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------------. THE WELSH PEOPLE…


THE WELSH PEOPLE AND WELSH PRES". AS DESCRIBED BY THE SATURDAY REVIEW. It is not surprising that the ideas of our English neigh- bours respecting the thoughts and prejudices of our coun- trymen are so erroneous, when we bind in the columns of a leading English literary journal the following description of us—a description which will be laughed at for its absur- dity in the Principality— but w iiieh, of course, will be believed to be true by uiue-Unths of its readers iu Eng- lan.):- "The last thirty years, says the reviewer, '"have wit- nessed^ l.trge development ot imlustry once uiiimagmed in the Principality. Tne lorig-hnried resources of the couutr. have put in requisition vvery torm of industry connected with mines. Throughout tiie counties of Glamorgan. Brecon, Montgomery, and Merioneth, tlie iron arid c 'ppei mines, the slate and the qu irries. have withdrawi. thousan Is of men from the poor wages of farm-labour t. a remuneration such as once they could not dream of Where they once got 7s a week, the farm-labourers now g<' | 12s or los. the miners and quatrymen much more. Nor do the advantages of the mineral industry end here. The mines and the railways re-act on each other As the mineral resources are opened out, the railway traffic increases; as this increases, the demand for mining labour increases also. The young men find that thert is a career opened to them not only Leyoud the farms, but beyond the mines and the qll irries, as stokers, as Hrmieti, as rai Wty guards, as tele- graph servants and that they can seeure a competencx such as a former generation IleVer dreamed IIf. 1'11" exten- sion of these employments Íta" narrowed the." COtlll"-¡ i UIII, for farm wages, which hav e iiatur.dly risen w ith each suc- cessive decide. This txteiisioii "lIld have beeti more remarkable tliati it is, had :t not be-11 for one great defect whieii is felt by the bulk of the labouring-classes iu Wales 11. is one of t Ite III0st ctlrious instances uf uoti-ceiitra.iz it ion that in a kingdom of such limited area as this, a Sluai. corner should have for centuries preserv ed a distinct race, language, customs, and, so to speak, religion. Tnere can hardly be a million persons living ill North and South Wales altogether, perhaps not more thati nine hundred thousand- Of these more than one-half never speal; the English language at all and hardly one-half understand it when they hear itspoken The consequences are natural. but lamentable. They wculd be disastrous were the Prin- cipality as large as Ireland. The peasantry aretanght to look on their landlords and clergy as aliens. They have little sympathy with their gentry, and none wisti their clergy. Though naturally the most conservative people io the world, they grow Up Nonconformists aud K.tdica's, with morethan the usual rancour ot Radicals and Nonconfor- mists. They regard thems. Ives as oppressed, and the upper- classes as oppressors This fe-liugis fostered and main- tained by a pre.-s which defames with the impunity always conceded tll an unknown tongue. Where tile squire has forgotten his We sh. alld the clergyman has nev er 1. arlit i.. the invective of a Welsh journal in iv excite strong preju- dices before the victims are made awar§ of their existence or their authors. Nor is the misculet Ooun ieu oy personal calumny or personal otiioquy. It extends to public adS and meetings. It atf. C' tlie ell .racter and Cdl1,]Uct of whole masses of the people. An LII6Iisll a^ent IIr 10relJlan goes down to superintend a quarry or a mine He alters the hours of work or the late of wages, or insists upon a certain finish of execution never exacted lie does not understand Welsh, and his instructions or recom- mendations ate filtered through an interpreter, sometimes hostile, never sympathetic. While he i" doing his duty iu "hat he deem tIle fairest and justest way, the Wllrkluell are ¡¡wetiug. discussing, and exciting 0111" another iu illl. passioned, but to him unintelligible, sounds. The local paper repeats and intensifies their grievances in the smrie unknown tongue. At last, after warnings which he either does not heed or does not understand, he is assaulted and ill.timed for life, orhuds his house Oumed. If the magis- trates and police act as those of Manchester have rlolle Ull a recent occasion, there is no help for it. He must succumb to mob-violence and withdraw. If. however, tbe wagis. trates are firm enough to do their duty, and his em- ployers do theirs, men he stays on. until other deeds of violence are attempted, and the rioters are seized ill the act. rii-n conies atria) before the Judge of Ass.ze, and one of two things happens Either the jury understand English very impei fetJy, or they are so tnoroughly illl pregnated with Welsh (■rejudices that they pay no atten- tion to the evidence, or the jadge's charge, and give the prisoners a trii mphaut acquittal; or. supposing the jury to have brought in the onh just verdict, tile Welsh papers i111uiedi.-itelv neutralizeits uioialeff. ct hy teaching the people that the obj ct both of En Jish law and English capitalists is to trample on theWesh working-man. This perpetuation of a language is a prodigious nuisance ill every way. It keeps an excellent body of >ui j cts apart from their fellow-sub- jects it fosters a fantastic nationality and a fanatical sec- tarlallisllI; it throws a shield over conspiracy and crime; it administers elico.irageu.eiit to the trading demagogue and preacher of socialism, and kindles feuds between the native W elsh and the English who reside among them. The only ways of getting rid of it are :-lst, discourage- merit by those false pa tiots who have hitherto encourged it and, 2nd, the extension of schools The crotchets of the patriots will, like other crotchets, probably derive vigour from opposition, but. despite their whimsical pat- ronage, the elsli language as it medium of daily conver- sation. will in time give place to English, if ouly the Go- vernment iuipruve the. education of the Principality. Already the boy sin the slate, coal, and iron districts see that knowledge of English means higher wages, and they take such means as tiiey can toimprove their own know- ledge of it. But grave difficulties stand in their way. 4 heir fathers ami mothers know nothing of it. and it is never spoken at home. The village schoolmaster knows hut little more, aud the rector, having perhaps three in- cumbencies to eke a subsistence from, can never be got at at for the purposes of tuition. If there is an English school at for the purposes of tuition. If there is an English school I in the distiiot, it. is almost sure to lie a Church school, and is therefore all abomination to nine-tenths of the peasantry, who are either Baptists or Wesk-yans. Theonlybopethat the people will systematically learn English bangs on the establishment of schools by the Government, and the en- couraged, if not enforced, attendance of the pupils. But, while we should on political and economical grounds, hail the establishment of a system of English edu- cation among the Welsh, we should extremely regret 10 see any.sweeping change edected in their character. Already tbe pi-turesque dresses winch the Pembrokeshire "lid dlgaltshile women wore 80 gracifuily have well ltÍ;h dis- appe-oed. The bright colours, so well assorted, which at- tracted the stranger's e.\ e on in >rk £ t and fair d .ys, have given place to cheapand cheating imitations of metropolitan tawdry. Already the weak and distending Iiyptopisies of tert and coffee have supplanted a more solid and strength- ening beverage. Let 118 hope that English education "will not end tiy giving the people only the fuu^e and tatters of English life and manners; frail and showy frippery in exctiauge for good, stout homespun the cant ot English Nonconformity for that of Welsh sects; the deceptive morals of our large towns for the avowed traditions of Welsh 'bundling;' and the unprincipled sejfi-hness of English improvidence for the honourable parsimony of Welsh tlmlt." — THE IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE. The annual ireeting of this institute was hel I on Wed- nesday at the Westminster Palace Hotel, :\1 I' Isaac L Bell, of Mid llesbro (Ill the absence of the Duke of Devonshire), presiding. The attendance "f members was lar^e. and ill- cluded Mr R Fothergill, MI' Mr Joseph Oo, his, M.P., Mr John Lancaster, M. P SirJ. Alhyiie, Bart., Mr W. Fow ler (Chesterfield j. Lord Frederick Cavendish, M P, Mr Brogden, M. P.. ^ir Joseph Whitwoith, Sir'W. Fan bairn. Mr Bolckow. M.P., Mr David Dale (Darlington). Mr Isaac Wilson (Middlesbro), Mr \V. Menelaus (Dowlais). Mr W. Jenkins (Consett), Mr Edward Williams (Middlesbro), &c. The Chairman h ■ ving hri,fly opened the proceedings The Secretary (.Mr John J'ties) read the annual Report, which stated the history of the Institute from its foundation in September, 1868, a- Newcastle. At the end of December the Institute numbered 292, to which a considerable addnion would be made at this meeting. The council recommended that the number of general meetings lop reduced to two, eacn to extend over several days; and the second meeting this year, ill September, was proposed to he held at Merthvr Tydtil, on the invitation of the iron trade of South Wale's, The transactions of tbe Institute would in future oe issued ill a quarterly journal, each number to contain notices of foreign publications, »■&, upon the steel and iron trades. They had considered the desirability of appointing a commit- tee to reporton thequestion of mechanical puddling, and they thought great service wouid be done by appointing such a Committee, with a reasonable sum to be a'iowed for the pur- poses of the inquiry. The rep rt. in conclusion, referred to to bouse accommodation, which it was desirable the Insti- tute should. 8' ti ui secure. 011 the motion of the Chairman (Mr 1. Bell), seconded by Mr Fothergill, M.P., tbe report was adopteJ. Tlie Other routine business having been gone thmn.-v, Mr Fothergill, M. P then invited the members to hoi.I their September meeting in South Wales, and the offer • accepted with acclamation. Trie meeting then proce. ded to discuss the mrtpr l • December by Mr W. Menelaus, of P0n machinery tor rolling rails. improved In the course of tbe discussion the Chairman s.M +' matter would again come before the ne\t tr.^ t J Walker would read a paper the bvd'raul,c^Utch At this point tbe L>uke of fWimwt ^u-tch. the chair for the remainder of the meetinc MIDJUTSFR''VFHI^RRIBY MR> WNIKMS' ,°F tion of the Institute would «io a reat"" rane (Middlesbro). and others? g°°d)' H' C°ch- naper on^Imn^1^ ^>-l'lUer, of Newcastle, then, read a after which fh HS f' Shipbuilding," shortly atler which the meeting adjourned. 'e eVe"ing a conversazione was held Among those present Were the Duke of Devonshire. KG Lord F. C. Brn M L • Slr J- Alley»«- -Mr Bolckow, M p., Mr. i-Ho^den, M.P Mr H. Fothergill. M. P., Mr J. Lancaster, at IT., and Colonel Rodeti, M P. In addition to the models aud diagrams which had been used to exrlain the papers I read at tbe meeting, various specimens of iron, fleet, ,Cal apparatus, spectro-scopes iron ores fossils, and telegraphic instruments of novt i copstructiou were exhibited. One in- vention wh cli appeared to excite considerable interi-t was an iinproveuient an the Davy Safety Lamp, shown by the patentee, Mr J. A. riogg By soldering a lens ssujh as is used in a policeman's bull's-eye" iuto the gauzj cylinder of an ordiuary miner's 1>1.11111, and plaoing II. rdiector behind the flame, a light twenty times as stroug as that given by the ordinary lamp can be obtained, with a saving of MO per cent, in the oousumption of fuel. A further improvement has been effected with a view to prevent the tearful aoci- dents which aiise from the reckless exposure of ;1t UlUle in pits filled with inflammable gases. JtW <. veiy simple lue. Ch.dUC..1 contrivance an extinguisher IS made to fall upon tlie wick when the lamp is opened. During the evening a large tuinilter of tbe members of the Institute assembled, and the Council may be congratulated upon the success which has attended their efforts to briM together from various parts < f England, Sc It!and and Wales those who are interested in this great aud important brand) of our industry. + THE IRON, C ) VL, AX ) TIX PLATE TRADES OF SOUTH WALES. This Wet k the Iron Tr,Lde ma.y be Raid to h:t'\e fl111y realized the anticipations of the early spring. New orders for Kails and Pig Iron hive been pi tee I iu makers" order books, n-i„with-;tan ting t ie fact that many are sold so far forward as the end of thi< year, and some further still. As a result of this increasing demand, the prices are, aud in .Scotland we hear that the men are talking about a strike, and the masters threaten a lock-out. This is not the right spirit to approach the question by either partv Tie Scjbcn masters are doing a very large trade in Pig Iron, an I it would never do to divert this title business into "tner cha. Itlds by a diastrous lock-out. Tne demands ..f ti,e men must tie submitted to a tribunal properly constituted say a Board of Arbitration—when the matter cp.ri be wehinve-tigated. Meanwhile all parties concerned go on with their work. In the North of England things are going on as usual-all are busy. In South Wales every available mill is making rails, and in South Staffordshire the finished iron trade is in a much better position. It is true t'uat the principal demand is for pigs and rails, yet we must not forget that the iron shipbuilding yards are un- smiling very iatge quantities of plates and the engineeriig establishments are doing a much larger trade than has ever been known betore. The manufacture of armour-plates is also acquiring an important position; and the deluanti is not confined to this country, but is made alike by the fius- s).ms to cover the si les of their fortresses, and by our own government in the construction of iron ships, and a large quantity has been sent this week from Sheffield to Pem- oroke Dock. They are the heaviest armour-plates ever received at the yard, nearly all of them weighiugover 16 tons each. and the thickness is about 12 inches. Thus we have nig troii. rails, ship (dates, locomotive iron, and armour- ilates. allthet-e departments being busy,-with every prospect .f an increase in tile demand and we rej dee iu the idea of -oth employer an employed mutually participating. Unusual activity wiil be the characteristic of the Welsh iron trade tot the rest of the year. Orders of considerable v alue are being secured for this district, and clearances to the Baltic ports wi.l be rapidly effected. American markets will largely increase during the next months, as the duty ques- tioll is not likely to become any it)t(>ediment, and should the contemplated railway extensions be carried out a verv considerable trade willyet be done on European account during the y< ar. The home trade is slowly improving. The demand for pig-iron, though inclined to fluctu .-te latterly, is again tolerably hrisft. For bars and other miscellaneous descriptions the inquiry is not so good as might be expected fur the brisk demand for i-z,iis. SINGULAR SUICIDE NEAR NEWPORT. VERDICT OF FELO DE SE. Charles Jones, aged 47, a woodward in th.. employ of L 'id 1 redegar, rvsid ng at Michaelstone-v-Ved w. near Newport, committed suicide on Friday, the 13th inst.. by hanging bimselt to a gate leading into a tield at Coedker- new The circumstances of the distressing case are some- what peculiar, and wili be the best gleaned froin the evi- dence deposed to at the inquest held on Saturday at the Gefu Mably Arms inn. before Mr H. Brewer, county coroner. There was a most respectable jury empanelled, of whllh the Rev William Jenkins, the vicar of Ilichael- stone-y-Ved w, was foreman. The first witness examined wils William L^wis. another woodward, who worked with the deceas-d, and lived near him. He stated that on Fridav morning he was going to work with his butty," to sow some gorse see i in l fox cover," and on going into the lieU he saw his llOd, hanging to the gate. On examining it he found that there was a small rope fastened around the top rail of the gate, and also around the neck of the de- I ceased. There was a sup knot in the cord, so that the «" ater the strain :he tighter- the cord would draw. Assis- ted to untie the rope and to take the bodv awav. Deceased could uot liave been there an hour. Marl known the de- ceased for the last ten years. For the last few days he appeared somewhat low spirited, but he had regularly attended to his work. Ou the previous day be 8|>oke as if lovv spirited Asked what time, and wanted to know what tools he should bring next moruing. Toll him he had better bring with hilll a spade and rake to go on with his work. For teu days he appeared like a man in trouble. His wages was lbs a week, the same as was usually paid to, that cia^s of workman in ttiis neighbourhood. Charles King gave corroborative testimony. He was appointed to work with deceased, but deceased was there first, and he saw him walk across the field. Had known him for twenty years. Only observed him depressed for a fett days. Decea-.ed did not say he was depressed. On the way home the previous evening the deceased talked as ra- tionally as possible. Believed that deceased always lived comfortably with his wife. He had three children, the eldest of whom Was about fifteen years of age. John Morris, a farm labourer, IIf Coed keruew, supported the previous testiuiom. He never noticed anything amiss with deceased, and at seven o cl tck on the morning of the d iy on which he co.omitted suicide he appeared quitt well. Deceased called into his house and stopped ten minutes, asked ttle time hy the ciock, compared his watch with it, and then said. I am not fir from it," meaning the right time. Had known the deceased for more than sixteen years, and he did not live ahove 150 yards from his (wit- ness's; house. Did not believe that any person could have put the rope round his neck, from tne peculiar w p- • ■> whifh it w.s -lone. His body rested against the gate, his feet had slipped away under him. He was completely cnoke I. Never lieard there was anything wrong in hi" numb Saw him perfectly sensible about half-an-hour be- fore he committed the rash act. P.C. Adams, who was immediately apprised of the cir- cumstance, made a statement as to conveying the body of deceased to his home, and also produced the rope by wnk-b hewr.shung. The Coroner carefully reviewed the evidence, and the jury, after mature deliberation, regretted that thev had no alternative but to return a verdict of felo de sc against the deceased The coroner thereu|>on made out his order for burn.l. ana gave instructions that deceased was to be buried between the hours of nine and twelve o'clock on Saturday night at ichaeIstone-y-\ iw Churchyard. Deceased was rtspectably couiiected. GRAND MASONIC CEREMONY. On Saturdiy evening Earl de Grey and Ripon was in- stalled as Grand .Yl.ister of Englisti Freemasons, and such an assemblage of the craft as were then gathered to give him a cordial greeting is without precedent, and no similar event lias takeu place in this c niiitry for twenty-six Years tht position lor that perio being fi led by the Earl of Zet- land, who no«v retires. Upwards of 1,2JO of the highest in ttie craft both at home and abroad as-isted at the cere- mony. The Prince of Wales, who arrived shortly before nveoc.ock, was received with all honours, and was con- oucted by Sir Albert Woods (Garter), Grand Director of Ceremonies, to the reception-room, in which were the Earl of Zetland, Earl de Grey and Ripon, the Duke of Manches. ter, and oi her distinguished Masons. The hail in which the cereuiouy of installation was to take place was three parts fille I soon after three o'clock, and it was found ne- ces>ary to close the doors. As soon as his Royal Highness aud tne grand officers bad entered, the members of the craft were allowed to enter as best they could. The Most Worshtptul the Earl ot Zetland occupied the throne, and ou nis left baud sat Brother the Prince of W ales. Past Grand Master and on the dais were Lord ie Tabley. P.G. Master for Cheshire the Earl of Limerick, P.G Master for Bristol the Earl ot Dalitousie, Grand Master of Scot- lalJd, the Duke of Manchester. P.G. Master for North- amptonshire; Lord Leigh. P.G. Master for W arwickshire Earl Percy, the Earl uf Jersey, Colonel Burdett, P. G: Master ior Middlesex. &c. The Grand Lodge having been opened ill ample form, the Earl of Zetland then directed a deputation of four Provincial Grand Masters and the grand officers to cnduct Etrl de Grey aud iiipon, who was in attendance, into the Grand Lodge, upon which they retired, but soon retuned. Ou his entrance Earl de Grey and Ri po u .win I was received with enthusiastic cheering and ou being placed before the throne, the Earl A Zetland in. troduced tlJt; ue* and Most Worshipful Gran < Master in a congratulatory address. The Grand Chaplain (Brother T. F. L.tveiishaw) offered up a fervent prayer, and after some other ceremonies t. ,e Eirl of Zetland in- vested the noble Etrl with the insignia of his office as Gralld Master, and placed turn on the throne. Sir Albert carter, ilion proclaimed him by his nanies*- am he was sa.uted by ttie brethren. The Grand Master next invested the Eulof Zetland, as Past Grand Master, in a Grid The Grand Master next appointed the Light W urtdiipful Brother the Right Huu. the E irl of Car- narvon. Deputy Grand Master, amid loud cheers, expressing on his beitalf, his great regret that tw found it impossible to be present, in consequence of his having r.o rective the body of his murdered cousin, on that day. The other officers for the year having been appointed, the ceremowy of pre- senting an address to tlie Earl of Zetland, which was voted to him at the last quarterly commuuicatiun of the Grand Lodge look place, ihe Earl of Zetland briefly responded and salt I as long as he liv*d he would do his best to nro'- mote the welfare of the cralt. A splendid inkstand havinsr bee., presented to the noble earl, the Grand Lod-e w J closed in ample form The Prince of Wales was loudl? chtered as tie quitted the hall. At seven o'clock the breth ren assembled in tue new .'rip,i han „ i Jt if Dretn was served and the only -t t-. h I I ba-"quet Veuient v A tj it was being lncon- Grey an Pi 1' Larl uf Zetland presided, Earl d& arriv d V l '"t D- ut,al,^e to remain ou accouut of thfe the bod} ot his murdered brother-in-law. DESPERATE ATTEMPT TO .M OBDER A PVBLICAZL-Oil rid ay morning early a young mau named Switt.. a barmaa III the employment of Air Henry Proctor, licensed vic- tualler in Liverpool, robbed and made a desperate attempt toi murder his employer. It appears at midui dit on I hursday, after cioBmg the premises, iIlr Proctor was about to g.. upstairs to bed. when Swift, without any previous warning, struck Mr Proctor, Knocking him down, cuttin- his face arid head breaking the bridge of his nose, and frac* turmg one ot his legs. ±lie culprit then stole Mr Protor's gold watch aij't chain, and pocketed about £ 5 in monev He then opened a hatch in thu ttoor and threw his victim t«u*n iuto the ceLar, closing the hatch and piling a nuin- Oer of cases of Tarn ,y H11(i champagne over it, so as effec- tually to prevent .Mr Proctor froui getting up or calling for assistance. A poor woman w ho was passing along on Friday moving had her attention ar- restea h) t-lie sounds of m«tauing from the cellar of Mr rroctor a tiouse, and called tbe attention of the police to the circumstance. Tbe sufferer is understood to be in a very critical state- k ^(k'; are the largest holders of « h sky m lhe world, llieir Old Irish Whisky is recom- %N mended by the medical profession in preference to French aiioy fcupplled in casks anu gastfs for home use or ex- v'/T'f u°n' on application to MESSXS. DUN- -IC KUYAL IIU;SH -1>IST1LLEKIES, BJELFAST. 30<i5 BREAKFAST.—EPPS'S COCOA—GRATEI L/. ANL COMFORT- ING. — J he very agreeable character vt this preparation has rendered it a geueral favourite. The Cicu Service Gazette remarks :—*• me singular success which Air. Epps attained by his homoeopathic preparation of cocoa has never been surpassed by any «X|»eriujentj*list. By a thorough know- ledge of the natural Jaws which govern the operations of digestion and nutrition, and b.y & cartful application of the fine pro|rertio3 of well-selected cocoa, Mr. Epps has provided our breaLrast tables witi a delicately flavoured beverage which may save us many heavy doctors' bills." Made siidpiv with boiling wattr or milk. Sold by the Trade only in }1UT jib and lib. wn-liued packets, labelled—JAMES EPPS & Co., Homoeopathic Chemists, London. 295;> THS>SE LADIES who have not yet tried the GLESFIELD SS-AKCU. are respectfully s- ,ncited to give it a trial, and care- fully tollow out ttie directions printed on every p.tckagfr It is rather more difficult to make than other Sureties, but when this is. overcome, they will say like the Queen's A-aijDtirosSj thai is the finest Starch they ever ugsd,