I PRUSSIA AND HER ALLIES. I BERLIN, JULY 19, EVENiNG.-fn to day s sit- ting of the North Germ:tn Parliament, the Govern- ment introduced a bill demanding a credit of 120,000,000 thalers for military purposes. BERLIN, JULY 19.—In the last sitting of the Federal Council, Baron Friesen, in the name of the Saxon Government-which, as he stated, was en- tireiv at one with all the other Federal Govern- ments—declared that it agreed with all the steps hitherto taken by the President, of the Confedera- tion, and with the views which Prussia had ex- pressed on the circumstances wh:ch have brought about the present position of affairs. Baron Friesen concluded as follows:—" France demands war. Let us hope that it will be carried on with all possible speed and energy." DRESDEN. JULY 20.-The Saxon minister at Paris has been recalled. MUNICH, JULY 20.-The Bavarian minister in Berlin has been instructed by telegraph to notify to Count Bismark that in consequence of the declara- tion ot war by France against Prussia, and the fact of an invasion of German territory having taken place, the Bavarian Government, on the ground of the treaty of alliance with Prussia, and as Prussia's ally, has entered into war w,th France in conjunc- tion with all the German Governments. The Munich Chamber of Deputies have voted the extraordinary military credit of 18,200,000 florins demanded by the Government. BERLIN, JULY 20. The Crown Prince of Prussia assumes the command-in-chief of the Ger- man army of the South, and has already made the necessary communication to the courts of Munich and Stuttgardt. The buoys and seamarks in the river Weser and off the adjoining coast have been taken away, and the pilot cutters have returned to harbour. The lightships have left their stations, and the light- houses will not be lighted. Ships are ready to be sunk in the fairway, a small space being left open. The dismasted barque Knowsley, at Cuxhaven, has been towed up the Elbe. On Monday, the King of Prussia received an ad- dress from the municipality of Berlin, in which his Majesty was thanked for having repelled the un- heard of attempt made upon the dignity and inde- pendence of the nation." The King, in reply, dis- avowed all responsibility for the war, and expressed confidence in the result. We have reason to be'ieve (says the Pall Mall Gazette) that the Prussians are not so advanced in their preparations, especially in regard to the sup- ply of ammunition, as their Government could de- sire, and it is probable that it will be some days yet before they will be fuby ready for the field and L I 1 • 11 ifle report as to 1;ne rrenca advance is correct, the latter seemed determined to take advantage of this circumstance. It has been supposed that the French have a monopoly of the mitrailleuse, but this is an error. The Prussians also have a weapon of this kind, only under another iname-ktigelspritzen. A despatch received from Verviers announces that Cologne is about to be placed in a state of seige, but that the garrison of Aix la Chapelle is to be reduced. ————— —————
THE MILITARY AND NAVAL STRENGTH I OF FRAMCE AND PRUSSIA. We may estimate the French army as it now stands thus:-The active army, composed at the present moment of 400,000 troops, consisting of the contingents of 1865 to 1869 inclusive, each about 60,000 strong, with the- remaining 10 ,000 com- posed of staff, re-engaged soldiers, &c. Then we nave the reserve, composed of the contingent of 1864, whose time of service expires at the end of this year, and of the second portions of the subsequent contingent; that is, of conscripts who- have not passed through the active army, but have during the last two years had some slight military training. The reserve, as, it now exists, contains about 250,000 men, or perhaps rather more and all of these are nominally available for active service in time of war. France, then, has an active army whose strength at this moment is about 400,000,. and a re- serve, partially trained, of about 250,000. In the debates on the law of 1868, Marshal Niel showed that when that law shall have come into,full force, and when both the active army and the reserve shall each contam 400,OUO men, of that force of 800,OUO only 540,000 will be available for a campaign. Algeria takes 60,000; the schools, depots, and hospitals, 80,000; and the last batch of recruits cannot be taker away from instruction. I We shall not therefore be under-estimating the present strength of France if we say that of the 650,000 which she now possesses in her active army aud re- serve, the Emperor would not find himself able to place more than 400,000 in the field. The National Guard, re-established by the law of 1868, will come to his aid, and give him, from forces almost equal to those of 1859, a greater number available for a campaign; for every Frenchman who escapes the coucription by drawing a high number is, by the law of 1868, enrolled in the National Guard. And the action of this law was so far made retrospective as to include in the National Guard those who had escape 1 previous conscriptions; and the National Guard now numbers 550,000, available for the de- fence of the fortresses, coasts, and irontiers of the empire, and the maintenance of internal order. France has, with the standards, not counting the contingent of 1870, 400,000; Prussia, under the same conditions, only 200,000. France has of thoroughly-trained reserves only about 100,000, and slightly-instructad reserves J.tit),000; Prussia has trained reserves nearly 600,0U0. France has a National Guard of 550,000 Prussia has her Land- sturm. But it must be added that Bavaria, Wur- temburg, and Baden are bound to place their forces at the disposal of Prussia in case of war, and they should furnish nearly 100,000 troops available for active operations, with nearly as many reserves. France can place at once under arms, for active service, exclusive of her 550,000 National Guards, nominally 650,GOO, of whom 500,000 are trained troops, Prussia nominally about 510,000 trained troops, exclusive of her depots and garrisons, wnicn amount to 410,000 more. In each army the detai.s of the force of others are well known. France has not yet reaped the full benefit of her law of 1808, and she is thus coinparatively weak in reserves, and cannot place in the field the 800,000 trained men whom the law will eventually place at her disposal. In one of the most recent French conferences the forces of North Germany available for the field are summed up at 542,000, and her-depot troops at 188,000; while. adliing her reserves and the lorces of South Germany at her disposal, a total of 1,140,000 is given as the war force at the disposal of Prussia. But France rests her hopes on the belief that the German forces are not of such a nature as will stand a severe trial or a long campaign. The war navy of France was composed, at the end of 1869, of 62 ironclads, 264 unarmoured screw- steamers, 62 paddle steamers, and 113 sailing vessels. The following statement gives the number of vessels of each class, their horse-power, aud armament, after official returns Class of Vessels. Number. Horse-power. Guns. Ironclads 6-) 28,154) b72 Screw steamers 264 55,812 1547 Paddle steamers. 62 8,6155 154 Sailing vessels 113 672 Total war navy, 401 92,627 3045 The formation of a Prussian and North-German navy dates only from 1848, but rapid progress has been made in it for the last few years. At the end of June, 1869, the fleet of war consisted of six iron- clads, twelve frigates and corvettes, 23 gunboats, three paddle steamers, and a number of brigs, schooners, sailing gunboats, &c.
"INTERVIEWING" THE FRENCHI MINISTER. The Daily News enjoys the honour (sic) of intro- ducing into the ranks of English newspaper corres- pondents, that gossip hunter and literary Paul Pry, hitherto to be found only on Yankee soil—the Inter- viewing Reporter," who has commenced his operations on M. Ollivier. He says I resumed my hunt for a safe conduct, and ob. tained an introduction to M. Emile Ollivier. At 10 o'clock I gave my letter of introduction to one of his domestics, who refused to admit that the Prime Minister, or rather, the Guardian of the Seals, as I was carefully reminded, had any secre- taries, and the porter was, at any rate, quite sure that there were no secretaries visible. At 11, I managed to obtain access to a secretary, who kindly informed me that M. Ollivier was then at St. Cloud, and would be at the Legislature at noon. but possibly might be at home at one. At one I returned, and a little later M. Ollivier received me. I had expected that he would simply inform me whether I could obtain the desired safe conduct or not; bEt when I found that he entered into more general subjects, 1 asked whether I might commu- nicate to you his ccnversttion-a permission which he granted without reserve. I will accordingly try to give the conversation as I heard his share of it, well knowing the great difficulty of reducing such a verbal communication to writing. M. Ollivier began by telling me that the War Minister, General Leboeuf, objected to all foreign correspondents, and also to French ones. He would positively have no writer with the French army, or at least that such was the present determination, which might indeed be afterwards modified. He then expressed his extreme sorrow at the attitude of the English Press, which he said was based upon a complete misappre- hension of the true causes of war. M. Ollivier seemed not so much vexed or annoyed, as grieved at the comments in our journals. He complained that the Emperor had always been more than friendly towards England, that he himself had done everything to promote warm relations towards the two countries, that especially he had studied the English commercial interests, but that now he was accused of breaking the Peace of Europe. As to Germany, he had taken office on the condi- tion that there shouid be no German war; the Emperor, too, was well aware of the responsibility involved, and most anxious not to destroy the state of peace, but it was impossible to permit Prussia to drag them through the mud by an insult openly and publicly avowed. Indeed, in the legitimate interests of the dynasty, M. Olhvier had been obliged to entertain the idea of war. France could not brook an insult, or at least a deliberate one. Her rulers, under Louis Philippe, had, it is true, once made her swallow one, but this was the cause of the downfall of the Orleanist family. The exact sequence of events which caused the war was as follows. The Prussian Kmg had at first made concessions. This had aroused against him a war party to conciliate this body he tiad given France an insult and pub- lished it (it was the publication upon which M. Ollivier most dwelt). The. Chassepot was now to decide; but as France was united to a man there was no doubt of the eventual result. I have tried to exactly report what M. Ollivier said, but I can convey to you no idea of the power- the "verve" would, perhaps, be the best word- with which he spoke. I asked his permission to argue the question why correspondents should be excluded from the field. This permission he gave as a matter of course, and I then pointed out that if two parties were engaged n a quarrel, and that if English correspondents were welcomed by one side and excluded by the other, it was only believing in human nature to suppose tuat the combatants whose hopes, whose fears, whose struggles, were painted every day to educated England, would at length become mistress of English sympathies. I instanced the 1866 war, in which England undoubtedly at first t'ympathised with the Austrians, but in which the correspondents, encouraged by one party, snubbed and muzzled by the other, to an immense extent helped to bring English opinion round to Northern Germany. I also gave him one instance in which to my personal knowledge the Prussiaus had sought for an English writer in the present war. I pointed out how easily correspondents might be conti oiled so as to prevent their giving hurtful information of the massing of troops, &c. To an unexpected extent M. Ollivier acquiesced in these arguments, but I fear it was the acquiescence of politeness, not of conviction. He promised to report them all to General Leboeuf, who he dis- tinctly gave me to understand was tue real arbiter ill this matter. So closed my audience. As to M. Oilivier's manner while it continued, the only faint idea that I can give of its perfection is to say that all through I had great difficulty in remembering the exalted position which he holds, so completely did he put me at my ease and treat me on a footing of equality. I have now to make a few remarks upon the above as to political questions. They are no doubt important, but they are not within my metier. As to the correspondent question, with all my respect for General Leboeuf as a proved organiser and (probably) a high-class strategist, I think he is utterly wrom. Correspondents could do harm if they were allowed to telegraph what they chose, but this is easily prevented, the real reason that generals object to writers in their c tmp is because they dislike and resent criticism. To a class-only a class-of military men, criticism from beings who are not at least a grade above them is not merely distasteful-it is unendurable. Still General Leboeuf ought to be above that feeling. This view might be unobjectionable if the sympathies of a nation did not follow its press. The first Napoleon said that the army should be one with the nation, the nation one with the army. Under the modern conditions of society, the French press can alone effect that in France; while the same country may bid good bye to the sympathies of England if she excludes, while Prussia (as I believe) encourages writers. I forgot to have said that M. OIlivier hinted-I don't think he said—that a victory would determine exterior sympathies; a remark with a great deal of truth, but which does not comprise the whole ques- tion. Another point in M. Ollivier's conversation struck him. He incidentally said the Chassepot must now resolve the question; but he did not seem to take any interest in the technical details of the subject. There M. Ollivier was right; probably he went on this all important fact being the opinion of others; but I have personally no doubt that the Chassepot will do a great Ileal for the French. As far as breech action is concerned, the Chassepot is only a trifle better than the original needle-gun it is a shade quicker in loading, and has a shade less Iterachement," or spitting, than the needle-gun, and so disturbs less the aim of its firer, but in the barrel, it is all Lombard street to a China orange on the Chassepot. The needle-gun has a barrel designed long before 1870. The French barrel was blocked out with all the superior science of 1866. The needle-gun has a poor trajectory at anything like a decent range (500 yards), and wounds rather than kills the Chassepot bullet, driven by a huge charge of powder, has a magnificently flat trajectory, and, flattening out makes a terrible hole. There are certainly some improved needle-guns; but an arm must be re-designed, not patched to secure victory. With regard to British arms, the Chasse- pot has an inferior breach action, but an infinitely better barrel than the Snider; while it is in all respects below the Henry-Martini, of which we have only 200, and these hand-made.
PROPERTY AT SEA. I IIERLIN, JULY la, EVENING. — The omcial Staats Anseiger of to-day publishes a decree order- ing that French merchant vessels shall not be cap- tured by vessels of the federal fleet except under circumstances where capture would be justified in the case of neutral ships. The same decree sum- mons all North Germans now serving in the French army to return home without delay. WASHINGTON, JULY 20.-The Prussian Minister has anuounced to Secretary Fish that private property on the high seas will be exempted from seizure by Prussian vessels, with regard to reci- procity. Prevost Paradol has also informed Mr Fish that France will respect the treaty of Paris.
ENGLISH JOURNALISTS FOR THE SEAT OF WAR.—The London correspondent of the Scotsman says :—" The represantatives of the leading English newspapers, including Mr W. H. Russell, Mr Sala, Hon. Mr Lawley, &c., are now in Paris, moving heaven and earth to get permission to join the French head-quarters; but as yet without success.
REPORTED COMMENCEMENT OF HOSTILITIES. The Tirnes states that a rumonr of some authority reached London on Wednesday morning that hosti- lities had been begun by the French near Forbach. A telegram from Forbach dated July 19th says:— The alleged hostilities at Forbach were confined to an exchange of shots between some patrols and custom-house guards. There was no engagement.
I THE CAUSE OF THE WAR. PARIS, July Jl.— lhe Official Journal of to-day refutes the statement of Prussian journals accusing M. Ollivier of having mi-led the Cliambers relative to the facts which have brought about the war, and says-" -%Ve hope Germany will not be misled, and Europe will admit that we only made war from the inevitable necessity of maintaining our security and honour."
HER MAJESTY'S PROCLAMATION Ulf, NEUTRALITY. -1 • » 1_ A Royal Proclamation enjoining upon J3ntlBJ2 subjects neutrality in the war between France and Prussia, was agreed to at a Council held by her Majesty at Osborn, on Tuesday, and a few hours later it was published in the London Gazette. In addition to the ordinary proclamation of neutrality, a code of regulations has been drawn np for the guidance of port authorities in the case of vessels of war belonging to the belligerents. These are prohibited from making use of any of our harbours as places of resort for warlike purposes, and, except iu stress of weather, are only permitted to remain in part 24 hours. If two vessels of the opposing powers should happen to be in any poit at the same time, then one is not to be allowed to leave until 24 hours after the departure of the other. Only such a quantity of coal is to be supplied as will be sufficient to enable the vessel to reach the nearest port of her own country, and no fur- thur supply will be granted to the same ship ex- cept by special permission, until aft,-r the expir- a!iOIl of three moiittiq. Armed ships of either side are prohibited from bringing any prizes into ports belonging to this country.
TEE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR. The Paris correspondent of the Birmingham Daily Post writing on the Wednesday preceding the declaration of war, describes the public feeling in Paris as being bent on a quarrel with Prussia, and explains the causes (quoting Bismark's own words): The prospect of peace is regarded with contempt. The plan of the campaign into Prussia is already laid down. The Moniteur calls it a prome-iade militai' e- Canrobert'a demoiselle is ready for ser- vice. It has been tried on every manoeuvring ground in France, and even in Algeria6 has been at work for some time past. They say that the various experiments have destroyed 800 horses; but what of that ? The real practice will destroy the lives of thou-ands of human beings; but the effect upon diplomacy will be even less. The whole end and aim of all this disturbance is simply to lead to a loan first, and a conference afterwards. The French people will furnish the loan—England and Russia the conference. But Bismark stands aloof, and contemplates the turmoil without emo- tion. He seeks not to disguise his intention, which is not to make war till the right moment arrives. The words he spoke before Sadowa he holds t", doubly now" With an army like that of Prussia, a man has need to be a great dip'o- mate, in order not to yield to the temptation of making war. Austria must be beaten first, and then I must rebuild the empire of Charles the Fifth. France can easily be bought over by the offer of the Rhine bank she covets so much. Germany will not dare to breathe an objection before then she wil. be bound bought, or caj oled into alliance. My d p'an is already traced-to humble Austria, ren d t-r France powerless, to rule in Italy and Spain, t) form a great navy, and then my frien I and Sove- reign, William, may be crowned Emperor To ar- d. P rive at this end France must be graspe d in a Prus- sian vice. Instead of giving her a fresh extent of territory, it is Prussia who will take back Alsatia, Lorraine, and Franche Cjmte." This little plan has been carried out to a certain extent since then- slowly, it is true, but with the steadfast eye of the diplomate fixed upon the result. In every question has the diplomate been triumphant over the policy of France. The question of Luxembourg, the Bel- .gian railways, were both of them terrible affioats to the French Government. Tne St. Gothard question gives to Piussia the passage through Switzerland. Italy is already alienated from France, and now the main question of the day is the placing a Prussian Prince upon th throne of Spain. Is not the E in peror Napoleon III. already pincheJ. in the Prussian vies ? Nothing but a bold stroke can avoid the last blow to French pride-the crowning of King Wil- liam Emperor of Germany. The spoken will of Count Bismark rivals in audacity the written will of Peter the Great. Both may be nearer of execution than we imagine. The letters of Paris correspondents describe the enthusiasm of the French people for the war, and their outburst of hatred against Prussia. The large bodies of soldiers as they leave Paris are warmly cheered by the crowds. The Chambers are also full of patriotism, and have passed almost by acclama- tion all the demands for men and money made by the Government. The Senate on Saturday repaired to St Cloud, and presented an address tothe Emperor. M. Rouher, addressing his Majesty, said The guarantees demanded from Prussia have been re- fused, and the dignity of France has been disre- garded. Your Majesty draws the sword, and the country is with you, trembling with indignation at the exc 'sses that an ambition, over-excited by one day's good fortune, was sure sooner or later to pro- duce. Your Majesty was able to wait, but has oc. cupied the past four years in perfecting the arma- ment and the organization of the army." M. Rouher ad-led that he ventured to hope that the Empress would again act as Regent, and that the Emperor would take command of the army. The Emperor replied: -N,lesAienrs les Senateul's,-I was gratified to learn with what enthusiasm the Senate received the declaration which the Minister of Foreign Affairs has been instructed to make. Wtienever great interests and the honour of France are at stake I am sure to receive energetic support from the Senate. We are beginning a serious struggle, and France needs the co-operation of all her children. I am very glad that the first patriotic utterance has come from the Senate. It will be loudly re-echoed throughout the ountry."
-40w ———— OPENING OF THE NORTH GERMAN PARLIAMENT. SPEECH OF TEE KING OF PRUSSIA. The North German Parliament was opened on Tuesday by King William in person. His Majesty delivered the following speech from the Throne :— Honoured Gentlemen of the Parliament of the North German Confederation,-When at your la-t meeting I bade you welcome from this place in the name of the Allied Governments, it was with iov and gratitude that I was able to bear witness to the fact that, by the help of God, success had rewarded my sincere efforts to meet the wishes of the people, and the requirements of civilisation, by avoiding any disturbance of the peace of Europe. If notwith- standing this assurance, the menace.and imminence of war have now laid upon the Confederate Govern- ments the duty of calling you together for an extra- ordinary session, you as well as ourselves will be animated with the conviction that the North Ger- man Confederation has laboured to improve the national forces, not to imperil, but to afford a greater protection to universal peace, and that when we call upon this national army to defeud our inde- pendence, we only obey the mandates of honour and duty. The candidacy of a German Prince for tke Spanish throne, both in the bringing forward and withdrawal of which the Confederate Government- were equally unconcerned, and which only interested the North German Confederation in so far as the Government of a friendly country appeared to base upon its suocess the hopes of acquiring for a sorely tried people a pledge for regular and peaceful gore runie tit-aff(-lrdect the Emperor of the French a pretext for a casus belli, put forward in a manner long since unknown in the annals of diplomatic in- tercourse, and adhered to aftei the removal of the very pretext itself, with that disregard for the peoples' right to the bleisings of peaep, of which the history of a former ruler of France affords so many analogous examples. If Germany in former cen. turies bore n silence such violations of her rights and of her honour, it was only because in hl. thn divided state she knew not her own strength. To- day, when the links of intellectual and rightful community which began to be knit together at the time of the wars of liberation, join the more slowly, the more surely the different German races—to-day, that Germany's armament leaves no longer an opening to the enemy. The German nation con- tains within itself the will and the power to repel the renewed aggression of France. It is not arru- gance that puts these words into my mouth. The Confederate Governments and I m> self are actlllg in the full consciousness that victory and defeat are in the hands of him who decides the fate ot battles. With a clear gaze we have measured the responsi- bility which, before the judgment seat of God and of mankind, must fall upon him who drags two great and peace-loving peoples of the head of Europe into a devastating war. The German and French peoples, both equally enjoying and desiring the blessings of a Christian civilisation and of an increasing prosperity, are called to a more whole- some rivalry than the sanguinary conflict of arms. Yet those who hold power in France have by pre- concerted misguidance found means to work upon the legitimate but excitable national sentiment of our great neighbouring people for the furtherance of personal interests and the gratification of passions. The more the Confederate Governments are con- scious of having done all our honour and dignity permitted to preserve to Europe the blessings of peace, and the more indubitable it shall appear to all minds that the sword has been thrust into our hands, so much the more confidently shall we rely upon the united will of the German Governments both of the North and South, and upon your love of country; and so much the more confidently we shall fight for our right against the violence of foreign invaders. Inasmuch as we pursue no other object than the durable establishment of peace in Europe, God will be with us as he was with our foretattiers." Previous to tha delict y of the speech, on the arrival of the members of the Federal Council, Dr Simpson called for cheers for the Head of the North German Confederation, an appeal that was thrice frantically responded to. The King read the speech in a firm voice, but dis- played at several passages much emotion and wa- often interrupted with vociferous cheering especially when he spoke of the no longer divided Germany— a remark which W;JS understood to al.ii,le to the co- operation of Bavaria. The other passages most cheered were the ones referring to the peace-loving German people and the misguidance of thy Fiench nation. 0 At the close of the speech Baron von Friesrn, the Saxon Minister, called for cheers for King William, which were repeated over and over again In the North German Parliament bills have been introuiiceu granting a credit of 120,000,0011 o! thaler.? .or war purposes. Iu r.ply to the speech from the Throne, the address of the Parliament states that all Germany heard with joy and pride of the (agiiity and earne-tns with which the King repelled the unheard of Presumption of France. As i, the tlays of the First Napoleon, those who calcu. late now upon the divisions of Germany would be deceived and the misguided French nation would had out when too late the mistake it had made. Public opinion throughout the world recognised the justice ot the German cause, and friendly nations would see in its triumph a prospect of deliverance from the Bonapartist lust of power. This address, which all the members stood up to listen to, was adopted unanimously. Count Bismarck then said that the only document friin the French Govern- ment which he possessed on the subject of the dis- pute was the declaration of war. A despatch from tte Prussian ambassador in Paris stating that the Frelldl Government wished a letter of apology from the King he considerc-d ridiculous., and did uot lay beiore his Mijesty.
FRENCH MOVEMENTS. COLOGK-S, JULY 19, EVENING.—The custom- house inspector at Saarbruck reports that French troops crossed the frontier to-day, and after search- ing the Custom House at Soloterhohe took two custom-house officers prisoners. Intelligence reached Liverpool on Thursday stating that the French fleet passed into the Baltic, through the Sound, on Tuesday night- From Texel we hear-that several men-of-war have passed i 4-Viom fVie steamer Hirondelle. hUtt? ?<tj <MA. VUC v? t??t?t — 7 struck ¿ the reefs of the Isle i-VÜlad. Assis- tance was reciuired to save the vessel, which has been cleared of her guns and other heavy equip- ment, and will, it is now hoped, be got off the rock. The question is raised how this affects Dutch neutrality. Official decrees, dated respectively the 16th and 19th inst., have been published at Paris appointing Prillce Latour d'Auvergne ambassador at Vienna, Marshal Le Bocuf major-general of the army of the Rhine, and General Dejean minister of war- ad interim. Prince Latour d'Auvergne leaves Paris on Tuesday next for Vienna. In Tuesday night's sitting of the Senate the bills voted by the Corps Legislatif, granting supple- mentary credits, were unanimously adooted. In. the C jrps Legislatif the bill prohibiting the publication of news of military operations was passed by 209 votes against 19 votes. The extraordinary budget of the city of Paris, with an amendment, increasing by 38 millions the sum granted for public works, was also unanimously adopted. PARIS, JULY 20.—France declines the proffered modiation of England on the ground that the pre- sent circumstances do not come within the scope of the treaty of 1856. PARIS, JULY 20, 3 50.—In the Legislative Body, the Due de Grammont read a communication to the effect that a declaration of war having been notified to the Cabinet ot Berlin by order of the Empeior, a state of war existed since yesterday between France and Prussia and the allies of Prussia. The Due de Grammont's declaration was received with loud cheers. M. Schneider, the president, said he took official cognisance of the declaration, and the budget was afterwards resumed. Prince Napoleon, who, with his suite, left Peter- head ten days ago, on a scientific tour to Spitzber- gen, arrived on Tuesday night in his yacht off Aber- deen, having been recalled by telegram, which re ched him at Tromsoe, on the coast of Norway, on Monday morning. His imperial highness landed at Aberdeen, but without loss of time proceeded south- ward in his yacht, probably to land at Dunkirk. A telegram from Sunderland says:—The screw steamer Harraton, from Hamburg, which arrived hre this (Wednesday) morning, reports that the tichaarhar beacon was burnt down on Monday morn- ing. Twenty-two steam vessels running between Sundnrland and the North German ports are laid off, through the war.
ATTITUDE OF OTHER. POWERS. I In Tuesday's sitting of the Italian Chamber a questien was asked as LO the attitude of the Govern- ment in the present European crisis. The Minister for Foreign Affairs stated in reply that Italy, like the other Powers, had done its best to maintain peace, and tha, its policy wjuld be one of observa. tion. A request was then made that the corres- pondence of the Government with the other Powers should be laid before the house, but Signor Lanza declined to comply with the request just then. At the same sitting the announcement was made that the Government had decided upon calling out two classes of conscripts as a precautionary measure. A Paris despatch in the Morning Post says;- European political complications are already dawning. Hnnover and Denmark will certainly join France. On the other hand, a telegram from Paris says-" Advicei from Copenhagen tend to shuw that Denmark will remain neutral." The correspondent of the Eastern Budget at St. Petersburg says, writing on the 15th instant—"The Government here ha not yet declared itself on the Franco-Prussian conflict, but it has given some in- dication of the direction in which its sympathies tend. The semi-official Journal de St. Petersbourg, usually so reticent, pleads with extraordinary warmth in favour of Prussia, while the organs of the national party have as yet preserved almost absolute silence on the point." The Vienna correspondent of the Eastern Budget, writing on the 16th, says—" On the whole, the sympathies of the nationalities composing the empire are rather with Franca, the first champion of nationalities, than with Prussia, who, they think, is still, as before the German war, bent upon her own aggrandisement, under the pretext of defending the independences of the fatherland. The general opinion, in a word, is that France only wihes to retain her position in Europe, while Prussia aims at an increase of her power and territories." VIENNA, JULY 20, EVENING.—It is generally understood that in the impending conflict Austria intends to observe towards both sides an attentive neutrality and to maintain a passive attitude with- out mobilising any of h ir forces. The Press Association has received a special telegram from Madrid announcing the universal condemnation of the Spams! press of Napoleon tor declaring war, and stating that Spain is beat on strict neutrality. The Chamber of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg has passed a resolution expressing the gratification of the people that the neutrality of the State is to be observed by both France and Prussia. 1
ENGLAND AND BELGIUM. The course which should be taken by this country in regard to protecting the neutrality of Belgium has as might be expe-ted, been under the serious consideration of the Government. The Pall Mall Gazet e hears the question has been raised in the Cabinet whether it would not be de-irable to des- patch a bidy of troops at once to Antwerp, and that orders have at least been given to hold a sufficient detachment in readiness for that purpose. A letter from Brussels dated Wednesday says- I <0 E"1 Last evening. all th; colonels ot tne uaiaes Civique through the kingdom met here under the presidency of General Pletmcks, in order to draw no an appeal to the volunteers of the country. Had the country been invaded by the enemy, the panic and the consternation now prevailinor through the whole kingdom could not be more intense. The army corps of observation, under the command ot General Ch,.tz,-tl, includes two divisions. The first division is cum mall led by his Royal Hiprhness tne Count of FJanrJers, brother to the King; the second division by General Gassin. The Count of Flanders has established his head quarters at Louvain, about nine miles distant from Brussels. General Chazal s head quarters are at Liege. Colonel Brialmont is the chief of the staff 01 General Eewans, command- ing the army of Antwerp. The infantry of this garrison has just left for Antwerp, the cavalry for Louvain. Tiie service of the capititi is entrusted to the gardes civiques. Already 18,000,OOOf. have been expended on the maintenance of the neutrality of the Belgian territory. Longwy, on the French r ground, is in a state of seige. The four and a half per cents are as low as 93f., the two and a half are 56f. the National Bank shares are quoted 2,000f. Brussels, Ostend, and Spa are deserted by foreigners." BRUSSELS, J-trjry 20.-The army of reserve occupies the Quadrilateral in front of Antwerp, composed of Termonde, Mechlin, Lierre, and Drest. The left bank of the Scheldt has been placed in a state of defence.
THE FRENCH MITRAILLEUSE.—The following is a description which is applicable to both the French Mitrailleuse and the belgian Montigny" Th j machine gun consists of a cluster of barrels, either bound together or bored out of the solid, and mounted on the same principle as an ordinary field- gun. At a few hundred yards, indeed, it would be difficult to distinguish between these weapons, as far as outward appearance goes. To the barrel is attached a massive breech action, capable of being opened and closed by a lever. In the Montigny arm J 1 -.L:- -L.h.l the cartridges are carried in steei piaies perioral with holes corresponding in number and position to the holes in the barrel. This steel plate, in fact, forms the 'vent-piece' of the system. The central- "fire cartridge being dropped into the hoics in the steel plate stand out at right angles from it, and the plates, thus ready charged, are so carried in limber and axletree boxes specially fitted for their recep- tion. When the gun comes into action, the breech is drawn back, a steel plate full of cartridges is dropped into its corresponding slot, and the breech block thrust forward and secured. The gun is now on full cock, and contains from 30 to 40 cartridges, which are fired by a barrel organ' handle, either one by one as the handle works round click-click, or in a volley by a rapid turn of the wrist. When the gun is empty, the breech block is again withdrawn; ttie steel-plate, carrying thu empty cartridge cases, lifted up, and a fresh plate dropped in if necessary. The advantage possessed by the machine gun over inlrantry fire is that it is never in a funk. Ballets may rain around, bursting shells may fill the air, still the thirty-seven barrels of the Mitrailouse shoot like one man, and at 8uO or 1,000 yards will pour volley after volley of deadly, concentrated fire into a circle of from 10 to 12 feet in diameter. No boring or fixing of fuzes is required, and the whole opera- tion is performed so rapidly that tivo steady, cool men could maintain a fire of ten discharges per miuute. On the other hand, the Mitrailleuse could not well compete with the field gun, and it is with this weapon it will assuredly be met. Its bullets would have comparatively slight effect at the ranges at which field artiilery projectiles are perhaps most effectIve. Globe. ————— —————
THE FRENCH MILITARY COMMANDERS. It is now definitively announced that the Emperor of the French will assume the supreme command of the Army of Germany, as he did of the Army of the Alps in 1859, and as the King of Prussia did that of his army during the Seven Weeks' War. The precise constitution of the Emperor's personal staff has not yet been published, but most of the names of the officers who will hold high commands are known. MARSHAL JIACMAHON. Among these the officer most conspicuous for military ability is un luestionably Marshal Mac- Mahon, Duke of Magenta. This eminent soldier, whose name proclaims his descent from a warlike race, is in the 63rd year of his age. He received his military education at Saint-Cyr, from which he passed to the staff corps. He took part in the expedition to Algiers, and was subsequently aide- de-camp of General Achard at the siege of Antwerp. In 1833 he returned to Africa, and rose rapidly in his profession, until in 1852 he became general of division. In 1855 he commanded an infantry division in Marshal Bosquet's corps in the Crimea. In this capacity he took a personal part in the famous and successful assault of the Mulakoff, establishing him- self in that work, and holding it, notwithstanding the repeated and prolonged efforts of the Russians to dislodge him. For this service he was decorated with the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, and on the return of peace was made a senator. In 1857 he was again in Africa, commanding an expedi- tion against ° the Kabyles, and was 0 afterwards appointed commander-in-chief of the sea and land forces in Algeria. It was, however, the Italian war which first placed his name prominently before the European public. With the designation of Com- mander of the Second Army Corps, but really by the side of the Emperor, he rendered at the great, aud for a time very dubious, battle of Magenta, services so important that he was named by his Sovereign, on the field- of battle, Duke of Magenta and Marshal of France. He has now been recalled from the tcy, overiior-generalship of Algeria, to which he was appointed In 1864, to take a command in this war The Duke of Masenta is represented as com- bining rapidity of judgment with calmn ss of temper and firmness of purpose in a remarkable degree. He has never been considered a personal favourite of the Emperor, who, nevertheless, highly appreciates his abilities and character. It may be interesting to recall the fact that he was the officer chosen to represent France at the coronation of the present King of Prussia in 1861, a position which he sustained with great pomp and dignity. lIIA RSHAL BAZAINE. I The fame of Marshal Bazaine, who has already taken command of his corps d'armee, is of more recent origin, and dates from the Mexican war, of which he has himself written a history. He is descended from an old military family, and was born in 1811. He was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique, a-a La. hia 21st year proceeded to Africa, for so many years the great French school of war. Six years afterwards he joined the Foreign Legion, and went through two campaigns in Spain against the Carlists. Returning to Africa he had obtained by 1850 the command of a regiment of the Foreign Legion, and at the outbreak of the Crimean war was appointed to command a brigade of that corps. His name is mentionel1 several times as that of a skilful and brave officer in the despatches of Marshals Canrobert and Peliasier, and in 1855 he was made general of division. He subsequently commanded the French expedition against Kin. burn. When in 1862, while the civil war in America was raging, the Emperor of the French determined to prosecute his designs upon Mexico, General Bazaine received the command of the first division of infantry in General Forey's expedition In October of the following year Forey was recalled, and Bazaine advanced to the chief command. In July, 1863, he led his army into the city of Mexico, and commenced a series or vigorous operations in order to expel President Juarez, whom he drove to the frontier of the republic, and whom he apparently believed he had expelled. This, at least, is the only assumption on which a number of executions of duly commissioned offiers of the republic, who had been taken prisoners in regular war, can be explained. This return to practices worthier of a semi-savage Hispan.)- American settlement than of the magnanimous French people was the more regretable, inasmuch as it was afterwards made the excuse for the execution of the unhappy Maximilian, whose death was said to be a just reprisal for similar murders committed under the French sccupation in his name. General Bazaine did not keep up a good understanding with the Emperor Maximilian, who at length avoided him, to follow a course dictated by a sentiment of personal honour. The tragical end of the enterprise is known. The French marched for Vera Cruz, 1 ,1 1 after iiamine, who naa received me rans ot marshal, had called the Mexican Notables together, and told them that it was impossible to maintain the empire, and that the war against Juarez was without object and without hope. His conduct was severely criticised on his return, in. French journals and periodicals, but the Emperor has consistently protected him. His services in Mexico have been rewarded with the rank and emoluments of a senator and the permanent command of the Tnird Army Corps. He is also honorary conmander-in-chief of the ImDerial Guard. MARSHAL CANROBEET. Marshal Canrobert is well known to many English officers as a good comrade during the Knssian war. He was born in 1809, of a good Breton family. Like Macmahon, he was educated at St. Cyr, and won his successive steps of promo- tion by hard fighting in Algeria, was wounded in the assault of Constantine, and, fulfilling the pre- diction of Colonel Combes, wno fell at his sids, that there was a future for that young man," had subsequently the good fortune to be incessantly engaged in the arduous operations of the next few years. Having thus by the year 1847 won the rank of colonel, he commanded the expeditions Ahmad- Sghir, against the Kabyles and the tribes of Jurjura, and raised the blockade of Bonsada. Having retum3d to France in 1850, he soon became known as one of the officers who had identified himself with the cause of the Prince President, who took him for his aide-de-camp, made him a general of brigade, and gave him a command at Paris, in which he displayed great energy in suppressing the attempt at insurrection whicn followed the coup d'etat. In 1853 he was made general ot division. When the Crimean war broke out he was appointed to command the first division of the Army of the East, which, it will be remembered, suffered very severely from cholera in the Dobrudscha. At the battle of the Alma he was wounded, but not severely, in the arm. Two days afterwards, Marshal St. Arnaud, suffering from a mortal sickness, following the previous directions of the Emperor, transferred to him the chief command. The posi- tion had become difficult, but Canrobert faced it with patience and perseverance. In the end, how- ever, a disagreement with L)rd Raglan about the conduct of the war led Canrobert to resign his command to Marshal Pelissier, ind return to his first corps. Two months afterwards he left the Crimea, and in 1856 was made a marshal of France. In the Italian war he commanded the 3rd corps of the army of the Alps, and distinguished himself at Magenta by his personal valour, and at Solferino by the timeliness with which he countervailed an Austrian movement which threatened to place the army in peril. Until lately he was commander-in- chief of the army of Paris.
THE PRUSSIAN MUjiiAKY COMMANDERS. Although at present no complete and precise announcement has been made as to the distribu. tion of the great commands in the German army, there are some arrangements which arise so natu- rally out of the circumstances of the times and the experience of the war of 1866 that we may safely assume their adoption. Thus, the supreme command will be exercised by the King of Prussia, with General Count Moltke as his chief military adviser. The Crown Prince has been nominated to the command of the South German army, and Prince Frederick Charles will have an appointment of equal, if not superior, importance. Let us glance at the various qualifications of these officers COUNT VON MOLTKE. The first place without doubt belongs to General Count von Moltke, in whom his countrymen believe Prussia possesses the first strategist of the age. The opinion, if not sound, is excusable. Moltke is by birth a Mecklenberger, and was born in 1800. He at first entered the service of Den- mark, but at an early age transferred himself to that of Prussia, and devoted himself with unwearied energy to a scientific study of the conditions of success in war. In 1832 he became a staff officer, and three years later visited the East, where he was presented to the Sultan Mahmoud, who persuaded him to remain in Turkey several years and take part in the military reforms of which the army stood greatly in need, and to assist in the Syrian campaign. Having returned to Prussia he was appo,ntt:d in 1856 aide-de camp to the present King, at that time the Crown Prince. In 1858 he was appointed Chief of the General Staff. In this capacity he is believed to have drawn up the plan of an expedition intended to arrest the progress of the French arms in Italy in 185D, Such at least was the suspicion of the French Emperor, which was supposed at the time to be the real cause of the sudden and surprising conclusion of the peace of Villafranca. In 1861 he accompanied Prince Frederick Charles as chief ot his staff in the exptjdition which the former led against Denmark. His high reputation, however, rests on his most skilful direction of the war against Austria in lb06, the plan of which he had previously prepared. Moltke's name was very little heard of during the war, while those of his subordinates were trumpeted abroad. No man ever produced greater effects with less ostentation and noise. Only once, and then at KoaiggrUtz, did he appear in front of the armies. Seated at his desk in the rear, he received through the field-telegraph a continuous stream of intelligence from all the corps, followed their move- ments on the map, transmitted his orders to the generals in command by the wires, and performed all this with such skill and foresight that not a movement failed, an-i every combination was made at the right moment. He is said to have worked out with his own hand, and himself calculated almost every detail of those operations, the con. -equences of which have astonishdd Europe. After victory had been realised, Moltke was joined with Bismarck as plenipotentiary of Prussia for the negotiaiions with the South German States, and when the preliminary peace with Austria had been signed, he received the Order of the Black Ea 'le the highest decoration which the King of Prussia has to confer. PRINCE FREDERICK CHlBT.ua I Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia, who com- manded the Firbt Army in 1866, is the eldest son of Prince Charles, the second brother of the King, and may be taken as the representative of the modern progressive Prussian officer. He was born in 1828 nas from his youth devoted himself to the military profession, is a general of cavalry, and holds a num- bar ot high appointments. He commanded in the w.tr against Denmark in 1864. In 1866 he was placed at the head ot the First Army destined to operate against Austria, entering Bohemia through Saxony, and so conducted his forces throngh the latter country as to make its people friends of Prussia. The extreme rapidity and energy of movement which he displayed in Bohemia discon- certed the Austrian general, Benedek, who had calculated upon being allowed to assume the offensive. In a series of actions he drove the Austrians to Sidowa, and won the great battile of Koniggratz aided by the Crown Prince, who, bringing up the Second Army, effected his junction with Prince Frederick Charles at the crisis of the day. Prince Charles enjoys boundless popu. lanty with the army. He has a Prince's memory for names and persons, and has a kind word for everybody as he passes along. The soldiers know that he takes a ttrong and practical interest in their wjll-being, and that he has laboured 1'1 successiuuy to improve their position. A British officer, whom we have before quoted, and who accompanied the French army during its campaign, says that with all the dash and fire of a cavalry officer, he can equally well lead his squadrons to pursue the broken enemy, and direct his infantry and artillery with patience in an attack against a firm and steady line. He has a singular power of making his troops care little for fatigue and hard- ship on the line of march he is always with his meu, and can, by a few happy words, close up the straggling ranks of a weary battalion, and send the men forward cheering loudly." Prince Frederick Charles has laboured strenuously, and with great success, to make the Prussian military system more elastic, giving greater freedom to the officers, and relying more upon moral means thau upon rule and method ana dealing with the men. The unexpected suppleness and dash wlach the Prussians displayed iu 1865 is in a great measure the consequence of these reforms. PRINCE FREDERICK WILLIAM. I. The Crown Prince (Frederick William) of Prussia who commanded the second army four years ago. was born in 1831. The chief of his staff in that campaign was Major-General Von BlumentSal, and he had under his orders three army corps, under Generals Von Bonin, Von Steinmetz. and Von Mutias, besides the Guard Corps under Prince August of Wurtemburg. The Crown Prince led his army, composed of 125,t;QO men, from Silesia through the passes of the Sudetic Hills, an operation exposed to great difficulties and to considerable danger. By a series of brilliant operations the army pushed its way through the mountains, fighting severe aotions at Trautenan, Nachod, Skalitz, and Schweinschadel. Before he had practically effected his junction with Prince Frederick Charles, General Benedck hid made preparations to attack the latter with superior force, and the battle of Koniggratz was the result. The Crown Prince was urgently requested to hasten his advance, and appearing on the tield unexpected by the Austrians, in the middle of the battle, struck the heart of the Austrian position, and decided the fortunes of the day. The Crown Prince has the re- putation of being careless of his own trouble, anxious for the welfare of his troops, visiting billets and hospitals personally, but not sparing Ms men or himself in the hour of trial and duty. His march from Miletin to Koniggratz, and his series of vic- tories on entering Bohemia, are cousidered to have established his reputation as an energetic com- mander.
I THE EMPEROR AND THE WAR. I yuestionert as to his departure for the war, at a private banquet in Paris on Tuesday, the Emperor gave no decided reply, but the Prince Imperial, less circumspect, said that it would be lJe, haps in five or six days. This news was somewhat disappointing. Why. it will be all over." exclaimed one officer. "Do not be uneasy," said his Majesty, "you will still find plenty to do."
I PROBABLE PLAN OF THE FRENCH CAMPAIGN. PARIS, JULY 21.—The Fi ancais mentions three plans of campaign between which the Emperor will probably clioise-1, To advance by the valley of the Moselle, entering Prussia uuder cover of Sierck, Ihionville, and Metz, to meet the Prussians on the lines of the Barre 2, To advance into the Palatinate, via Wissembourg and Landau; 3. To cross the Rhine simultaneously at several points.
A BRITISH VKsSEL FIKKD AT. I Intelligence has arrived at Sanderland that a screw collier in attempting to enter the Elbe had three shots tired at her by a French frigate to lay to, but she proceeded on her way. ——————
I A SKIRMISH NEAR SAARBRUCK. A detachment of Prussian infantry of the Saar- bruck garrison exchanged some shots on Tuesday with a body of French chasseurs, aud the latter retired into French territory. There were no casualties.
￼ W I NEUTRALITY OF ITALY. PARIS, JULY O.-The Francais and the Bebats state that Italy will be neutral, but it will be a friendly neutrality as regards France. In certain circumstances Italy has declared that gratitude would determine her to give active support to France. The Temps states that Italy will mass tooops in the direction of her northern frontier, but not in the south.
THE VALLEY OF THE MOSELLE. Wherever the first blow may be struck in the im- pending conflict, it is certain that the valley of the Moselle will once more assume prominence in the checkered annals of war. A brief description, there- fore, of the chief places and objects of interest along its banks, may be of service. We naturally select as the starting point Saarbrucken, the Prussian town ou the French frontier, known to travellers by its strict customhouse regulations. It has a palace, where, till 179d, lived the princes of Nassau-Saar- brucken, and a palace church, containing monu- ments ot the family. The Saar here becomes navi- gable. and the scenery along the route to Saarlouis is very picturesque. There are two historical inci- dents which will serve to preserve the memory of Saarlous, if nothing hereafter render it famous. It was the birthplace of Marshal Ney j and here, too, is the fortress built by Vauban within a year in con- sequence of a wager with Louis XIV. A few miles higher up is Metclach, where the Saar makes a con- siberabie circuit, but a railway tunnel enables the traveller to take a straight line and catch the river again after a comparatively short interval. In this locality is a building founded in the seventh century as a Benedictine abbey, but now transformed into an extensive htoneware factiry. Some four or five miles to the north-west, on a narrow strip of land between the two arms of the Saar, is the ruined castle of Montclair, destroyed in 1350 by Elector Baldwin of Treeves and with a short distance, on a bold rock overhanging the river, is a channel, re- stored by the late King Frederick William IV. (brother of the present King of Prusna), and where he caused the bones of his ancestor the Blind King John of Bohemia, who iell at Cressy (134fV, to be deposited. Saarburg, the noxt place of any importance, is situated in a oasm tormed by the surrounding hills, and is commanded by the extensive ruins of a. castle of the former Electors of Treves. It is not until we follow the Saar a few miles lower down that what may be strictly termed the valley of the Moselle is entered. There once was a bridge over the river at Conz, which is mentioned by a Roman poet of the fourth century, but it was destroye-i by the French, under Marshal Crequi, on their retreat, August 11, 1675, when defeated by the Confederates under George William of Brunswick. The railway crosses the Moselle by a massive stone bridge, on the left bank of which the line to Treves diverm^. Ttptoh is deemed the oldest town in Germany, and is said to have been the capital of the Treviri, a tribe of Belgic Gauls, who were conquered by Julius Cassar in the year 56, B.C. Of its greatness as a Roman colony, and of its wonderful Roman relics, we must not here speak. Its nrst bishop was elected in 328, and tor nearly 15 centuries it continued to be the residence of ecclesia,tical dignitaries and electors, until Clemens Wencelaus, the last elector, trans- ferred his residence to Coblenz in 1786. On August 10, 1794, the town was taken by the French, who exacted a contribution of 1,500,000f., and followed up this step in 1802 by abolishing all the religious establishments." It was made over to Prussia in 1S15. Its population numbers 21,849, including 3478 soldiers, and only 1500 are returned as Pro- testant. The town is surrounded by red sandstone walls, relieved by numerous towers, and the sur- rounding scenery is rich and variegated. Luxem- ourg, though not in a straight line with the Moselle is only a few miles west of Treves. Of its former importance as a fortified town it ia perhaps unneces- sary to say anything, since, in 1867, it was placed under the ward of the Great Powers and dis. mantled. The intermediate places between Treves and Cobleuz, while rich in materials for the antiquary, may ba said generally to possess only secondary his- torical interest. Berucastel has a ruined fortress, and in its vicinity are traces 3f extensive entrench- ments, made partly by the French Trarbach boasts ot a ruined castle, erected in the seventh century, and dismantled in 1734 by the French Trabon, on the table land above which are t aces of the fortili- cation of Montroyal, constructed by Louis XI V. in 168U, and levelled in 1687 in pursuance of the treaty of Ryswyek; Cochen, with its ruined castle, fre- quently tenanted by the archbishops of Treves in the 14th and 16th centuries, and above it, on an eminence, the buildings of a former Capuchin mon- astery—Brodeubach, close to which is the EOren- burg, situated on an isolated peak, the finest ruin I" d I on the Moselle, an d Alken, an ancient borough, connected by walls and towers with the old castle of Tnurant above, built by Count Palatine Hemrich in 1197. It was besieged, 1246-48, by the Archbishops of Treves and Cologne, when the besiegers are said to have consumed 600,000 gallons of wine. Coblenz is magnificently situated at the confluence of the Moselle and the Rhine. It is the capital of the Rhenish province ot Prussia and the seat of the civil and military authorities. Its population numbers :i7,ll2 (inclusive of a garrisonof 4135 men), of whom 3752 arc Protestants and 415 Jews. This is exclusive of Ehreiibreitstein, which is on the op- posite side of tne Rhine. Coblenz was a fortified place in the time of the Romans, by whom it was named Confluentes. It possessed, however, l.ttle importance till the establishment of the Rhenish Towns' Confederation. In the Thirty Years' War it was besieged and garrisoned by Swedish, French, and Imperial troops by turns. In 1688 the town was nearly destroyed by French cannon; but it suc- cessfully resisted all the attacks of the besiegers uti- der Marshal Boufflers. The French took it, how- ever, in 1794, exacted a contribution of 4,OOU,OOOf., and 'made it the capital of the department of the Rhine and Moselle. On January i, 1814, the allies compelled the French to evacuate the town, and the following year it became Prussian. Without stop- ping to describe the architectural features of the place, we come at once to the ramparts, of which a good view is obtained from the drawbridges. The Karthens is on the right bank of the Moselle, and its fortifications consist of Fort Alexander on the summit and Fort Constantine lower down, on the! site of an ancient Carthusian monastery. The Petersburg rises up beyond the Moselle Bridge, and is crowned by Fort Franz, which commands the town, the roads to Treves and Cologne, and the in- tervening plains. Two smaller outworks right and left of the principal fort, and connected with it by subterranean passages, and a third in the plain near Neusndorf, complete this portion of the fortifications and form an extensive camp, capable of sheltering 100,000 men. The full complement of the garrison is fixed at 15,000. Opposite the influx t' of the Moselle, as we have intimated, rises the imposing fortress of Ehrenbreitstein, termed the Gibraltar of the Rhine. It is situated on a precipitous rock, 401 feet above the Rhine, 592 feet above the sea. Dur- ing the French revolutionary war it was besieged four times-1795, 17Jb, 1797, and 1798, and wa finally surrendered January 27,1799, the provisions of the garrison being completely exhausted. The French added new entrenchments on the north side, but in consequence of the Peace of Luneville they blew up and evacuated the fortress in 1801. At the ?econd peace of Paris 15,000,000f. was paid by the French to the Prussians for the restora- tion of the fortifications. The works were commenced in 1816, and completed in ten years, at a cost of XI,200,000, On three sides Ehrenbreit- stein is inaccessible, and on the north side, where attack is possible it is defended by a double line of bastions, which would have to be taken successively before an enemy could enter. Fort Asterstein, situ- ated on the Piaffendorfer Hohe, to the south of fcibrenbreitstein, completes the fortifica* ions of this bank of the Rhine. A bridge of boats, 470 yards in length, connects Coblenz with the small town of Ehrenbreitstein.
EXTRAORDINARY DISTURBANCES NEAR CHESTER. On Friday night a most unusual scene occurrect in Hoole-road, near Chester. About a month ago a certain retit-etl mrajor who lived in the above road, and by his physique and affectation of religious fervour had gained for himself the reputation of being a great and good man," ran away with the wife of a neighbour for whom he had expressed the most friendly feelings. The major in question is about 53 years of age, and has a wife his senior by many years, and a confirmed invalid. The person with whom he eloped was on the right side of forty, and the mother ot five children. Her family are well known in Wrexham and neighbourhood, her father having resided here some years since. Much indigna- tion was felt at the conduct of the runaways, the more particularly as the husband of the lady was deservedly popular, not only in that neighbourhood, but throughout the adjoining town. About a fort- night ago the absconders were passing through Shrewsbury station, and were recognised by a party of excursionists from Chester, who greeted them with a volley of hisses and groans. On Wednesday ilipht the couple arrived at Chester station, and proceeded to the house of the too gallant major.. They had been, however, recognised by one travelling in the same train, who despatched a special messenger for the purpose of apprising the neigh- bours of their arrival. In consequence of this the couple, on alighting, found themselves greeted with a repetition of the unwelcome sounds before heard at Shrewsbury. On Thursday the news of the return of the runaways, and their sojourn in the same house as the previously deserted wife, spread through the neighbourhood, and at night the house was surrounded by a large crowd of people, who performed what is called the rough music" with a collection of tin cans, marrow-bones, cleavers, &c., interspersed with harangues of a startling character, hisse", groans, and imprecations. The proceedings of Thursday evening having become widely known, and there being rumours that they would be con- tinued next night, there was an immeiase number of people in Hoole road at dusk on Friday evening. The news had been pretty well circulated that an. effigy would be burnt, and this had swelled the- number of people who were present. fhe noises that had been made on the preceding occasion were repeated. A couple of fiddlers had posted them- selves on the road side, and songs, which we must presume were appropriate to the occasion," were sung with great gusto by one of the violinists. A rabble of boys, also provided with vessels of tin, bone-clappers, and sticks, indulged themselves in singing nigger songs in unison and to the accompani- ment of their instruments, some of them occasion- a ly scaling the spikes in front of the house and rapping loudly at the door. The crowd would at one time number scarcely less than a thousand. It consisted for the most part of respectably dressed people, who took no further part in the affair than being spectators. The active participators would not exceed perhaps a hundred. Shouting, hooting, hissing, and discordant noises of kinds were freely indulged in till eleven o'clock, about which time an effigy was brought out of the adjoining street, and was borne above the people's heads to the front of the house where the offending couple was staying. The figure was that of a burly man, wearing a white cocked hat and white gloves, but otherwise attired as a civilian. By a movement given to the pole the strut of a military man was given to the figure in an exaggerated manue?. Upon the figure was pasted a bill, but what was stated upon it was not plainly made known, as it was destroyed almost immediately through the eagerness of the multitude to set fire to I the straw which formed the padding of the figure. The figure blazed out fiercely to the accompaniment of a universal roar of groans and hooting, and as soon as the bearer found it impossible to stick longer to his standard he threw the figure upward among the crowd. The blazing form was then taken possession of by the crowd, who tossed it upward, backward, and forward until the whole of it was destroyed. The commotion continued for half-an-hour longer but as some in the crowd began to throw stones through the windows, the police, under Detective-inspector Burgess, cleared the footpath. The principal portion of the crowd then withdrew, but quiet was not completely re- stored until about half-an-hour past midnight. After Friday night's proceedings many of the respectable inhabitants of the locality addressed complaints to the police, and the county con- stabulary, who have a station about 20 or 30 yards from Hamilton Terrace, took steps to prevent further tumult. On Saturday it was noised about the town that there would be another indignation meeting" that night, and people began to assemble soon after nine o'clock. Two effigies had been prepared representing a male and female, each being seven or eight feet high. The men who had these figures were given to understand that they would not be allowed to burn them on the highway, but might do so on the g 'een by the Flookersbrook pits or in Folly Field, and they promised to burn the figures either at one or other of the places mentioned. About ten o'clock the figures were brought out and paraded up and down the road, and those in charge of them being again reminded that they would not be allowed to burn the etfigies Oil the road, turned down Newton Lane and went into Folly Field. Instead of setting fire to the figures in the field, the men brought them out opposite Mr Brown's house, and were making for the highway fronting Hamilton Terrace. Inspector 13argezis and other officers met them at this point, aud Burgess took an effigy from the man who was carrying it, and who persisted in taking it into the highway. Burgess having done this was assaulted by a man named Johnson, who was thereupon with some difficulty taken into custody by a posse of policemen, and conveyed to the Biskopsfields police station. An hour and a half elapsed after this affair before anything further was done, the crowd itl the meantime growing bigger with fresh acces- sions from the city. At last the figures were burned upon the space of ground near the pits. This accomplished, about fifty of the more tumultu- ous of the crowd marched from the spot where thi effisries had been burnt, with the avowed intention of releasing Johnson. They commenced throwing stones at the police station, and in a very short space of time every pane of glass except three in the six windows at the front of the building were smashed to atoms. A house next to the station had a few panes of glass broken by stray shots. About a dozen policemen were in the station, and the "situation," as may be imagined, was very un- comfortable. While tke stonr-throwing was going on, about a dozen policeman sallied out, cutlass in hand, and charged the mob assembled in front of the building. While the police were making this charge on the mob they caught a man in the act of wheeling a barrowful ot stones to the police station. The man decamped, and the police took possession of the wheelbarrow and stones. Soon alterwards the mob with the exception of a few loiterers, dis- persed, but there was much excitement in the neighbourhood for some hours afterwards. A few people were slightly hurt with the cutlasses, the sides of which only were used by the police. The police station, with its once trim and neat flower garden, was, in its dilapidated condition, the object ot much interest to large numbers of people who. on Sunday, visited the neighbourhood for the purpose of going into the field where the Primitive Methodist camp meeting was being- held. On Monday, John Johnson, labourer, was charged. before Major French and A. Potts. Esq., with assaulting Inspector Burgess while in the execution of his duty, and was fined .£5. Several summonses have been issued against other parties connected with these disturbances.
STOPPAGE OF THE STEAM TRADE BETWEEN LIVERPOOL AND THE GERMAN PORTS. The trade between Liverpool and the North German ports was virtually put a stop to on Wednesdav both as regards the departure of sailing and steam- ing vessels. One or two steamers, which were ready for sea, and destined for German ports, and prepared to sail yesterday, were at once stopped the owners and shippers declining the risk. One of the largest and most influential steamship corn panies engaged in the Mediterranean trade decided on Wednesday not to acceptfreight at the present rates destined for any French or Spmish ports likely to oe affected by the present complicated state of affaira between France and Prussia.