armenian functionaries of the Porte, who have always served with devotion and loyalty. I know that my Armenian nation have suffered much through this war, but they must know that at the recompense of privations they will see better days and reap the fruits of their loyalty. I love all my subjects, but particularly my Armenian nation, which under difficult present trials has abundantly shown its long- standing fidelity. I make no distinction between Mussulmans and Christians; all are Ottomans. Religion belongs to God. I gave the Constitu- tion "-the Sultan used the word in French— "in order that all may repose in brotherly equality." The Patriarch then offered up a prayer for long life to the Sultan and success to the Army, and for the realization of the sublime intentions of the Sovereign, adding, "The Armenian nation, closely attached to the Throne of Osman, prays for increased power and maintenance." The Sultan crossed his hands onhis breast, listening in a religious attitude, bending his head as if in prayer, and repeating several times, "I thank you." The Patriarch then prepared to rise, but the Sultan desired him to stay, saying, May God Almighty grant your prayers and that my intentions be accomplished I grieve very much for the Bulgarian nation, which has failed in loyalty." Your Majesty justly deplores their treason, but cannot believe that the whole Bulgarian nation is dis- loyal it is only a misguided fraction. I im- plore your Majesty for pity for the innocent ones who have not failed in their obedience." "I am sorry for it, but must repeat that I am not responsible for this cruel bloodshed." Thereupon, at a sign from the Sultan, the Master of the Cere- monies brought in on a silver salver the Riband of the First Class Order of the Osmanlie, with the plaque, which His Majesty, ordered to be placed at once round the shoulders of the Patriarch in his pres- ence. The Patriarch again recited prayers, adding that he considered this high distinction as an earnest of the Sultan's affection for the Armenian nation. "I confer this decoration," said the Sultan, out of regard both for you and my Armenian nation, for which I have great esteem." "They will strive to be worthy subjects of your Majesty." Here the audience ended. The Patriarch, on his return to the chief church at Koom Kapoo, held solemn High Mass, and the Te Deum, all the high clergy officiating, was given with all the religious pomp and ceremony of the Armenian Church. "It would be impossible," said the Patri- arch, afterwards speaking of the Sultan, I It,) unite more kindness, simplicity of manner, amicability, and modesty with more dignity. The Sultan makes one feel he has an angelic disposition. Abdul Aziz allowed the Patriarchs to prostrate themselves before him and kiss his hands and feet as Sultan Hamid did.
EMIGRATION TO AMERICA. It is stated that renewed activity is being displayed in Europe with the object of stimulating emigration to America, and though it must be generally known that the condition of trade in all branches, and especially in manufactures, is much worse in the States than it is in England, it may be well to remind any artizans who might be induced to entertain the idea of emigration, that at present they are better off at home. Skilled labour, such as that required in engineering works, ironworks, collieries, and on buildings, is exceedingly plentiful in all the American 1 centres, and in illusstation of this may be quoted the following paragraph from an American paper :—" It is said that a master mason of Passaic has reoaived orders from R. Neill and Sons, builders of Manchester, England, to send between 200 and 300 skilled car- penters and joiners to Liverpool. Every maa must have a complete kit of tools. Steady work is to be guaranteed to good men. Wages are at the rate of 8d. an hour 51 hours a week is the working time. Of 150 masons who went over last year, only six have returned to this country. A new detachment lately sailed from New York." To the facts contained in this paragraph we recently referred, and only now recur to them in the interest of the artizan class. Shipping agents will, of course, do all they can to stimulate emigration, but it is well that those to whom they appeal should be aware that to land in America without means of pushing out into the agricultural districts, either in the middle or southern states, or to the westward, is to meet with all the troubles that attend forced idleness. While, how. ever, there is nothing to invite the artisans of the town, there still remains some inducement for those who can emigrate with the intention and with the means of entering upon a farming life, and for those who can find their way into those districts with the object of entering upon agricultural employment.— Engineer.
RUSSIAN COLONISATION OF NOVA ZEMBLA. The Russian Government is fitting out five sailing vessels at Tromsoe for the purpose of proceeding to Nova Zembla with Samoide families to establish a colony there. This measure ha* been undertaken in consequence of the marked diminution of the Russian fisheries off that island, owing, it is alleged, to the advantages enjoyed by the Norwegians, whose ports are open three months earlier than those of Russia, and who are thereby enabled to enjoy a virtual mono- poly of the seal fishery, which can only be profitably pursued in the spring. In 1835 the number of Russian vessels which visited Nova Zembla was 137 in 1875 it had fallen as low as six. On the other hand during that period the Norwegian fishing smacks had yearly become more numerous, and not only did they absorb the greater part of the trade, but the crews systematically destroyed the huts or other ,tructures erected by the Russian fishermen. Under these cir cumstaDCes, the Russian Government appointed a commission to inquire into the matter, and after a long inquiry a report was presented to the Emperor, with the suggestion appended that a settlement of Samoidesor some other piscatory tribe living on the littoral of the White Sea should be formed on the south-west extremity of Nova Zembla. The pro- ject was immediately approved of, owing, it is said, to the interest which the Grand Duchess Czarevna (the Princess Dagmar) took in the proceediugs of the commission. At her request the Emperor allotted the sum of 25,000 roubles for the establishment of the colony, and orders were given to the officials at Arch- angel to prepare suitable habitations for the settlers. The first instalment of settlers will consist of six families, who will be installed in houses at Mali- Karmakouli, in Moller Bay. Should the little colony survive the rigour of the Arctic winter, other emi- grants will be conveyed to the settlement next summer, the Governmen" having in view, besides the formation of the fisheries, the formation of an intermediate sta- tion for the encouragement of the trade which is now springing up between Europ# aud th« Siberian rivers Obi and Yeneoei.
SELECTED ANECDOTES. IMPORTANT TO "COLLERD Pussol-;s.The follow- ing advertisement appears in a New York paper All negroes notice. You can become white. Smith's recent discovery will remove the pigmentary deposits from the skin, changing the darkest complexion to a bright olive in the course of from three to tEn weeks. This compound is free from all poisonous and irri- tating qualities, and although its effects are rapid, yet it is perfectly harmless to the skin." WHAT CONSTITUTES RESPECTABILITY.—"Cato, does you know dem Johnsings, up dar in Congo-place, is going to be berry 'spectable folks?"—" Well, Scipio, I thought dey war getting along berry well, but I doesn't know how 'spectable dey is. How 'spectable does you tink, Cato?" NVal, guess about tree tousand dollars." More 'spectable dan dat."— Wal, how 'spectable is dey ?"—" Why, five tousand dollars, an' a house an' lot."—"Whew! good-by, Scipio I must give 'em a call." A BROTHERLY CLAIM.—When Foote was once walk- ing with his friend Guhagan, in Soho-square, they met a most miserable object, who earnestly solicited their charity. Guhagan refused; and on Foote giving a few pence, said, I believe yon are imposed upon, for I am morally certain that fellow is an impostor. He is either the most distressed man or the best actor I ever saw in my life," replied the comedian and as either one or the other, he has a brotherly clairnupon me." A NEW READING.—At the battle of Trafalgar two Scotchmen, messmates and bosom cronies from the same clachan, happened to be stationed near each other when the celebrated intimation was displayed from the admiral's ship. Look up and read, Jock," said the one to the other-" England expects every man to do his duty '—not a word for puir auld Scotland on this occasion." Jock cocked his eye at the object, and turning to his companion, thus addressed him Man Georgie, is that a' your sense ? Scotland kens well enough that her bairns will do their duty—that's just a hint to the Englishmen." THE EFFECT OF STRONG FEELING.—A lady of extreme beauty went to Horace Vernet one day, and expressed a strong desire that she might immediately sit for her portrait. Vernet consented, and got out his apparatus in preparation. The lady took her seat, but kept her veil down. Horace did not notice this fact until about to commence operations. Now, madam, if you please, raise your veil," he said, and the lady did so. Horace was a young man; and when he met the glance of the most splendid eyes Paris ever saw, he was so agitated that he could not proceed. He exerted him- self in vain foi- half-an-hour. "Well, sir," inquired 9" the lady, "how do you progress ? A moment, madam; do not stir he cried. He had painted nothing but the eyes. The lady started up to look at the picture; she appreciated in a moment the wonderful piece of painting, and offered to purchase it as it was. Vernet had but one condition upon which he would part with the picture, and that was out of the lady's power to grant. These marvellous eyes were in his possession till his death, and they then passed into the hands of the lady who originally sat for the picture. Vernet used to give this as an instance of the effect of strong feeling upon man's intellect and power of execution and, in Ms modesty, he said it was the only ray of real genius which ever entered his brain. PUG AND PUGGER.—An author wishing to come down to the level of childish intellect, made the follow- ing quaint simile There was once a little boy who had a pug-nose. He complained to his mother. Dear mamma, I don't like my nose. It was always a pug, and it keeps getting pugger and pugger every day.' Now, my dear little reader, you may not have a pug- nose. Perhaps Nature has seen fit to give you a straight one. But, my dear little reader, you may have a pug heart. What a dreadful thing it is to have a pug heart And unless you are very careful, you will find your heart, like the little boy's nose, growing pugger and pugger every day." ORIENTAL WIT.—A young man going a journey, entrusted a hundred deenars to an old man when he came back, the old man denied having had any money deposited with him, and he was had up before the Kazee. "Where were you, young man, when you delivered this money?"—"Under atree."—" Take my "eal and summon that tree," said the Judge. "Go young man, and tell the tree to come hither, and the tree will obey when you show it my seal." The young man went in wonder. After he had been gone some time, the Kazee said to the old man, He is long-do you think he has got there yet ? No," said the old man it is at some distance he has not got there yet. How kttowest thou, old man," cried the Kazee, "where that tree is The young man re- turned, and said the tree would not come. He has been here, young man, and given his evidence-the money is thine. "-Noble's Orientalist. TRUE CHIVALRY REWARDED.—The train is running at a rapid rate. The car is filled with well-dressed aristocratic passengers. The conductor enters and proceeds to collect the accustomed fare. Presently he comes to a lady in deep mourning, travelling with three children, and calls for a ticket. The lady quickly puts her hand into her pocket for the same, but it was gone, with the wallet containing all her money, within which the ticket had been placed for safe keep- ing. The lady is of a modest retiring disposition, and, in an agitated manner, explains why she cannot pay the fare. The conductor is one of those men without a particle of human feeling, and without taking into consideration any of the palliating circumstances of the case, rung the bell, stopped the train, and the lady and her little ones were ordered from the car. The engineer had not been an uninterested spec- tator of the scene. He left the engine, and advanced to the place where the lady was standing so dis- tressed and helpless. The engineer had a big, warm heart. Putting his hand into his pocket, he produced a fifty-dollar gold piece, and, hand- ing it to the lady, remarked: Here, madam, take this and get int ) the car. It is shameful that you should be treated thus." The lady hesitated about receiving it, but was in a desperate strait; and after showering numberless thanks upon the noble engineer she insisted upon receiving his name and address, and then returned to her seat, and went on her way. About a month after this time, the engineer received a note requesting him to call at the express-office, and take from thence a package addressed to him. He did so. Upon opening the package, he found that it contained fifty dollars and an excellent gold watch, chain, and seals. Upon the inside was inscribed the golden rule. the substance of which is Do unto others as you wish others to do unto you.A?nerican paper. HAVING THE DESIRED EFFECT.—Dr. Thomas, when Bishop of Salisbury, used to tell the following storv While I was chaplain to the British factory at Ham- burgh, a gentleman belonging to the factory died at a village about ten miles distant; application was made to the pastor of the parish for leave to have him buried in his churchyard, but ^on being told that he was a Calvinist he refused. No,' said he, there are none but Lutherans in my churchyard, and there was a Calvinist he refused. No,' said he, there are none but Lutherans in my churchyard, and there shall be no other.'—' This being told me,' says Dr. Thomas, I resolved to go and argue the matter with him, but found him inflexible. At length I teld him he made me think of a circumstance which once hap pened to myself when I was a curate in Thames-street I was burying a corpse, when a woman came and pulled me by the sleeve in the midst of the service, saying, Sir, sir, I want to speak to you.'—' Prythee,' says I, 'woman, wait till I have done.'—'No, sir, I must speak to you immediately.'—1 Why, then, what is the matter?'—'Sir,'says she, 'you are burying a man who died of the small-pox next my poor husband who never had it.' This story had the desired effect, and the pastor permitted the bones of the poor Calvinist to be interred in his churchyard. Too BAD!—"I say, Higgins," said a fellow to an aspiring, but as yet unappreciated tragedian, "I met a rich old getleman in the city, who declared he would give a hundred pound&±a.see you perform Ha?alet. "You don't say so. Fact, I assure you and what's more, I'M positively sure the old chap meant it."— By Jove, then, it's abargain," cried Higgins; I'll play it for my benefit. But who is he ?'—" Ah, to be sure, I didn't tell you," said the fellow. Well, he's a blind man." SELLING THEM!—A travelling tinker put up at a country inn, where a number of loungers were as- sembled, telling stories. After sitting some time, and attentively listening to their folly, he suddenly turned, and asked them how much they supposed he had been offered for his dog, which he had with him. They all stared, and curiosity was on tiptoe to know. One guessed five shillings, another ten shillings, another a pound, until they had exhausted their patience, when one of them seriously asked how much he had been offered. Not a halfpenny," he replied. CATCHING A TARTAR.—The following anecdote is re- lated of Serjeant Davy, a great lawyer of the last age. A gentleman once appeared in. the Court of King's Bench to give bail in the sum of £ 3,000. Serjeant Davy, wanting teo display his wit, said to him, sternly, "And pray, sir, how oo you make out that you are worth £ 3,000?" The gentleman stated the particulars of his property up to £ 2,940. That's all very good," said the serjeant, but you want £ 60 more to be worth 93,000. For that sum," replied the gentle- man, in no ways disconcerted, "I have a note of hand of one Mr. Serjeant Davy, and I hope he will have the honesty soon to settle it." The laughter that this reply excited extended even to the bench the serjeant looked abashed, and Lord Mansfield observed, in his usual urbane tone, Well, brother Davy, I think we may accept the bail." THE FAITHFUL MINISTER'S REWARD.—The boldness of Samuel Davis (a qualification so important that even Paul requested the Christians to pray that it might be given him) will be illustrated by a single anecdote. When President of Princetown College, he visited England for the purpose of obtaining donations for the institution. The King (George the Third) had the curiosity to hear a preacher from the "wilds of America." He accordingly attended, and was so much struck with Davis's commanding eloquence, that he expressed his astonishment loud enough to be heard half over the house, in such terms as these :—" He is a wonderful man Why, lie beats my bishop:" &c. Davis, observing that the King was attracting more attention than himself, paused, and looked his Majesty full in the face, gave him, in emphatic tone, the following rebuke: "When the lion roareth let* the beasts of the earth tremble; and when the L )rd speaketh let the kings of the earth keep silence." The kinsr instantly shrank back in his seat, and remained quiet during the remainder of the sermon. The n- xt day the monarch sent for him. and gave him fifty guineas for the college over which he presided observing at the same time to his courtiers. He is an honest man-an honest man IELLING STORIES A coupie of farmers met at a tavern, and in the course of conversation they gave their respective experiencesm cattle breeding. "I had the biggest ox in the county," said one of them, "a very big ox; I never saw one as large before. You can guess how big he was, when, after he was killed, I took two hundred and seventy-eight pounds of tallow out of him." The other listened attentively till the last marvellous announcement was made, when he broke in with "A very big ox that of yourn, Mister; a very big ox. I had a big ox, not long sin', but he warn't nearly as large as yourn, and we didn't get as much tallow as yours gave; but, Sir he continued, with emphasis, when we killed that ox we got out of him eigoty-Bix pounds of pure bees-wax," I say, misted, chimed in a dry old boot#, that ere whacke ^yotur itory, any how 'your itory, any how I
THE WAR AND ITS ATROCITIES. The following is an extract from a X aval Correspondent of The Times, writing from the head-quarters of the Turkish Army of the Balkans:- Yesterday we were invited by Suleiman Pacha to go and see a village that had within the last week been the scene of a frightful massacre by the Bulga- rians, aided, it is said, by Cossacks, but of this, though I believe it myself, I cannot vouch for the truth. I trust that you will have received my telegram about this affair, which, through the courtesy of the Commander-in-Chief, I was enabled to send by tL field telegraph to Constantinople for transmission co England. As it was necessary to translate it into Turkish, and that very hurriedly, it is possible there may be some slight discrepancy between what I saw and know to be true and what may eventually have reached you, after the terrible operation of translation from English into Turkish here, from Turkish into French at Therapia, and then again into English for England. The scene of this last massacre is a village called Offlandlik, or Uffiana, about half way between this and Kezanlik, and consequently very near to the Russian lines at the latter place. It was a most flourishing village or town, and probably contained upwards of 3,500 inhabitants, many of them, judging from the few houses that remain standing, being very well to do. It appears that through all the time of the Russian occupation of the Hain these people were left un- molested, which must, in fairness, be borne in mind, and the dates of these affairs have in almost every in- stance gone to prove that the actual presence of the Russian Army proper has acted as a temporary shield for the unhappy Mahomedan population from the re- venge of the Bulgarians. Offlandlik is no exception to this rule as far as I can ascertain by the most careful investigation. From the 14th of July to the 8th or 9th of August the Russian Armj, or detachments of it, were within a few miles of the seven or eight villages of the Valley of the Tundja, which have since been destroyed and the people massacred. During that time, so far as I can learn, the massacres which were perpetrated by the Bulgarians were in places where it is now certain the regular Russian Army never appeared. At Offlandlik I have the most positive evidence that this was the case, for the bodies of the dead were plainly victims of only a few days, from four to six at the outside, and I can most positively assert that the death of one young woman could only have occurred two or three days ago at the furthest. It is painful and revolting to give one's reasons for being thus able to fix the date, but I must briefly say that the flesh which was still adhering to the almost skeleton remains and which had not been devoured by the dogs was quite fresh-looking, while the upper part of the body was very little discoloured. I can never forget that woman's face. I was accompanied by the Correspondent of the Daily Telegraph, and by our servants, as well as by a Turkish Major and an escort of two or three soldiers. We all stood round that awful sight without saying a word. Her face, which the dogs had respected and left intact, was most strikingly beautiful, with a delicacy of outline and perfect contour of cheek and chin that was only heightened by the pallor of death. Her mouth which was small and beautifully formed, was slightly open and her teeth visible, her eyes closed, and long fringed lashes lying on her cheek. There was just a faint expression of pain on the forehead, and her hair was lying all round her head like a rich brown wavy halo. She was entirely nude, and her throat had been cut with one clean deep cut which must have severed the jugular and windpipe immediatdly. We also found the remains of women and children in a well. How many there were it was difficult to say, as we did not get them up. But they must have been numerous, and I am inclined to believe the story of a poor trembling old woman who accompanied us to the spot that there were twelve or fifteen women in the well. The story of all the people who escaped, and who have repeated it at different times, is that the Bulgarians, with a few Cossacks—some say two Cossack officers-came to the village some ten or twelve days ago, after the retreat of the Regular Army. They appear to have collected all the young women and children in one or two large houses, to have taken all the men outside the village and shot them, and to have continued pillaging and burning, and occasionally killing anybody they found. All accounts agree that the unhappy girls and young women, who were kept prisoners in these houses, were daily and hourly ravished, that fifteen of them were killed, and that a very large number were taken away to the mountains, when the Bulgarians retreated on the advance of Suleiman Pasha's army. We had no time to make any further searches we were a long distance from the camp, half way between the two armies, with night coming on, and the plain full of marauding Bashi-Bazouks and Circassians, who would any of them murder their best friend for five francs. On our way home we came across upwards of 120 dead Turks, who had all been massacred by bayonet or sword or shot suddenly. They were lying in groups, in one place 40, another 50, and two or three smaller parties. Among these was one woman. That these men were slaughtered in cold blood there can be no reason to doubt. There were several very old men among them. But how or by whom, and whether it was by Cossacks or Bulgarians these men were killed there was no evidence, and beyond the mere fact that they are lying there dead and were Turks everything is mere conjecture.
THE TREES AND BOULEVARDS OF PARIS. The annual cost of keeping in order the trees, shrubberies, and seats upon the boulevards and in the public squares and gardens of Paris is nearly 280,000. It is estimated that the trees in the avenues and boule- vards of Paris number 82,201; those in the cemeteries, 10,400; and those in the squares and court-yards of various buildings, 8,300. There are also 8,000 seats for the accommodation of the public. The expense of keeping up all the extra-mural recrea- tion grounds, exclusive of the Bois de Boulogne and the Bois de Vincennes, is rather more than £ 12,000. The Bois de Boulogne covers 2,182 acres, and in summer 20,000 cubic feet of water per diem are used to lay the dust, while more than 25,000 cubit feet are required to feed the ponds and cascades. The Bois de Vincennes covers 2,302 acres, and consumes nearly 50,000 cubic feet of water per diem. Within the walls of Pare Monceau is twenty acres in extent, and the gardens of the Buttes Chaumont, in one of the popular quarters of Paris, cover more than sixty acres; while the Montsouris Park, now being enlarged will cover thirty-eight acres. The City of Paris also possesses three nursery gardens, one of which, situated in the middle of the Bois de Boulogne, is for the cultivation of evergreens, while in the second, which is at Longchamps, are grown the deciduous trees and shrubs. The third, at Bry-sur- Marne, some distance from Paris, is for the growth of the trees which are afterwards planted upon the boulevards and public streets and there is some idea of abandoning this garden for one between the Bois de Boulogne and St. Cloud. -Pall Mall Gazette.
the Turkish Army opposite Popkoi, August 30, livening, Bays:— I have just returned from witnessing a victorious engage- ment on the heights opposite Popkoi. The battle com- menced in the morning by a forward movement of the divisions of Medjid Pasha, who formed the right wing, and Fuad and Sabit Pashas, who formed the centre. Medjid Pasha attacked the village of Karahassankoi. The troops, advancing with great determination, drove the Russians through it. His right also attacked the village of Bekirin Yenikoi, where severe fighting took place in the woods. The Russians were driven pell mell down the heights into the valley of the Lom beneath. The Turkish field artillery was splendidly handled. It pushed through the village to the end of the bluffs, and fired on the retiring columns. Mean- while Sabit Pasha fiercely assaulted ihe village of Baschisler with equal success from his position on a lofty hill crowned by a three-gun battery overlooking the whole country. Mehemet Ali then ordered the bugler to sound cease firing along the whole line. Then three tremendous cheers for "Allah" ran along the whole line of the triumphant troops. A general advance was then sounded amidst renewed cheers. Turkish skirmishers swarmed into the valley of the Lom, across the bridge, and advanced eagerly to attack the large village of Haydarkoi, on the left bank of the Lom, which was occupied without severe opposition, bringing the action to a close. At five in the afternoon all the captured villages burst into flames. It was a magnificent spectacle when night fell. The Russians had a heavy battery of three guns in position on the road between Haydarkoi and Popkoi, md during the battle had two batteries of heavy field guns. The Turkish three-gun battery on the hill with the head- quarter staff made splendid practice at the Russian battery. A plunging fire from a great elevation dismounted one of the Russian guns. The other two limbered up and retired when the village fell. The field batteries covered the retreat of the Russian troops, while the whole of the Turkish guns on the heights and in the valley opened a tremendous fire. During the heat of the engagement Savisset Bey saw a flag of truce returning fluttering up the hill. The Turkish artillery pushed the retreat. I still hear hea>y flring. It is believed the Russians evacuated Popkoi, as the tents of the camp were struck. During the action General Baker Pacha was reported missing. He had two horses shot under him. Captain Briscoe, on his staff, was also reported missing. The Russian and Turkish losses are not yet known. Immense enthusiasm prevails in the whole army. I follow with the staff of the Commander in-Chief. ,Prince Hassan was present, but the Egyptian troops took no part in the conflict. The Times' Correspondent with the Turkish Army of the
The Roman correspondent of the Independanee Beige writes that the Italian Minister of Marine intends to abolish the regiments of marine infantry, as useless in modern warfare, but to increase the number of men in the marine artillery, and to create some companies of marine gendarmes to do the police service in the maritime depart- ments and on board the fleet
THE MARKETS MABK-LANE.—MONDAF. At Mark-lane the grain trade has ruled firmer. English wheat was in fair supply The demand was steady, and for the best samples more money was required, but only occa- sionally obtained. With reference to foreign wheat, the supply was tolerably good. The trade was firm, and in some instances Is. per quarter advance was reached. Barley was in moderate supply. The market was Arm, and fine samples were quite as d«ar. Malt soid at full prices. Oats were in fair supply a little inquiry prevailed and prices had an upward tendency, reaching 6d. and Is. per quarter higher on the week. Maize was firm and improving in value. Beans and peas were quite as dear. The flour market was firmer, with a fair active demand. METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET.—MONDAY^ The cattle trade was not so firm. Supplies were again rather short, but there was a marked preponderance of choice stock, consequently the actual weight of meat ex- hibited was larger than at first sight appeared. From our own grazing districts a moderate supply of beasts came to hand, a large proportion being in excellent condition. Sales progressed slowly, and prizes were mostly 2d. per 81b. lower than on Monday last. The extreme and exceptional top quotation for the best breeds was 6a., but 5s. lOd. per 81b. was the more general figure. From Lincolnshire, Licester- shlre, and Northamptonshire we received about 1,600, from other parts of England about 390, from Ireland about 300, and from Scotland 13 head. The foreign side of the market was again well supplied with beasts About 300 American with a good supply of Danish, and a few Spanish, were offered. The demand was quieter, and prices were weak. The sheep pens were not over well stocked, but the quality was good. The trade was more active, and the tendency of prices was upwards. The best Downs and half-breds sold at 7s. to 7s. 2d. per SIbs. Calves were quiet at about late rates. Pigs sold slowly. At Deptfcrd there were about ti,60C beasts, chiefly Touning, and about S.O00 sheep. Coarse and inferior beasts, 4s. 4<1. to 5s. second quality ditto, 5s. to 5s. 6d. prime large oxen, 5s. 8d. t« 5s. lOd. prime Scots, 5s. lOd. to 63.; coarse and inferior sheep, 5s. 6d. to 6s.; second quality ditto, 6s. to 6s. 6d.; prime coarse woolied, 6s. 10d. to 7s. prime Southdowns, 7s. to 7s. 2d. large coarse calves, 5s. to 5s. 6d. prime small ditto, 5s. 10d. to 6a. 2d. large hogs, 3s. 10d. to 4s. 8d and neat small porkers, 4s. lOd. to 5s. 4d. per 81b. to sink the offal. METROPOLITAN MEAT MABKET—MONDAY. With a large supply of meat and the weather damp and hnmid, trade was very ht-avy. The following are the prices Inferior beef, 38. to 3s. 4d. middling ditto, 3s. lOd. to 4a. 4d. prime large ditto, 4a. 6d. to 5s. prime Scotch ditto, 5s. to 5s. 2d. veal, 5s. 4d. to Cs. inferior mutton, 3s. to 3s. 6d. middling ditto, 3s. fed. to 4s. 4d. prime ditto, 6s. to 6s. 4d.; large pork, 4s. to 4s. 4d. small ditto, 4s. Cd. to 5s. per 81b. by the carcass FISH. Fresh herrings, 23s. to 29s. red ditto, 12s. 6d. tci 25s. roused ditto, 18s. 6d. to 30s. per barrel; kipper ditto, 4s. to 5s.; bloater ditto, 4s. to 6s. per box smoked haddock, 20s. to 40s. per barrel; trawl ditto, 126. to 15s.; ditto plaice, 15s. to 20s. ditto whiting, 16s. to 18s. 6d, per basket; lobsters, 12s. to 35s. crabs, 10s. to 30s. mackerel. 2s. to 3s.; mullet, 4s. to 6s. per dozen native oysters. 18s. 6d. to 21s. Dutch ditto, 6s. to 8s.; American ditto, 6s. to 7s. 6d. common ditto 5s. to 10s. 6d. per hundred POTATO. There is a steady trade for potatoes with little change in prices Kent Regents, 80s. to 110s. Essex ditto. 80s. to 100s. kidneys, 100s. to 120s. and tarlv rose, 85s. to 110s. per ton. SEED. LONDON, Monday, September 3rd.—There was rather more enquiry for Foreign Ciover Seed, for which buyers offered very moderate prices, and few transactions took place. Trefoil as rather dearer, witl1 a good Inle. Trifolium In- caruatmll sold at from 18s. to 226 per cut., a fair quantity being disposed of for immediate sowing. NI iutei- Tares were taken off to a fair extent at the prices of last week. A few parcels of Dew white Mustard Seed appeared, quality and condition rather poor: prices were not fixed; no brown yet offering. Canary Seed was saleable at moderate prices. Dutch Bempseed was scarce and wanted. ILtpeseed fine English qualities were in good request at high values. HAY. WHITECHAPEL, Saturday, September 1.—At the market to- day a large supply of 11 ay and Straw was ou sale. There was a rather dull trade, and prices were unaltered. Prime old Clover, 100s. to 140s.: inferior. 85-. to 95s. good new, 100s. to 128a. Prime old Meadow Hay. 90s. to 12bs inferior, 70s. to 85s. good new, 80. to 100s. and Straw, 44s. to 56s. per load. HOPS. The weather is not altogether favourable for the crops, the temperature being too cool during the night, but there appears to be little apprehension :.8 to the result. The demand for hops just now is quite of a hand-to-month cha- racter, and prices were with difficulty supported. GAME AND POULTRY Young Turkey, 68. to 10s goslings, 5s. to <»s. ducklings, 3s. 3d. to 5s. ducks, 2s. öJ. to 4s. grouse. 2s. to 4s. ortolans, 2s. to 3s. lod. quails, 28. to 3s. panriugus, is. 6d. to 3s. 3d. snipe, Is. 6d. to is. 6d. leverets, 3s. to 6s. tame rabbits, Is 9d. to 3s. wild ditto, Is. 3d. to Is. 6d. pigeons, I 6d. to lOd. plovers, It. to is. 6d. haunches of vensios, SOa, to GOt. tach; forequartersof ditto, I id. to 9d. per lb.