09nt fonion Comspnimt (We deem it right to state that we do not at all times iteatify ourselves with our Correspond¡,nt a opinions.] The early days of September are associated with memories widely different from those which cluster round the time of barley harvest in this country. They recall battles, sieges, and revolutions—events of tremendous import to more than one empire on the Continent of Europe. It was on Saturday the 3rd of September, 1S70, that the news spread with electrical rapidity throughout London of the surrender of the Euiperor Xapoleon and the entire French army at Sedan. Anything like the excitement which that intelligence produced had not been witnessed since the overthrew of the first N apúleon at Waterloo, more than half a century before. The battle which led to that capitulati 'n was one of the mod; sanguinary ever fought. Marshal MacMahon, at the Emperor's com- mand, had conducted the French forces to the Belgian frontier with a view of relieving Bazaine, whom the Germans had shut up in Metz, but the Prussian armies, numbering a quarter of a million of men, had contrived to surround MacMahon and to drive him into the little town of Sedan. Bringing up their artillery on the heights, they, on the 1st of September, poured down such a murderous fire upon the closely- packed rnifsts that the scene was one more of indiscrimi- nate massacre than of ordinary fighting. Dr. W. H. Russell describes it as the most terrible slaughter which he ever saw in the whole of his experi- ence. Men were mown down helplessly in com- panies, regiments, and battalions, and the evening closed upon the ruins of the French Empire. On the morning of the 2nd of September the capitulation was signed by General Wimpffen, Marshal MacMahon having been wounded. On the 3rd, as above stated, the news reached London, and on the 4th it became generally known in Paris. That fine autumnal Sunday will never be forgotten by those who were spectators of what passed in the French capital. The people assembled in a vast multitude in the Place de la Concorde, invaded the Corps Legislatif, which voted the dethronement of the Imperial dynasty, and then crossed the bridge to the Tuileries, from which the Empress fled. Only six weeks before, the Emperor had set out from that st itely palace with a promise to enter Berlin as a conqueror, and now he was a captive in the hands of his enemies, and his wife was a fugitive and an exile. A Government of National Defence was proclaimed, and the city prepared for that long siege which was then seen to be inevitable. Two days after the Revolution of Paris, the turret-ship Captain foundered in the Bay of Biscay, only thirteen out of 500 souls on board escaping to tell the sad story. There is another date in early September which is of interest from a national point of view. On the 8th of that month in the year 1855, the'allied armies of England and France, after eleven months' siege captured the re- doubtable fortress of Sebastopool, the chief bulwark of Russia in the Black Sea, and very soon afterwards razed its fortifications to the ground. Amongst the many ways of enjoying a holiday, one of the most agreeable seems to be that which is pur- sued by parties of anglers, who hire a specimen of naval architecture known as a punt. There are many who know the peaceful look of a Thames punt and its freight. The square-bottomed craft is moored on the stream, persons in the possession of leisure sit on kitchen chairs, and contemplate the floats at the end of their liae3. The cattle which wade knee- deep into the water, and group themselves beneath the willows do not speak more eloquently in the en- joyment of peace than d.) the anglers, in one of these constructions. High above the reach of the tide the river is free to all, opening up wide aerial prospects, and admitting fresh currents of atmosphere. Thus the stream is the recreation place of thousands who, but for the Thames would scarcely know what exercise and natural beauty meant. The bends in the river present the most beautiful and interesting panoramic view. It is picturesque whether it is flowing past farmsteads, or where in the midst of a vast population it mirrors great public buildings, and is studded with the dark red sails of lighters and heavy craft, or shoots under the bridges where the traffic of the capital throngs. The great work of English elementary education seems to be making satisfactory progress. According to the report of the Committee of Council, there are now more than three millions of children at school every day, and the standard of proficiency is being gradually raised by the greater energy arid completer methods now introduced into all the schools. The Education Act was passed in the Session of 1870, and in the six years ending December last, more than £::>00,000 had been granted for building purposes. The schools now in course of erection will accommodate over a quarter of a million additional children. The School Boards have borrowed nearly eight millions sterling for the purpose of providing suitable buildings. There are nearly 30,000 teachers, and although the supply is rather deficient at present, there is every prospect of its soon being an adequate one. At the end of year there were 3,323 certificated teachers, 30,626 pupil teajhen, and 2.921 assistants. Th* re- port also snows that 1,2u7 School Boards in England have received rates amounting to £ 2,695,These figures coHvlusively show tba-t the work of National educafi oil rMttv A ion hence there w u* Lib D6ither" hevrcrs 01 wood nor drr.wers of water in this cousuy Money has often been described us the sinews of war; yet it must be obvious that neither of the two nations now fighting it out on the plains of Bulgaria can have very much money to spare. Turkish credit collapsed two years ago, and credit upon the -•ck Exchanges of Europe does not stand high. Yet if a State is once at war, it never seems in the least hampered by want of money. From the course of the existing struggle, it would be little short of a miracle if it terminated this year. If, then, it is to be sus- pended during the winter months, it will involve an immense strain upon the resources of both com- batants, and it will be an object of interest with financiers to see how they will bear it. Meanwhile the efforts which the Turks have made to repel the invader have not only astonished that invader himself, but has surprised the whole of the civilized world. The Turks in Europe and in Asia cannot number a population of more than twelve millions, all told, and the Christians under their sway are not allowed to bear arms. Yet by making a levy en masse they have succeeded in putting into the field larger armies than those of the Czar, with the whole of his vast terri- tories to draw from, extending from the Baltic to the Black Sea. The Turks, too, are fighting for life itself, and for what they believe to be the true religion. Their shouts of "Allah il Allah I upon going into battle show by what feelings of enthusiasm if not even of fanaticism they are animated. Naval warfare will unquestionably depend more in future upon the celerity and skill with which sub- marine engines are worked than upon the range or calibre of guns or the thickness of armour-plating. At one time naval battles were won by manoeuvring, and very seldom depended upon the mere weight of metal. Kelson's ships were generally inferior in size to the foreigners whem he encountered; it was his marvellous skill in placing them which gained him his victories. From his quarter-deck, with the pennon flying over him he directed the movements of his men-of-war by signal, and whilst so occupied on the quarter-deck of the Victory at the battle of Trafalgar he was shot down. Nelson could see his foes, and dealt with them accordingly, but it would be different now. A naval captain's enemy would not be an opposing ironclad, but an unseen destroyer laid low in the water. It seems, however, that even this diffi- culty is to be dealt with by a submarine vessel which can at pleasure be moved on or under the surface. It can descend to any required depth, and there either remain stationary or move backwards and forwards at any level. The object of the imentor is to move along under water, and lodge a torpedo under the bottom of an enemy's ship. Should this mode of fighting at sea- be adopted, no possible skill on the part of an admiral would avail him in the winning of a victory. Tae rise in the Bank rate of discount has once more directed attention to the general trade of the country and to the fact that the clearing-house returns maintain their position. This shows a fair amount of busines daÏtg, although some might be inclined to describe it as of a hand-to-mouth character. If this be so, it may help to explain the paucity of bills, tran- sactions being to a larger extent than usual of a ready-money nature, and settlements being chiefly made by means of cheques. Of late a considerable drain of gold to the continent has gone on, aa" well as shipments of sovereigns to New York, so that in raising the rate of discount, the Bank of England was merely protecting its reserve. The ordinary autumnal efflux of sovereigns into the circulation has now com- menced, and at a time when the reserve in the Bank was not unusually strong, and the foreign bullion currents were adverse, the influence of that efflux was a powerful one. Still there seems no reason to antici- pate sharp caanges. The autumn drain is a gradual process, aad although there is not such an improve- ment in trade demands as might be wished, the dis- count rates in the general market, owing to the ballien movements, show a hardening tendency. The recent storms and floods have, it is said—and statistios have been adduced to prove the assertion— affected the quality of our harvest, as well as the quantity yielded. It is therefore satisfactory to know that there is an abundance of corn in Southern Rus- sia. The average export of grain from that country has risen within tho last three years 143 million bxuheit. The export. in previovi yean from the Black Sè; and .,18 Sea of Azof were about sixty-two millions; this year, in consequence of the War, only twelve millions have been sent out. It is therefore computed that fifty million bushels of grain are now in the southern provinces awaiting railway transport. How to get this corn into circulation has been a matter for anxious consideration, and at a conference of delegates from the ehief railway companies the con- clusion arrived at was that the train service on the principal lines must be increased from 130 to 190 per day. It was, however, held to be doubtful at the conference whether, looking at the war traffic, and the extraordinary demands upon the resources of the iines, the companies could undertake eren so impor- tant a task as the conveyance of these vast quantities of grain. Thia subject affects one which is of interest in every household of the kingdom, and that is the price of bread. Wheat is now dearer than it has been for many years, and there are those who say that it must yet become dearer. Still it must be borne in mind that the present price of wheat is a speculative one. It be,, an to rise at the time when Russia declared war against Turkey, on the assumption that war must make corn dear. This was the case in 1854, when we went to war ourselves. Bread rose at once, and the rise was assisted by the results of the indifferent harvest of the previous year. The supplies from Southern Russia have not been so numerous during the pa-t few months, it is true, but Germany has not failed us, and the shipments from Roumania and Turkey have fallen little short of .those of twelve months ago. It should also be remembered that what a province or two in Europe cannot yield, a province in India, a colony in Australia, or a state in America can easily make up; and so great are the equalising forces of modern production and modern intercom- munication, that hardly anything short of a bad harvest season all over the northern hemisphere will cause a permanent addition to the price of wheat. Our ports have been thrown open to the markets of the world and with the proverbial wealth and credit of Great Britain there will be no difficulty in procuring maple supply of food for the busy people of these islands.
A LONG ANCESTRAL LINE. The Covrt Journal says:—"As The Times has in- serted, and many papers have copied therefrom, the descent of the Queen from Alfred the Great, we pro- pose to carry this pedigree as high as Cerdic the Saxon chieftain, who is described in the Saxon ChronicU as eighth in descent from Woden. Be that as it may, there is no doubt of the lineage of Egbert from Cerdic. Here is the list: Cerdic, the first king of Wessex, died 534; Cenric, second king of Wessex, died 568: Keaulin, third ditto; Cuthwin, Cutha, Ceolwald, Cenred, Inigisil, Eoppa, Esa, Alcmund, Egbert, who was a great officer of Charlemagne. When a Saxon deputation came over to him in France as the last of the known desceudantst.wf Cerdic, in suc- cession to Britbric (poisoned by his wife in mistake), Charlemagne girt the.pi'ince with the sword from his own side, observing, Your sword, my prince, has done me good service here; I hope mine will be as useful to you in your own country.' Egbert was suc- ceeded by his eldest son, Ethelwolph, whence the descent proceeds through his youngest son King Alfred the Great, as follows Edward, Edmund, Edgar, Ethelred II., Edmund Ironsides, Edward, called the Outlaw, Margaret, Queen of Scotland, Matilda, Queen of England (wif of Henry I.), Empress Maude, Henry II., John, Henry Ill., Edward I., Edward IL, Edward III., John of Gaunt, John, Earl of Somerset, John, Duke of Somerset, Margaret, married Edmund Tudor, Henry VII., Margaret, Queen of Scotland, Jame3 V., King of Scotland, Mary, Querni of Scots, James I., King of England, Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, Sophia, married Elector of Hanover. George I., George II., Fiederick Lewis, Prince of Wales, George III., Duke of Kent, Queen Victoria, .Albert Edward, Prince of Wales."
AMERICAN HUMOUR. A patriotic citizen boasts that no people on earth can excel the Americm fin the man1yart of sittini on a I bench and watching eighteen men play base ball." The master of ceremonies a a recent St. Louis funeral announced, The corpse s cousins will now come forward, In a elass of little girls in one of the schools of Kentucky, the question was asked, "What is a fort ? A place to put men in," was the answer. What is a fortress, then?" asked t11e teacher. This seemed a puzzler, until one little girl of eight summers answered, "A place to put women," A gentleman who lately gave a free lecture in New York. did not feel complimeuted when the moruin papers declared that "the lecture was worth the price of admis- sion." A Yankee editor asks the following question "If a fellow has nothing when he gets married, and the girl has nothing, is her things hissen, or his things hern ? A Haywards woman believes in having everything 1ll readiness. She purchased a coffin for her sick husband ten days prior to his death and kept it in the house she also had a stylish mourning suit made in anticipation of the event. Most any man would be willing to die if he had such a thoughtful wife as that. A western newspaper has improved on the original plan, aud now says:—" No communication will be published in this paper unless accompanied by the full name of the writer allli a five-dollar bill; these are not requested for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith." Some fiend proposes to put down the American riots by distributing a car-load of green peaches and water- melons among the rioters. A New York stonecutter received the following epitaph from a German, to be cut upon the tombstone of his wife Mine vife Susan is dead, if she had life till nex friday she'd been dead shust two veeks. As a tree falls so must it stan." A sentimental editor says, "It is comforting to know that one eye watches fondly for our coming, and looks hrighter when we come." A contemporary is grieved to learn that his "brother of the quill has a wife with one eye." What would our wives say, if they knew where we are?" said the captain of a Yankee schooner, when they were beating about in a thick fog, fearful of going ashore.— Humph I shouldn't mind that," replied the mate, "if we only knew where we were ourselves." A milkman is said to have left a can of water by mistake at a customer's house, and the customer never dis- covered the error. The following despatch, says the Toledo Blade, went through by telegraph recently Charley and Julia met at S-, yesterday—quarrelled and parted for ever—met again thi, morning and parted to meet no more—met again this evening and were married." A passenger train on an American railway, a few days since, ran over an intoxicated fellow on the track. He was so insensible to the magnitude of the misfortune as to remark to the guard, while he looked at his lacerated limbs, "This is too bad- I didn't mean to hinder the train o wing to a lack of patronage, the owner of a hearse in Vermont has altered that melancholy vehicle into a milk- cart A boy, six years old, living in Brooklyn, having been much lectured by his father on the babyishness of crying when any calamity happened, cheered the paternal heart the other morning by saying, "Harry Bolton cried nearly all day 'cause his father died; but if you should die, pa, I wouldn't cry a bit." A Western editor, complaining that he could not sleep one night, summed up tne causes :—" A wailing babe of sixteen months old, a dog howling under the window, a cat squalhngunder the alley, a coloured serenade iu a shanty over the way, a toothache, and a pig trying to get in at the back door." At New York, a gentleman was reclining on a lounge, when his little daughter playfully threw a peach stone at him. It lodged in his ear, whence it required a surgical operation to extract it. The moral is obvious. A fellow with ears like that should fold them over the top of of his head. The following is the way they call out the figure of a "reel "in Georgia :—"Trance to the gal with the yellow shawl; now down outsides and up the middle turn to your partner, Isaac Smach, and new to that entire stranger; sachez to the right and left; ra de tan, da dude; now to Peter Scliwitciiall's daughter; turn to your partner, every one; set to the girl with the flaring frill; balance one and spin about to the girl with a hole in the heel of her stocking."
Ulisf c [I a twous 1 nl t lligcnti. HOME, FOREIGN, AND COLONIAL. AVERAGE PEICES OF BKITISH COKN.—The following are the average prices of British corn for the week ending Sept. 1, as received frum the inspectors and officers of excise :—Wheat, 62s. Od. barley, 34s. 6d. oats, 27s. 5d., per imperial qr. Corresponding week last year;—Wheat, 45s. lid.; barley, 36s. 8d.; oats, 27s. 7d. EABTHQUAKEP IN AUSTRALIA.—The Melbourne cor- responded of The Times writes :—J~ ~ive us shocks at intervals of a few years, and taou< o harm has come of them within our own experience, and there are no traditions of mischief among the natives, theyaie unpleasantly suggestive of unsettled internal dispositions in this, to us, new land. The last occasion on which disturbance was perceptible was on the 25th nit. The first shook occurred at 25 iriinutca powu. three a.m., lasting about two seconds, the vibration being sufficient to rattle windows and crockery and shake furniture. Most people slept through it, but those who happened to awake at once recognised the peculiar tremour. Two much fainter shocks were afterwards observed at the Observatory, abolit)1alf an hour and an hour ufter the first. A LITTI.E EXERCISE.—Here is a little exercise for anyone who is at. all shaky in his (says "The Tatler in Pictorial World):— High in the ivy the old 0wl in her eyrie hoots, And eager hopping outside limits the a& M roots. Oh haply here she hies a hideous insect old Her ecstacy, her interest hardly need be told." A PRESENT TO THE BRITISH MUSEUM.—In January, 1846, Mr. Mechi placed a Visitors' Book on the bailiff's table at Tiptree, and this work in two volumes, completed and compiled by thousands of contributors, has now been "presented on public grounds, to the British Museum by J. J. Mechi."—Agricultural Gazette. LocAr. TAXATION.—By an Act passed on the day of the Prorogation, the returns as to local taxation are to be made by the local authorities, for the year end- ing the 25th of March or such other day as the Local Government Board may prescribe. Such returns are to be forwarded to theLocal Government Board andnot to the Secretary of State, and within one month after the audit of the receipts and expenditure. It is de- clared to be the duty of the clerk of the "loeal authority" to send the return, and where there is no such clerk, then the treasurer or other officer, under a penalty of £20. The first return under this Act is to be made for the financial year 1878, and the Local Government Board to act accordingly. A VETERAN.—" An Old Fusilier" writes to The Times:—" In the carefully compiled records of the 7th Royal Fusiliers it appears that Captain Edward Butler, of that regiment, died at Gibraltar, in 1743, at the very extraordinary age of ill. This is given on the authority of Captain Butler s monument, adding that he served 90 years in the Army, 34 of which were passed in the Royal Fusiliers. It is most probable that he rose from the ranks, as his commission of Lieutenant appears to have been given at the age of 77, and that of Captain when he attained the age of 101, and as the regiment was quartered at Gibraltar at the time of his death, he must, nominally at least, have been doing duty with it to the last. THE NEW GAME ACT,-In the late Session an Act (40 and 41 Vict., c. 28) was passed to amend the laws relating to game in Scotland. By the new statute, which amends some dozen Acts, a lessee of a lease granted subsequently to the 1st of January next (the commencement of the new law) is to be entitled to compensation for damage done to his crops in each year by game to which the lessor may have reserved or retained the sole right, in excess of any such sum as may have been set forth in the lease as the amount of annual damage for which it is agreed that no compen- sation shall be due; and if no such sum shall be set forth in the lease, then in excess of 40s. In the case of excessive damage" the lessee is to intimate in writing the same, and, failing an agreement as to the amount, or a reference to arbiters to settle the matter to take steps to recover such excess in the form pre- scribed. The manner of procedure is defined by the Act. A lessee in actual possession may kill hares without a game certificate, and a lessee is not to grant to more than one person authority to kill hares on the land occupied by him, and the name of the person so authorized by the lessee is to be stated. The Act points out the Courts where prosecutions under the Game Laws are to be heard. THE RUSSIANS IN MASSES.—The ,Standard, in a leader, remarks:—"It is worthy of note that in the recent battles in the Shipka Pass the Turks made at leapt one vigorous charge home with the bayonet—an occurrence never frequent in Luropean warfare, and exceedingly rare since arms of precision have so greatly increased the distance at which opposing lines are able to inflict heavy slaughter on one another. To such bayonet-charges the Russian soldier seems signally averse. The battle of the Alma might have been a Russian victory had the troops of the Czar shown that eagerness for close fighting which distinguishes the higher and more warlike races. Twice, at critical points, in that field a Russian column, comprising enormously superior numbers, was brought face to face, wtthin some fifty yards, with an English bat- talion in line. While the column stood still it was a helpless mass overflanked on both sides by the thin red line, and slaughtered like a flock of sheep by the enveloping fire. Could its chiefs have brought their men to make a rush over that narrow intervening space, they could but have received a single volley, and the sheer weight of they- impact must then have swept the enemy away, and might very probably have turned the fortune of the day. This curious inactivity, or want of hostile fierce impulse, in the Russian soldier was illustrated again in the Balaclava charge. The readers of Kinglake's History will remember that one of the broken bands that retired in disorder from the silenced guns passed loosely and without forma- tion right along the front of soma squadrons of Russian Lancers. A charge must have annihilated or cap- tured the entire force—wearied, disordered, enor- mously outnumbered as it was. But the Russian cavalry never charged They sat still on their horses, while our exhausted soldiers brushed across their front so closely that many of them were pricked by thrusts from the Russian lances. A similar lack of offensive energy—not for a moment to be confounded with lack of courage—seems to characterise them in the present struggle, and may account fot some of their failure*. THE STRIKE IN BOLTON.—On Monday the Com- mittee of the Bolton Master Cotton-Spinners' Associa- tion received a deputation from the operatives' associa- tions of handmill spinners, self-actor minders, and strippers and grinders, who had previously intimated their desire to lay before the masters a proposition for the settlement of the dispute. The joint deputations offered on behalf of the men to continue at work at the old rate of wages for two years if the masters on their part would promise that no reduction should be made during that peried. After the deputations had with- drawn the Masters' Committee considered the proposi- tion, and subsequently their secretary fai warded a letter to the secretary of the operatives' association, in which he said.—"After giving the matter every attention, my committee fail to see that you have brought forward any argument which would Justify them in going to the Masters' Association for an alteration ef their instructions. Wages have always fluctuated with the state of trade, and its state at present demands a reduction." It will thus be seen that the masters decline the offer made by the opera- tives and adhere to their determination to enforce the reduction. HYDROPHOBIA.—" X. Y. Z." writes to the Dailu News" In view of the distressing cases of deaths reported almost daily in the Press from the above terrible malady, I would venture to suggest that our foreign consuls are in a position to obtain most useful information as regards the spread of the disease abroad and the remedies employed there. Until J ennerarose it was thought that the ravages of small-pox could not be stayed. Can medical science suggest nothing here ? I believe the medicated vapour bath has been successfully used in Germany, and certainly its efficacy in other blood disorders is wonderful. I will not enter into the disputed question whether the malady is nothing more than imagination acting on the nervous system, though inclined to doubt that theory, as in so many cases children are the victims, and there is less reason to believe that the imaginative powers would so work upon them." OUR CANAL POPULATION.—During a harvest thanks- giving service, held in College-green Chapel, Stepney, on Sun-lay, Mr. George Smith, of Coalville, who con- ducted the services for the young, took occasion to refer in his address to the many advantages the boat- owners and boatmen will receive in the long rnn by the recent Canal Boats Act, which has lately passed, and which he had taken much interest to obtain. lie further said that owing to the many difficulties to be overcome and the interest at stake great wisdom and care will have to be exercised in carrying out the act. THE POTATO CROP. The Gardener's Magazine writes :—" The early potato were for the most part heavy and clean. The late crops are very heavy and very much diseased. 'I he prudent course in respect of potatoes is to lift them if they have attained any- thing like maturity, for what little growth they may yet make if left alone will be more than counter- balanced by the diffusion of disease among them. As for the bulk that must be thrown out at once, the sooner it is utilized as pig-meat the better; and the clearest of the stock should be clamped in smallish lots for the convenience of looking over them here- after. Potato crops fully matured are in more danger than such as having been late planted, are at present growing vigorously. The matured roots will produce secondary tubers, and so become worthless therefore the ripe crops should be harvested with all possible naste, tor the ground is a moist hotbed and the ripe roots cannot remain at rest in it." THE INDIAN FAMINE—A SUGGMTION.-The Times publishes the following Sir,—Will you allow a suggestion upon this terrible sub- ject? Might therp not be a "Famine Sunday," on which collections should be made in all places of worship through- out the country ? I am sure that if the Archbishops and Bishops of the Church and the heads of the other religious bodies were to recommend this course, it would be gladly responded to by a vast*iiumber of congregations. And I am bold to say that the result would be a truly Christian answer ,?ry Thich j? now celling us from India.—Yours faithfully, JOHN G. TALBOT, Falconhurst, Eden-bridge Kent, Aug. 31. 6 < INCIDENTS OF THE AMERICAN STRIKE.—In St. Louis a gang of brawny strikers ordered the girls employed in a bagging factory to quit work. The poor girls were satisfied with their wages, and begged to be allowed to work, as they could not afford to stop, but the strikers were inexorable and drove the helpless creatures out of place. After this exploit the gallant band all went and took a drink. Hard times for work- ing men And again the following appears in the Cincinnati Commercial:—"Pulling cigars out of their mouths to cry for bread,' the Pittsburgh rioters burned 40,000 bushels of wheat. That is the way to distribute, not wealth, but poverty." It is evident from these paragraphs that the press throughout the country entertains pretty genet-ally the opinion that the hard times would not be quite so hard if working men would let liruor and tobacco alone. THE LONDON BUILDING TRADE.—At a meeting of labourers employed in the building trade, held on Saturday night, it was stated that of the 1,200 men thrown out of employment by the mason's strike only twenty-four were out of work, and it was resolved that it was unnecessary to make any further col- lections on their behalf. A resolution was also unanimously adopted empowering the general secre- tary to request the Masters' Builders' Association to kindly take into their consideration the claims of the labourers for an increase of Id, an hour. This increase, the resolution stated, is urgently needed on account of the loss sustained by them by the operation of the Education Act, which deprived them of a few shillings earned weekly by the children, and which went to supplement their small and precarious wages —a fact which is as well known to the masters as it is to the labourers by bitter experience. THREE LIVES LOST AT SEA. —The ship Khersonese, recently arrived in the Mersey from Bombay, reports that whilst on her outward voyage one of the apprentices was thrown inthe sea from the martingale, through the dipping of ,tlie vesseJ.- <.The se i running very strong at the time carried the young man some considerable distance from the ship before he was picked lin bv a boat whi-eh h,J lho 1,a;he.I from the vessel. In his descent he had been struck by the ship, and on arrival at Bombay he was taken to the hospital where he remained in a helplers condi- tion when the vessel sailed for Liverpool. During the homeward passage several more serious accidents happened. On two occasions, as the crew was engaged aloft, one of them fell to the deck, and in each case the injuries received proved fatal. While one of the sea- men was engaged on the cathead the vessel shipped a. heavy sea which carried the poor fellow into the water. This accident occurred during a dark night, while t]wrH was a heavy cea on and quite a gale blowing. It would have been impossible for a boat to have lived in such a sea, and the vessel could not have been put abdut in time to have saved the unfortunate man, who was never afterwards seen. The ship at the time was making about 12 knots per hour. THE QUADRUPLEX SYSTEM.—The following graphic account, taken from a Nevada paper, may explain to some of our readers the mystery of the quadruplex system, which promises to revolutionise telegraphy "The telegraph company are now using the quadruplex system over the Virginia and Salt Lake circuit, by means of which four messages may be sent simultaneously over a single wire. The increased strain en the wire is not visible here in Austin, but I was at Ord Creek lately, and in that vicinity the wire was just humping itself, and groaning an.1 straining, and dropping words off in chuncks. I examined the wire and found a knot in it, and came to the conclusion the quadruplex message had struck the knot and got tangled up and stuck at that point. I tried to straighten the wire out, but th.- section of an account of a battle between the Turks and Russians struck me on the ear and knocked me down, and I concluded that it was not advisable to fool with the thing. DISASTERS AT SEA.—The Direction of the Bureau Veritas has just published the following statistics of maritime disasters reported during the month of July, 1877, concerning all flags :-Sailing vessels reported lost-23 English, 10 Norwegian, 9 German, 8 Ameri- can, 6 French, 4 Dutch, 3 Italian, 2 Spanish, 2 Russian, 1 Brazilian, 1 Greek/1 Swedish, 7 of which the nationality is unknown total, 77. In this number are included 8 vessels reported missing. Steamers reported lost ;-6 Jinglish, 1 German, 1 French, 1 Swedish total, 9. ANOTHER DESTRUCTIVE BEETLE.-—THn* Chamber of Agriculture Journal sVs: The blueVBlack beetles forwarded to us by Mr. George J. Moore, of Elm, Wisbech, as the destroyers of mustard crops and vegetables on an alarming scale iu that neighbourhood are not a new species. We have seen them on mustard years ago, but not in great numbers as they have come now. We have been favoured (through Mr. William Carruthers) with the following communication from Mr. Charles Waterhouse, of the British Museum The little blue beetle which you sent, aad which has been destroying the mustard, is one of the chrysomelidce, and is phcedon tumidulum. I have just seen a large number of the same insect taken from an allied cruciferous plant, armoracia amphibia. "ltappears to be unusually common this year. Thfflsirva, which does the greatest harm to the plants, if a, blackish grey grub, slightly speckled, about a quarter of an inch long. I believe the larvagoesdown into thtS earth to undergo its transformation but oa tliis:poip,t I have not yet been quite able to satisfy myself. The perfect beetles will remain alive through the winter in roots of grass or any such convenient shelter, ready to attack a fresh crop another year. I fear there is no practical way of getting rid of them; but perhaps the habits of the creature being known, some means may suggest itself to any one on the spot.
ir E PITOME OF NEWS. BRITISH AND FOREIGN. It is reported at Berlin that Queen Victoria will pay a visit to that capital before the close of the year. I have seen (writes a military friend at Aldershot) and tried on the new helmet. The mere sight of it instantly relieved my throbbing temples after several hours purgatory in a shako, it is handsome, soldier-like, aud comfortable." Whitehall Review. The seventh anniversary of Sedan was celebrated on Saturday by the schools and other public institutions in Berlin. The reports of the opening of the partridge shooting season state that the season opened favourably, the birds in most places being in larger numbers than on an average, and strong on the wing. The great drawback to sport on Satur- day was the large amount of corn left standing owing to the recent heavy rams. There is great depression in the cotton trade at Oldhan- Nearly all the mills have reported losses on the last quarter's working. The Krishna lighthouse, which marked a dangerous shoal near the entrance to the Rangoon river, lias been destroyed. The lighthouse was an iron structure, built on piles. It has entirely disappeared. The cause of the disaster is unknown, but the general impression is that a vessel has fouled the structure. A scene occurred at Indore, at the latter end of July which takes one back tojthe patriarchal ages, The sea- son's rains were unusually late, and fears began to be enter- tained lest the drought which has desolated Southern India should be extending its ravages to Central India also. To avert this calamity Maharajah Holkar, accompanied by the Maharanee and all his household, proceeded early in the morning to a village about two miles distant from his capital. A vast crowd had assembled, and prayers and simple offerings of flowers, fruits, and water marked the humbie faith of the worshippers. Then the Maharajah took hold of a plough, and, himself guiding the yoke of oxen, turned more than o ie furrow. Meanwhile the Ai aharatiee, acting as the wife of a peasant, waited upon the Maharajah, and at the proper time produced from the folds of her cloth his frugal meal for the day. Genial showers, it is added, at once descended upon the parched earth, and the people dis- persed with shouts of gladness and much noise or and shrill pipings."—Pall Mali Gazette. The Precurseur publishes a list of the descendants of Rubens now living in Belgium, America, Austria, Italy, and France. It commences with the Comte da Baillet, and the list comprises 12S names. During last week the arrivals of fresh meat at Liverpool from America amounted to 34 quarters, being the only consignment for the last four weeks. The number of live stock landed in the same period was 622 oxen, 336 sheep, besides 5i carriage horses. Of fresh butter the arrivals comprised 4,525 packages. The English Ambassador and Mrs. Layard dined with the Sultan the other evening. It is said to be the fir8* time that a Sultan has sat down to dinner at his own talo with a European lady. Last week about fifty young barbers left Copenhagerf for Russia, where they are appointed medical assistants. It must be borne in mind that every barber in Denmark has to pass an examination in the elements of surgery. Russians say that this accursed war, even if even- tually crowned with success, is the terror of all thoughtful Muscovites, who dread its effects upon those rabid factions that exist in their land, and who are but waiting for the generally weakening results of this strife upon both their army and finances to start up against the Government in some such peasant-outbreak as those that occurred a few years ago in Austrian Gallicia, and in the Russian starosty of Kazan or Astrakan. The French railways are about to adopt our system of collecting the mail bags on all the lines. The bags are collected, when the traius are at full speed, in a net wMch comes from the side o! the train aud hookq off the bag, w ich is suspended from a post. Things are improving in France in the railway line. Don't I remember the old time when a man used to stand in the middle of the line and blow" a great horn to let folks know that the train was coming. How different it used to sound to our English electric gon&' and shrill whistle The Tatler," in Pictorial World. Elizabeth Goring died at De Burgh-street, Dovker on Saturday, last in her 104th year. Five human skeletons have been discovered by somd workmen near Dunfermline. They were only eleven inches beneath the surface of the ground. The spot where they were found was the scene of the murder of the Earl of Moray by the Earl of Huntley, in the year 1591. Intelligence from Utah announces that the govern- ment of the Mormon Church has passed into the hands of twelve elders, styled "Apostles." No President will pro- bably be appointed for some time to come. The watch committee of Liverpool, in view of the dangers arising from the noiseless approach of bicycles, have recommended to the council that a bye-law should be passed rendering it imperative that bicyclists and velocipedists generally shall have a bell attached to their vehicles to indi- cate their approach, the penalty for non-compliance with the bye-law being £5. The dispute between the Fife and Clackmannan coalmasters and miners has now been settled on the terms proposed by the masters, viz., that the rate of wages be re- duced ten per cent. that within one month after the re- sumption of work a conference be held for the purpose of arranging a sliding scale of wages; and that the men are to be charged the ordinary house rent only, and not the extra rental demanded since the lockout was declared. The pita in the two counties have been idle for fourteen weeks. The prize meeting of the Oxfordshire Rifle Asso- ciation took place on Monday, at the Hinksey butts, near Oxford, in a continuous rain. The first prize of £15 and the bronze medal of the National Rifle Association was won by Sergeant Bennett, of Deddington, with a score of 58. The shooting was at two hundred, five hundred, and six hundred yards, five shots at each range. The Chancellor of the Exchequer acknowledges (in The Times, as Conscience Money") the receipt of a cheque for 42 8s. Id. from E. S. for Income-tax. lc A French comic paper which represented M. Gambetta as holding his sides with laughter has been seized by the authorities. M. Leonard Miiller, a Swiss historian, has written a book, to be published at the instance of the Uri Govern- ment, to show that William Tell really existed. The Liverpool Borough Engineer has reported that the street improvements determined upon by the Corporation will involve a net cost of £ 1,073,S45. The acquisition of land is set down at ALI,196,278, and the cost of works k;137,862 but a sum of L260,295 is deducted as the estimated value of surplus land. Those Americans are a wonderful people. On the first of October a powerful vessel is to steam out from New York on a two years' cruise, partly for the purpose of exploration, partly for the purpose of education, and partly for amusement. All told, there will be two hundred souls on board. The Agent-General for South Australia (Sir Arthur Blyth, K.C.M.G.) has received a telegram from tlis Govern- ment at Adelaide, which says that the harvest prospects continue good, and seasonable rains have fallen. The amount of postage stamps sold in the last financial year by stan p distributors of the Inland Revenue was 46,58,278. The Excise duty on pawnbrokers realized a net sum of £ :!2,512. The gross Excise duty on wine and sweets was £210,675, and the net 4210,512 12s. Oid. The gross revenue derived from fee stamps was £ 601,885, and the net £ 595,502. The net produce from Land Tax and House Duty was £ 2,538,173. A distressing accident happened on Monday even- ing at Warrington, a cupola chimney at the works of Messrs. Bolton, Son, and Wood, of Oxford-lane, falling into a street where a number of children were at play. Some of the children were killed, and many more were injured. The Russian representatives at foreign Courts have been instructed to thank the Cabinets who have sent protests to Constantinople against violations of the Geneva Conven- tion by the Turks. The Powers are assured that the Czar, oil his side, conscientiously endeavours to prevent the war assuming an inhuman character, and rigorously punishes all excessess. A sad accident has occurred at Herault (France). A young bride, after the wedding breakfast, went out to walk with her friends. The party was animated, as was generally the case. To import new vigour to the guests a few lads purchased crackers, and exploded them very liberally. One squib set lire to the bride's dress, aud before the flames could be extinguished she was so burned as to be longer re- I cognizable, and passed the wedding-night in the hospital. The remainder of the mills at Bolton and neighbour- liood at which notices of reduction of wages had been given stopped on Saturday. Of the 80 mills in Bolton alone 96 are closed. These employ about 8,000 hands. Includingthe mills outside the borough 100 are closed, and between 11,000 and 12,000 workpeople are idle. It has been calculated that if the hands are only out on strike one week, the Man- chester market will have 1,000,0001b. less yarn thrown upon a accident occurred last Saturday n; bt at the N&i ciles station to a passenger train fcom l'arls to Boulogria. The train 1-O. Paris atf four o'clock, and conveys London t passengei-s at r. i raivo by a night service. It is due at Noyelles at 9.10, but » a quart er of an hoar late, and had just resumed its journey when a detached engine backed into the train, destroying a goods van and throwing other carriages across the up line. Immediately afterwards a fast goods train from iioulogne calll up aud added to the wreck. N, Ile passengers were hurt, and both lines were blocked for eight hours. It ia aaid"tha.t the Ruins' fetes Antwerp did not cost the town less than .t;;Ôü,ùOO. Her Von Bleichroeder, the head of the well-known Berlin banking firm, lias caused a large quantity of stone" and flags to be collected on all the various battlefields of the war of 1870 and 1871. The stones, which arri ved at Berlin a few days ago, are to be placed in the grounds surrounding the war moni-me-,it. The lock-out on the Clyde still continues. Dullness pervades all shipbuilding yards, the majority of the men being still 1.He, The men state their willingness to resume work in a body whenever a satisfactory basis of arbitration is agreed to. This is the point the decision of which is anxiously awaited on the banks of the river. Two young men, named Gilroy and Bell, while row- ing in a boat ott Geellck m deep water on Monday, resolved to bathe. They dived into the sea, and Gilroy, after several strokes, sunk and did not rise again. Bell succeeded in getting into the boat.. The three days' sale at the Priory, at Balham, of the furniture and other effects belonging to Mrs. Bravo, was concluded on Friday in last week. It is computed that upwards of 5,000 persons attended the sale during the three days it lasted, as indicated by the number of catalogues which were sold. The aggregate proceeds of the sale amounted to upwards of £ 5,000, the furniture ana other effects in the dining and drawing-rooms alone realising about 41,500 The pictures likewise realised a large sum, whilst the wines and spirits, which were in sixty lots, fetched upwards of 4500. An annual tax of 100 roubles has lately been imposed upon all pianos in Russia. According to present arrangements the Prince and Princess of Wales, with some of the Royal children, will arrive at Abergeldie on or about Thursday, the 13th of September, for a short stay. -Cuurt Journal. There is a story they tell in the Highlands which has the merit of being true. A few years ago a gentleman from the south, moved by the spirit which impels every man of ambition, took a deer forest and brought with him his Suffolk keeper. This keeper accompanied his master and a regular ghillie out stalking, and after some eight hours of the usual hard labour the party were landed behind a shelter of rock within forty yards of a 'royal'stag. The gentleman, was adjusting himself warily for his shot, when the Suffolk, keeper took a peep over the rock, and seeing the prey for the first time, could not contain himself, but exclaimed, My Gocf) that's a donkey with a chair on the top of his kead!Yaiiity l,'air. The Cologne Gazette says that all fear of ravages by the Colorado beetle in the neighbourhood of Mulheim seems now to be past, thanks to the energetic measures taken by the authorities of the district. Sinc3 the discovery and destruction on the 30th of July of the last brood, sixteen men have been constantly engaged in examining all the potato fields in the place. Dr. Harenstein, of the Poppels- dorff Academy, the Government Commissioner, who has weekly inspected the fields, has now declared the danger past, though five men are still retained to continue examining the fields. A subscription is to be opened at Rome for a gold 111"dal to General Garabaldi, oil account of his efforts to carry out the Tiber improvements. On Monday a new lifeboat was launched at New- haven, making the 266th under the care of the National Lifeboat Institution. The boat was named by Miss Sebag the Michael Henry, and some interest attaches to the name. The late Mr. Michael Henry, who gave himself with much devotion to the furtherance of education among the English Jews, delivered a lecture in 1873 to the pupils of tile Jews' College, in which he urged the boys-present to form a fund to present a lifeboat to the sailors of Great Britain. A com- mittee was immediately formed, but before the sum was raised Mr. Michael Henry was burnt to death by a distress- ing accident, which was reported at the time. After his death the necessaryfunds were raised for the Michael Henry lifeboat, in addition to other memorials. The boat was on Monday formally presented to the National Lifeboat Institu- tion by Mr. Joseph Sebag. An American paper proud of the Colorado beetle says :—When the German Government sowed that Cologne farm ten inches deep in tan-bark, saturated it with kerosene, and fired it, the officials supposed it would crisp the Colorado beetle but the second day they were shocked to see him crawl out of the fire, climb upon the fence, wipe the beaded perspiration from his brow, and remark to the nearest official, "Purty hot for comfort, stranger, but it is grand weather for corn." One of the Middlesex magistrates the other day was offered, but refused to accept, £ 900 for his collection of foreign postage stamps aud an extensive collection, ol 17,000 varieties, including many unique specimens, has been recently sold in London for £ 800. It is believed that this is the highest price which such a collection has ever fetched in England. In France, however, the mania has reached a higher pitch, for we are told that one of the most complete collections ever brought together was sold privately for no less than £ 3,000. A hay-drying machine, made at the Duke of Suther- land's works at Brora, after Gibb's patent, has been at work at Dunrobin farm, and is giving great satisfaction. Hay that could scarcel> be saved with the late wet weather was quite tit for the stack after passing through the machine. Heat is applied to the hay froafk a coke fire, the heat being driven forward by a powerful blast. The hay passes over a table of sheet-iron about 40 feet long, which moves backwards and forwards by an end crank motion, the hay at the same time being tossed and teased by a series of forks. The mo- tive power is from a traction engine, but the machine can be driven by a water wheel. 1,000 to 1,600 stones can be put through in a day. Mr. Charles W. Bell writes to The Times from Thor, Birc-liiugton, Thanet" It may interest some persons to know that during the late stormy weather that has been experienced nearly all over Great Britain that there is at least one spot that has enjoyed almost uninterrupted fine weather. we have peeD here since the middle of July, and during that time I do not think we have had three hours of consecutive rain, and this has only occurred to the best of my recollection, about twice. The most of this period has been beautiful bright, not sunny weather, with a south or south-west wind. On several occasions when apparentlyit has been raining heavily on the Essex coast, it has been bright here, andl notice that most of the storms seem to pass over the Isle of fhanet from ReeulverB towards Peg- well Bay, leaving this part of the island clear and sunny."
MR. GLADSTONE ON THE WAR. On Saturday Mr. Gladstone, M.P., addressed about 600 persons from Tyldesley and Bedford Leigh, who had come to Hawarden by an excursion train in con- nexion with the Tyldesley and Bedford Leigh Liberal Association. Mr. Gladstone spoke from the terrace in his ganien in reply to a vote of thanks which was Toposed to himself and Mrs. Gladstone by Mr. T. T. Hayes, the President of the Bedford Leigh Liberal Association, and seconded by Mr. C. Wright, who re- presented the Tyldesley Association. In commencing his speech, Mr. Gladstone said,—Seeing you here to-day reminds me of seeing you here last year, and it seems that since then we Have got into something like a scrape. (Laughter.) You must have observed that these little proceedings of ours are criticized out of doors. The humourÜts of the country make fun of us (laughter); but we can stand that. There have been drawings and pictures, and a very clever one has been brought out within the last few days. (Laughter.) The fault is owing, as far as I can make out, to a class of gentlemen to whom the country owes a great deal. I mean the gentlemen called reporters (Laughter.) They are a most valuable class (hear, hear), and we cannot get on without them but they have one great fault- one fearful fault—that is, that not one fcf them can keep a secret. (Laughter.) That is the cause of the difficulty we are in However, ladies and gentlemen, we are in for it. (Laughter.) As this is the last day on which I believe I shall have the pleasure of addressing any considerable body of my fellow countrymen assembled as you are, I will not perform a churlish act and dismiss you without a few words of acknowledgment. I greatly rejoice to see you here on many grounds. I am very glad indeed, on physical grods, and on moral grounds, to see a taste for country excursions spreading amøng the populatiollil of our towns. (Hear, hear.) Moreover, it rejoices me to see all classes of the community represented in a meeting of this kind for there is nothing that, as Englishmen, we should hold so dear as the co-operation of all cla>ses, from the highest to what we call the lowest. (Cheers.) Nothing is more distinctive, hap- pily, of our country, aud I trust it will distinguish us more and more. There has not been a better thing done in this country, in my opinion, than the establishment of successful co-operation, of whkh Laneaahire deserves the principal credit. (Hear, hear.) The only oùjection to co-operation among working men is that it is not always easy for them to get good, sufficient, and trustworthy instruments for giving it effect but wherever that can be done, I commend it without limit. I cannot say what I think of the value of it. I hope it will extend to other things which it has scarcely yet touched (Hear, hear.) I hope it will extend to all the amusements and recreations of the working man. This is what fosters a strong senti- ment of self-respect among working men. It fosters a strong sentiment of independence, pad yet the sentiment of independence appears to me to be entirely free from all tendency to injustice towards anybody else. (Hear, hear.) Therefore, for all things, for all your pursuits, all your supplies, the inure you can successfully pro- ceed by co-operation the better; more especially, in my opinion, for all Ulat concerns the hours of your relaxation. Working men, for want of this co-operafiou, and from acting individually with resped to their relaxation, are very apt to come under the influence of other people who are not always worthy to exercise that influence over tnem It they wish to defend themselves upon that sub- ject, depend upon it there is no better defence fer them than by forming combinations among themilelVts for sup- plying themselves with a reasonable indulgence of their wants. I hope you will, many of you, think over that subject. It is one of very great importance, although it is one that 1 should not attempt to pursue at great length at the present moment. Well, now about public affairs. (Hear.) I will not go again into the subject of the county fran- chise, and, indeed, I do not think it either necessary or urgent to go into the subject of public affairs in the same week with the recent festivities at Bradford, for T dare say many of you have read the speeches there delivered, and especially that exceH- :.t speech delivered by him whom I am equally delighted to ack:.o wled* 811.; a friend and a leader —1 mean Lord <.imDnlle. i.\pplau.} 1 admire alike tho courage, the !a.il"!le8, he moderation, and the judgment which, in my opinion, t aracterisea the whole of that speech. H, lias touched upon a uuemou wlydi is a very j thorny one. The <j«**ti>) of the war in thp *>,?-- a^J. ^jj thai attencu. is. i» « a*- :^ncr»ur- and paicxui suoject m itself, and one which becomes extremely diiheuit to deal t with on ace.Jill1\. of the passioss that. seem to be arou8ed by it I have never known a question relating to a foreign country which has taken o strong a hold upon the legiti- mate interest of the people, and I certainly have never known a question which has excited more of mere passion in the country. (Hear, hear.) I myself receive froIll ùay today many letters commending me far beyond what 1 de- serve upQn this question. (" ;¡, no.') I receive, also, some letters of very just and fair expostulation from people who disapprove what I have done and said, and who argue rationaUyann in a manner of which there is nothing to be ashamed. I receive, also, a set of letters, the violence and fury—aye, even grossness—of which is hardly to be con- ceived (cries of "Shame"), and generally containing ex- tracts from newspapers for me to read. (Laughter.) My opinion is that a great number of people who write in newspapers do not know the violence of the pas- sions which they sometimes stir up. (Hear, hear.) But then they say that I am violent myself in this matter. I do not admit it. (Applause.) I have, in- deed, used very strong language in this matter. (" Nt too strong.") But strong language is not necessarily violent language. That which is violent language is language stronger than the subject requires but when we open the roll of history, when we go back to the atrocious deeds of former times, we are not fxpected to be mealy-mouthed 11l speaking of them. Take, for instance, what many of you have read of, the massacre of St. Bartholomew in France 300 years ago. What would you think of me if, in speaking of it, I were to say, "Well, certainly, the conduct of the pple who committed that massacre was improper con- duct." (Laughter.) I think you would say that I did not take an adequate measure of the enormity and atrocity of their guilt, and that I did not understand the use of lan- guage if I did not endeavour to employ it in proportion to the things which they did and the censure they deserved. Well, I have not used one syllable in this controversy from beginning to end except what ) tand by. (Cheers.) It was said last autumn that I used very violent language in the country, and that when I to the House of Commons I should have to retract it. Did I retract it ? (" JTo, no.") No; but various gentlei who used violent language about me were good erlvl to explain and apologise. (Applause and laughter.) u if a matter of pain and grief to me to use this strong language, and I cannot express the re- luctance with which I use 1 t, It took me some time to do it. I did not do it until after muchretlectlOn and muchexamina- tion. And the very people who found fault with me forusine this very strong language likewise find fault with me for not always having used it. They say, It is not the language you employed many years ago." Certainly not, for I am not in the habit of using strong language until, by long experience and deep conviction, I am convinced that nothing but strong language can meet the necessities of the case. One subiect was touched upon by Lord Granville with regard to the Eastern Question in very few words, but they were ad- mirably well put and with great justice. I mean the subject of those terrible cruelties which have been going on in the East. I do not mean merely the cruelties of war. The cruelties of war are in themselves awful. (Applause.) We read from day to day of the heroic valour displayed by our fellow-creatures whether they be Christian or Mussulman, and it is must painful to hear of the dreadful havoc made among them by the necessary operations of war. God grant that the time may soon come when these opera- tions may be brought to a close, and that also they may be brought to a close in connexion with arrangements which would do away with the necessity for more feud and fer more bloodshed in future times. (Applause.) But, ladies and gentlemen, all of you have read, all I have read. accounts of other cruelties and other sufferings outside the operations of war. (Hear, hear.) They are enough to bewilder and perplex one in many respects, and form a great temptation to a man to hold opinions accord- ing to previous prejudices and leanings. A man whose leanings are against the Turks reads the accounts of the horrible proceedings which are being carried on by the irre- gular forces of the Porte for as far as I have seen I do not know that the regular forccs of the Turks have been much to blame. I say a man reads of the horrible proceedings which have been carried on wholesale by the irregular forces who are employed, no less than the regular forces, by the Turkish Government, and it is a great temptation to him to indulge in paBsion on one side. In the same way others see the statements that there have been atrocities committed upen Mussulman women and children, and they very naturally become excited if the news happens to concur with their previous prejudices. Everyday of my life I receive most outrageous and wholesale denunciations of the Rus- sians, as if the whole Russian army were committing outrages of this kind. Now, my friends, I will endeavour to give you in a very few words one or two propositions which I thiuk will hold good in the midst ot all the doubt- ful matter, all the questionable matter on this subject. (Applause.) 1 will tell that you from the first my endea- vour has been-and I have even tried to stir up the Minitter for Foreign Affair", and he has answered n.e in a very kindly manner on the subject—to do everything that could be done towards getting at the truth. (Applause.) What I hold to be clear are these several propositi ins which I will lay before you. In the first place a very large portion of the evidence on this subject has consisted of accounts sent home by the Turkish Government. Now, I must tell you, ad- visedly and deliberately, that nothiug that is asserted by the Turkish Government is entitled to one moment's belief, un- less and until it be corroborated from other sources. (Applause.) I do not say that lightly, because I myself have pri?vtd in print th0 sy3tematic and wholesale falsehood r» i has proceeded from the Turkish Government. (Applause,) And I am astonished when I see these state- ments sent home by the British Ambassador as if they were documents that could weigh with any reasonable man. or! t /P18 history of the Bulgarian outrages of last year not the mere cruelties committed, but the con- duct of the Turkish Government respecting them-abso- lutely settles the question that no belief should be given to what is asserted by the Turkish Government simply be- cause it 14 80 asserted. The next thing quite clear is that wholesale outrages have been committed from the first mo- ment by the links,; apparently by the irregular forcea of the Turks, and espeOolally by the race of men called Circassians, with respec: to whom I must say that, while among the Turks and Mahomedans we meet with many cases—and thank God for it—of humanity—bolu, courageous, self- sacrificing humanity—during the It) or IS months since the Bulgarian outrages broke out, I have rad hunÙreds of liClJunts of thousands of outrages committed by those Cir- cassians, while, it is with grief I say it, I have never come aoross a single instanoe of lenieucy or humanity on the part of one of these wretches, and unless a great change eecum among them the name of the Cireassiar trill be handed down to lasting infamy. (Loud applause) While the Turkish Government have been launchmg whoicsaie accusation of cruelty on the part of the Russians what has happened to them? For the tirst time as I be- lieve, in history, they have received from Germany, from the German Government, an official rebuke for the out- rages committed by their army. (Applause.) Now, the German Government had a charac1.er to lose, and would not dare to administer such a reproof or rebuke except after full examination of the facts and full conviction on their part. (Hear.) That is the next fact I would advise you to at heart, and to remember that so far as we acquainted, because the official documents are not yet pub- iished the Turkish Government, knowing pretty well what the Germau Government is, have not ventured, in dealing with that Government, to deny the charges which have been preferred against them. (Applause.) They have gone to work in the old way, aud said, We will adhere to the Geneva Convention and distribute copies of its rules among the men, aud it will be all right for the future." (Laughter.) you may have heard ef the report of Colonel Wellesley. (Hear, heai.) You ought to know who he is. He has been for several yearsI think for not'less than seven or eight years, if not more-military attaché at st. Petersburg. He knows the .H.u8SÍanil well, and from recollections of the time when I was in office I can bear testimony that lie is a man of the highest honour, the highest professional character, and the highest intelli- gence. Well, he has written home a despatch which you, perhaps, have seen printed in the newspapers, stating that he, being in the ltussian camp. not having been ou the scenes whtre these atroci.,ies are said to bave been com. mitted, but having had constant opportunities of commu- nication with those who have been Lucre, has arrived at the full and deliberate conviction that, upon the whole, the humanity of the soldiers of the Russian army is not to be impeached. (Applause.) That is his conviction. I do not want to exaggerate his words, and I have not his despatch j with me, uut that is the conviction he has arrived at, lIe does not say that there may not have been particular out- rages by particular persons, and his evidence, of course, is IltJgative evidence, but what he says is that he is convinced, from thc testimony of gentlemen with whom he has been in communication, there has been none of that general cruelty you have En in many ncwspapel's imputed to the Russian army as a body. (Applause.) The Itussians are not very popular in thb country, 1 know uut, at the same time, gentlemen, there is one thing better than popularity, and that is justice. (Applause.) Turk or Russian, I care not who it be, we are everyone of us under a most solemn responsilJility to the best of our power, and under all cir- cumstauces, to speak exactly according to justice. (Ap- plause.) Cruelty, though not justifiable, is sometimes un- avoidable in warfare, fur where fighting is going on it is hardly possible that passion should not be excited, and theu it is most likely that cruelty will follow; but this will not excuse cruelty to women and children. (Hear, hear.) By accident womeu and children may be so mixed up with combatants that, incidentially, suffering may be inflicted. There are particular cases in which women have so much of the fighting quality in them (laughter) that they determine to take an active part in a light, and If they are so moved and prompted, why, no doubt, they must take their chance like other people. As a rult, however, we cannot lay down too strongly that all outrage what- ever inflicted upon women aDd upon children is wholly without excuses drawn from the general character of the war, and is perfectly abominable and destestable. (Hear, hear.) That is strong language [A Voice—" Proper language"], but it is not violent language because it is exactly measured to the circum¡¡tance8 to which it applies. (Hear.) One more thing I will say—that this abominable and detestable outrage committed upon women and children is even more abominable and more de- testable when done by Chistiaus than when done by Ma- homedans. (Hear.) We have a religion that is beyond all others pure, genial, humane, kindly, and loving in its precepts; and, if we are di ciples of that religion, every act of cmely and violence done by us is far more guilty and far more shameful than when committed by professors of a creed which, although it teaches many things that are true, yet certainly does not give that security for the observance of humanity which the Christian religion ought to give. Now, notwithstanding alII have said in justness and fair- ness te the Russian soldiery, I cannot deny that many out- rages and painfull offences have been committed upou Mussulmans—mem women, and children. The evidence, I think, goes tå" show that the bulk of those atro- cities have been committed by Bulgarians. But Bul- garians are Christians. They may have more apology than others, because of the passion of revenge, which, though it does not justify evil acts, goes to accouut for evil acts. The Bulgarians know what they have suffered, what their fore- fathers have suffered, and what their brethren, their wives, and their children suffered last year. Still that conduct of the Bulgarians, and some of the Russians too— because there are scoundrels in every army and in every nation (applause)-is in itself even more abominable and more detestable than if the same conduct had been per- F? -^homedans. I say this because I desire ? itVk ,as between these parties. What we have a hopefrom the Russian Government—or rather the wl'V!7 fjhorities—is not that they will be able f nff h fr wif 'fh1 se outrages—we cannot hope that— but that where they can bring them home they will inflict severe and condign punishment upon every man who per- petratc them. i I hope they will do exactly the opposite of that which was done, and obstinately done, by the Turkish Government last year. (Applause.) The Turkish Govern- ment, instead of punishing crime, first of all instigated that crime, then aetata the crime, afterwards rewarded those who committed it, and, lastly, punished the good men among tuem "ho tried to prevent and limit those outrages. That « as the cunduct of the Turkish Government, and that is what I have myself proved to have been their conduct. No answer has been made to the charge, and it cannot be answertd. It is proved by official documents. I trust that the Russian Government, it it has any regard for its own character or the religion it professes, will, to the best of its power, punish rigorously and promptly whoever has com- mitted those outrages, and in everything will do exactly the reverse of what was done by the Turkish Government in respect of the Bulgarian atrocities last year. (Loud applause.) Ladies and gentlemen, it is said by some that I am the maker of this war. (Laughter.) In some respects it sounds I1ke a joke, in iome respects like a calumny, and again, in some respects like a compliment. Thit it should be imputed to me, a private individual, having no power, having no agents, uo servants, no army, no ambassadors, no cons'ils, no secretaries, and no de- partments, that I have made this war seems to me a calumny, et also a compliment. Who has lHade the war is a ques- tion which history will decide (chcers); but I must say here that the Russian Government did not ask my leave befote making war. (Laughter.) They acted for themselves. They undertook a great responsibility. They imposed upon their country a most awful burden, terrible losses, terrible sacri- fices. "That the issue wIll be, God only knows. How it will be brought about it is impossible for us to say, but this I believe, that the people of those provinces upou which so cruel and grinding a yoke has for so long been laid, and which have been lately in rebellion, will, by some means or other, in the counsels of Providence, be merci- fully delivered from that yoke. I have firm confidence that that will be the issue of this terrible war. To effect that de- liveranoe is a holy purpose. (Applause.) if the Russian Govern- ment and army shall effect it, and shall, in effecting it, keep the aims of humanity and justice separate from the aims of ambition and aggrandizement, they will earn immortal I glory. If they condescend to pollute such a work by tnrn- ing it simply to selfish aims, theu 1 think, on the other hand, the record of their acts in the pages of history will be very different indeed (Applause.) Let us, as we read with deep concern and interest the »<Wount »# *<, "it srom day tn i", l s»y, euaeavouir to do justice to the 1ttlshns, but to <if} t1.cm lIO more than justice. Let us I learn to look on their acts calmly aad fairly, with ceu- scre if such seems to be due. but forming our judgment on the same principles of equity as though we oursehea were I concerned aud let us trust that the day may not be far diistant when these tremendunlll\ucI ssuguiuary struggles may be brought to an issue. As Ohristians we may all do some- thing by entreating the Almighty i;i His mercy to bring our erring fellow-creatures to a sense of their errors, and to guide all the vast forces now set in motion to the ac- f complishment of halty ends fur the good of mankind both Christians and Turks. If I censure the Turks, it is because I believe that their position is a false position, and has made it impossible for them to behave as they should behave. Jivery system of ascendancy is bad but their ascendancy has been the worst in the world; it has been the ascendency of inferior people over superior people. Unlimited ascend- ency even of superior people over inferior people is fvo ^at °* inferior over superior people is detes- tably bad. I believe myself that it is friendship to the lurk to wish him to be relieved from a position so bad, Just as 011 a small scale it was an act of friendship to Orangemen, no less than to Roman Catholics, when we destroyed the Protestant ascendancy—as it was called, the political Protestaut ascendency—in Ireland, so that the destruction of their ascendency in these Christian Provinces will be an act of friendship to the Turk not less than to the Christian. Let us, gentlemen, earnestly desire the arrival of that consummation. These of you who have political privi- leges when called upon to exercise them, will, I trust, bear this subject in mind, I am confident the day is not very far distant when very many more of you will have these political privileges. (Cheers.) I feel the greatest confidence that those who are now excluded from the franchise will, when they are admitted, show themselves to be.quite as worthy as those who are admitted already, and that the broader we make the basis of the institutions of the country by the large and liberal admission of the people to the franchise, the safer, the deeper,, and the stronger will its foundations be. (Cheers.) I now wish you a good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen, and I am ery glad indeed that you have been able to enjoy yeurselvcs, and if we have contributed to it in any degree let me say for my wife, quite as much as for myself, and even more than for myself, that she is a sharer in my pleasure being not only technically, but in fact, what is called my better half. Loud applause followed the conclusion of Mr. Gladstone's address.
THE INDIAN FAMINE. Up to ten o'clock on Saturday evening the fund being raised at the London Mansion-house towards the relief of the sufferers by the famine in Southern India, amounted to £78,000. The Bishop of Exeter, at his cathedral on Sunday made a special appeal on behalf of the Indian Famine Fund. The Mayor and Corporation attended service to show sympathy with the cause in hand. The Bishop said that the full extent of the suffering had come upon us with suddenness, but our very sur- prise at learning the extent of the calamity should be an incentive to greater exertion. The government of Madras were doing their best, but that was not sufficient to meet the distress, and he thought that in such an extreme case as this the nation should give sufficient support to at any rate remove the ground for fear others would yet die because there was not sufficient food. However, when the government had done their utmost there must still be plenty of room for private charity. There wotdd be the care and education of the orphans, the^upply of the most eommonnecessaries of life to those who had parted with what they had for whatever it would fetch, and the replacement of tools and the provision of seed in preparation for next year's crop. He trusted the country would be stirred to its verv depth by the suffering of our fellow-subjects in India, and determine to lessen it, for it could not entirely remove the suffering which was caused by this fearful famine.
THE HARVEST. The Agricultural Gazette writes The reports of our correspondents regarding the current harvest, which were summarized in the Agricultural Gazette of last week were, it must be remembered, written 10 or 15 days ago. Since then we have had weather which has done great damage in the North and the Wefet; also to some extent, as our correspondents of to-day report, in the Southern and the Midland counties. The Flood,'always a portentous announce- ment in the daily papers, has come at a time when its powers of mischief are unequalled. Wheats in sheaf are sprouting, and in late districts wheat, barley, and oats are battered on the ground. The potato disease has de veloped most disastrously. Around Goole, in the great potato-growing districts of South Yorkshire, they say a million of money has disappeared in the last 10 days, crops promising to be worth JE30 per acre being now not worth more than £5. We hear, indeed, of a finished harvest in s-one of our earlier districts, where all the weather difficulties have been escaped. But the thrashing machine in these districts ia confirming the fears rather than the hopes of the cultivators. Mr. Blundell, in Hampshire, and Mr. Graham Bell, speaking of a number of the Home coanties, both of them men of good judgment, give as gloomy an account as the Agricultural Gazette has already published. And 1577 coming after three bad years in succession adds to the diffic ilties of tne coiv; grower. Taking our reports en masse, a sceptical reader may say that our conclusions from, them cannot be satisfactory, for equal force is given in them to a wheat report from Ireland or from Walee, .where comparatively little is grown, M t« others front Lincolnshire or Bedford- shire, and the results upon the whole, therefore, connot give so trustworthy an account as those of the more important corn grooving counties would give by themselves. These, however, de not help the theory of an average crop. We have taken out the re- turns from Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, from Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge. Bedfordshire,andEssex,fromKent, Sussex, Hants, Wilts, and Dorset, and from Shropshire and Staffordshire and Lancaihire, separately, and the returns thus read in separate lots do nothing whatever to diminish the gloomy character of the prospect. In the first of these groups of counties—Y orkshire and Lancashire—of 31 wheat reports, 21 are below average, and only 1 above it. Of 30 barley reports, 15 are average, and 14 are under average. Of 29 oat reports, ]7 are average, and only 2 over average. In the Eastern county group of 44 wheat reports, 38 are under average. Of 41 barley reports, 26 are under average. Of 39 oat reports, 24 are average, 6 are over average, and g are under average. Tn the Southern county group of 36 wheat reports, only 9 are average, all the rest being under average. Of 35 barley reports, 24 are average, and 9 are under average. Of 36 oat reports, 19 are average, 6 are over average, and 11 are under average. In the Western county group of 16 wheat reports, 12 are under average. Of 17 barley reports, 8are under average; and of 18 oat reports, 6 are under average, 10 are average, and 2 are over average. It is plain that thrse local or provincial sum- maries give quite an poor an account of our corn harvest as either the collected 300 reports we have already given or the individual reports from the pens of Mr. Blundell and Mr. Bell." Monday's Magnet Bays:The weather for the
greater part of the week has again been unpropitious. The cutting of wheat has only been preceded with under difficulty, and thrashing operations have been yet further hindered. The bulk of the crop in the Southern counties has, however, about been secured. In the Midland and Northern counties affairs are very backward, and a spell of hot weather is yet required to bring the crops to maturity. So far as can be ascer- tained the crop is from 20 to 25 per cent. below the average, whilst the quality is not equal to last year. The acreage may, however, be considered to be about 5 per cent. greater. Still, taken altogether, the total crop must prove deficient, and as stocks are very light our reliance upon other countries for breadstuff will be more than usually heavy during the season."
GREAT FIRE AT NEW YORK. A TiTM" telegram from Philadelphia, under date Sept. 3 A fire, which caused the loss of many lives, has occurred in Thirty-fifth-street, near Eleventh-avenue, and cloje to the Hudson River, New York. It began at 9.45 this morning in Hale's Piano fac- tory, a large five-story building, in which 200 persons were employed. In a few minutes the flames enve- loped the entire building. Many of the occupants jumped from the upper windows to escape. From 20 to 30 were injured, and the loss of life was heavy. According to some estimates 100 persons were killed. The fire quickly extended te several adjoining factories, a school-house, and other buildings. The flames being spread by a high wind, and the supply of water being scanty, the firemen were able to do very little. Thirty-eight buildings were destroyed. The loss of property is estimated at 1,550,000 dols. One steam fire engine was abandoned owing to the intense heat, and was destroyed. The fire was ulti- mately controlled by pumping water from the Hudson River for the use of the engines.
BISHOP FRASER ON CONFESSION. Preaching in the old parish church at Halifax, on Sunday night, the Bishop of Manchester spoke at some length on sacramental confession and sacerdotal absolution. He sa;d he could not see in the New Testament Scriptues any trace of those so-called sacerdotal functions whiclf were supposed by some to be tha higher chara^ierefit^f -ttw- Christian ministry. Apo.itfilio authority of primiti ve custom was not 1 plain "or them, aad '.he thought i" was easy to ste ho«r^Itey aros«n ft—was lunjaTiy in the hearts of all sf u,<, he buapectecS, a love of power. We liked to dominate, if we tould, the principles, conduct, and consciences of othor men. That was bat was Iaeant oy influence. I mil loye of power might arise from the mesa legitimate motives. 'A man might desire spiritual power because he believed that through it, as an instrument, he might be the means of drawing j more souls to God. No doubt in lofty aiinds spiritual power had beeu used for lofty purpost*. But lofty minds were the minds of few, and spiritual power was an engine of such tremendous potency that one would be reluctant to commit it to ordinary men, and be- sides, it was a power that was certain to be degraded if it was systematic. Did Christ ever give them spiritual power in the sense in which it was now claimed? Was it consistent with the genius or the spirit ot Christianity ? There was a grand passage in Burka's famous Impeachment of Warren Hastings, wher talked about th perils of arbitrary power whieb vibarren Hastings haa claimed. My Lords," said he, redressing the Upper House, "wehave no arbitrary T-^iwer to give, because arbitrary power is a thing whichnomtloD canhld orgive. No man can care- fully govern himself according to his own will, much less can one person be governed by the will of another." If this were true of arbitrary power in temporal things, much more was it true of arbitrary power in spiritual things. In fact though it might seem a hard thing to say—;an" he should be the first to shrink from saying anything that could be really construed as uncharitable, still he thought the time had come for speaking plainly on this malter-it seemed to him that these doctrines of sacerdotal power which some men pro- fessed, and which they got sane men and more women to believe, implied that men believed in magic as they did in the days of E phesus of old^He did not deny that many men sought this power for^fae highest purposes, nor did he deny tha.t they weij among the most devoted and self-sacrificing that the Church of England at the present moment contained; but we could not allow the high personal character of these men, or their de. votion to what they believed to be their work, to cloud our minds to the inevitable consequences of these ex- travagant claims. We couldrnot allow them the sacer- dotal prerogatives which thej claimed. If the standard of honour and of life was to be high and free—and if it was not free it could not possibly be high—we could not, we dare not, allow othew to have dominion over our faith or consciences. To our Master we stand," and not at the bar, as Paul declared, of any human judgment. 1
ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. > The Philadelphia Ledger isiterates what has been so often said of late respecting the opening for emigrants to the United States. There are intima- tions, it affirms, of another tide of emigration set- ting in towards the shores oj America, and it calls upou the Press of Great Brtain and Germany to make known to intending ex^rants what is the state of the labour market on the ^aer side of the Atlantic. Those who go there with the view of settling in the agricultural portions of the country as tillers of the soil will, says this authority,-find plenty of scope, and will benefit themselves, aaa make work for un- employed mechanics alrewly out there. jLThere is plenty of room for them either in. the Middle or S juthern States, in the Hew ealfciof the far west. The worst of it is that this is apoiut upon which the Indians are sometimes found to be of a contrary opinion, and it is awkward to have to dispute with people who back up their opinions with tomahawks and scalping knives. In the present state of the labour market in America emigration to any part of the States ought to be steadily discouraged, and the testimony of our trans- atlantic contemporary is very emphatic as to the in- expediency of emigrants going jdot with any iflea of stopping in the large cities oranufacturillg centres, or finding employment in the iron and coal regions. All these fields are overstocked, and" any fresh in- flux from abroad will bring disappointment and trouble t) the new comers, and add to t^e difficulties of those now here. This has been often said of late, but as long as it remains true it cap not be kept too pro- minently before public attention, more especially while in this country trading alid manufacturing terests are being continually harassed by such disputes as that which at Bolton has tllfesn 10,000 operatives out of work.—Globe.
OUR WHEAT SUPPLY. The "Statistical Abstract" states the imports of wheat and wheatmeal and floir into the United Kingdom in the year 1876 ai 51,904,433 cwt. :— namely, 24,454,657 cwt. of grair, and 5,959,821 cwt. of meal and flour, to which last item an addition is made on the principle that 1 owt. of wheat flour is equal to cwt. of wheat in grain, so that the total is shown in weight of grain. This total ip a larger quantity than in any year except 1S75. Of the total no less than 22,223,403ewt. came from the United States, being more than in any year except The import from Russia in 1876 reached only 8,911,788 cwt., a quantity smaller than in any of the preceding ten years except 1874, and only about half the quantity of 1872. The" Statistical Abstract" does not distinguish the amount of wheat imported from Australia or from India, but these sources of supply are rising into im- portance. Mr. Juland Da&v&B, Government Director of the Indian Railways, eø ihhis railway report that it would hardly have btoa thought possible 20 years ago that a granary for England would have been found in the valleys of the Ganges* Jumna, aud Indus, but, notwithstanding their distance from a seapert, we have seen during the last twj years a rapidly increasing production of grain in the provinces watered by those rivers, and a large export trade springing up. In 1871 the export of wheat was 248,522 cwt.; in 1876 it was 5,583,336 cwt., which was sent chiefly to England. Mr. Danvers says:—" When the fibres of Russia were denied to us during the Crimean war, India stepped-in and supplitd us with j ate, and has continued to do so to an increasing extent ever since. The same may now happen with respect to wheat, barley, &c. A country with a soil and a climate capable of producing corn, tea, and tobacco, as well as coffee, opium, sugar, indigo, and cotton, must possess powers which, with the assistance of regular and cheap transport, will be ready to meet any demand that may be made upon it."