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---------------WHAT THE morons…


WHAT THE morons SAY. I MUSTARD AND VINEGAR. -Both as a condi- ment and as a medicine mustard has been lusown from very early days. It was also used by the Saxons, mixed with honey and vinegar, alter whiult It was simply pounded in a mortar and pastel through a sieve. In the reign ot George 1. a woman of Durham hit 0:1 the idea of grinding the seed in a mill and sifting the flour from the husk, and this method is still employed. Two varieties of mustard used are the black and white. The black is a tull annual, with bright yellow flowers, followed by seed pods, a bait-inch long, containing reddish seeds, and I is supposed to be the same mentioned in the Bible as the tree which grew from "a grain of mustard seed," as the plant grows in the Holy Land to the height of 15 feet. The seed pod of the white variety is much larger than that of the black, aud the seeds are large and of a bright yellow colour. This is the variety used in the salad known as mustard and cress. In the modern system of mustard malting the two varieties are mixed together, the black con- taining volatile oil, sulphur aud nitrogen, which supplies the pungent flavour, the white adding the acrid taste. This pungent oil is not developed till the mustard is moistened by the addition of water, which sets up a kind of fermentation. It should be remembered that boiling water does not have this effect, so that cold or lukewarm water should be used. Cheaper mustards con- tain larger quantities of the white seed and also "heaten or starch flour. The flavour is less bliarp and bitter than the pure mustard, but it Keeps much better. Vinegar is a diluted form of acetic acid and has been known from the earliest period. Wine vinegar is made from wine lees and inferior wines, principally in France, the finest being obtained from white wines. Malt vinegar is procured from an infusion of malt which has previously uudergone fermentation, or from appie cider. Vinegar in the form of lotions is a valuable external stimulant. CHHONIC TOBACCO INTOXICATION. — Dr. Favargor describes the phenomena attending the fatal issue of a chronic tobacco-poisoning wtyoh invite general interest. The patient, an excessive smoker, sixty years of age, was fcu idenly seized with an asthmatic paroxysm. The pulse was 150 per minute, the temperature abnormal, the pupils contracting and reaching but slightly. Constipation ensued, and lasted up to death, twenty-one days later. The psy revealed a dilated and uniformly i y heart, a chronic ulcer of the pylorus, ti intestinal haemorrhages, as immediate fuu-es of death. The observer explains the L il y heart as resulting from a condition of con- duit contraction or spasm of the coronal neries and subsequent ischsemia and fatty defeneration of tho heart muscle—all resulting Irom the excessive use of nicotine. The gastric ulcer probably resulted also from the circula- tory disturbances created by the fatty heart. A" preventive of the nicotine-intoxication, tem- ll(, p >! aiy abstinence from smoking (and perma- nent discontinuation of tobacco on an empty stomach) and the exhibition of diaphoretics (Wot batlis) and diuretics recommend them- selves. LnuiT EATING.—The Journal of Horti- culture poiuts out that we have still something [,II learn as to the times and seasons when we ii uid eat fruit. Weare all quite ready to g: ee that fruit forms a food of great value, but we di-play great lack of judgment iu the manner in winch we take advantage of its valuable ramies. Most people, says an observant Uuetor, instead of taking fruit on an empty stomach, or in combination with simple grain preparations, such as bread, eat it with oily foods, lit.rally cream. Then, perhaps, the whole mass t.t food is washed down with tea, coffee,- or otiier liquid. Fruit, to do its best work, should Ieaten either on an empty stomach or else with bread merely, never with vegetables. Eaton in the morning, fruit is very refreshing and serves as a natural stimulus to the digestive organs. But even when people do eat fruit at the proper time they usually counterbalance its good efleets by saturating it with sugar. Very few kinds of fruit, if thoroughly ripe and at their best, require any sugar, particularly if eaten in the raw state. Unless very tart, it is unwise to stew fruit in syrup, the least possible sugar to make it palatable being the only healthy plan. ULCERATED THROAT.-An ulcerated throat is frequently brought on through a lowness of the system, accelerated by a clull. The attack is generally very sudden indeed, the first symp- tonis being a shivering lit, a severe headache, followed by vomiting, leaving the patient with- out an appetite. The patient then experiences the utmost difficulty in swallowing, the tonsils of the throat by this time having expanded. Some persons recommend drinking a glass of rum in which a spoonful of honey has been mixed, Should, however, the ulcer be a severe one, we have found the most effectual way has been to have it cauterised by a doctor. Solution of caustic is used, and has the effect desired— namely, that of killing the ulcer. Inhaling the steam from poppy-beads steeped in hot water sometimes affords relief. If the ulcer is only superficial we can 1 strongly recommend gi) <crifie and tannin. Threepenny worth pur- cllltciod at any chemist's wiii berve for years. W ab a not too small camel-hair brush paint the tonsils and ulcers well with the glycerine and tannin, and this will have the effect of contract- ing the tonsils aud eventually healing the ulcers. They may be painted as often as convenient. Should any of tho glycerine and tauniu be swallowed it will do no hann.-Family Doctor. MEDICAL ANECDOTES OF THE OLDEN TIME. —Mr. W. H. Harsaut, F.R.C.S., in his presi- dential address to the Bristol Medico-chirurgi- cal Society on Medical Bristol in the Eighteenth Century, gives some autusiug illustrations of medical manners of the olden time, from which wu quote the following :— When Dr. John Paul was physican to tli., infirmary, from 1772 to 1775, the u-g" )i)s of the day called him their good friend Sangrado,' since the minute he was in attendance one of them was sent for to make use of his lancet. Mr. Metford used to say that he had bled thirty patients a day at the infirmary by Dr. Paul's order, and that he was occasionally it, the admission room when Dr. Paul was taking in, and that the first question he asked of every male patient was, 'Are you a Bristol man ?' If the reply was in the affirmative, he regularly wrote in his book I V. S. ad zxx' by way of beginning. Mr. Met- ford requested to know why, without further inquiry into their complaints, he ordered them toii-esomuch blood. 'Because, Sir,' said Dr. 1 'it'll, if he is a Bristol man, I know that he Kiis of an evening smoking tobacco and drinking your abominable fat ale; the first thing to be d. no, therefore, is to let some of that run out, and then we shall see what else is the matter. Or Mr. John Townsend, another eminent Rurijoon to the infirmary, the following is told u He was once walking down Broad Street during an illumination, and observed a boy breaking every window which had not a light. lie a-dced him how he dared to injure people's property in that way. 1 Oh,' said the boy, I all for the good of trade; I ain a glazier!' 'All for the good of trade, is it ?' said Townsend, lifting up his cane and breaking the boy's head. There, then, you rascal, get that mended for the good of my trade; I am a surgeon. The days of the old "barber surgeons" gave rise to the following advertisement in Felice Farley's Journal for March 9th, 1754, which reads:—" Henry Haines, barber, Redcliff Pit, shaves each person for two pence, cut hair for three half-pence, and bleeds for six pence. AU customers who are bled he treats with two quarts of good ale, and those whom he shaves or cuts their hair with a pint each."


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