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BANGOR CLERGY MEETINGS. i

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BANGOR CLERGY MEETINGS. THE SECOND DAY, The Third annual meeting of the clergy and laity of thi»jaioc<*e for the reading of papers and discussing various matters nffectiug the present state of the Church in Wales, took place on Thursday week last, at the National Schoolroom, Bangor, the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop in the chair. A goodly number of the clergy were present, the laity heing also wellrepresented on this occasion, with a sprinkling of the fair sex The Right Rev. CHAIRMAN observed—that in opening this, their third annual conference, he felt himself justi- fled in taking a hasty glanee over the proceedings of the two last years. Three years ago it was quite a matter of doubt as to how these meetings would answer, but he thought he was able to say they were justified in thus calling them together on this additional day of their meetings; and he thought that the papers which had been read from time to time had been the means of do- ing great good. Upon one of the subjects discussed last year he was called to take action, and therefore it was that he would report the result of thataction. He WAAre- quested to consult the clergy of the Diocese on a matter which concerned them especially, that was, whether the clerical incomes above a certain amount might not be fairly taxed one tenth to Queen Ann's bounty for the benefit of the poorer churches. He issued a letter to the Archdeacons, and with only one exception the feeling was against. He would not say that this was a surprise or a disappointment to him, for he knew how liberaland generous some of his brother clergymen were; but at the same time it was only natural they should prefer to keep their liberality in their own channel, and dis- burse it as they thought best. He thought the greatest good could be done not in endeavouring to bring every person into the same channel, but rather by encouraging all zealously and heartily to do all that in them lies in that manner which approves itself to their own mind and heart. There was a particular instance which he wished to bring before them. A person now dead (whom he would not name) had been deeply pained by being accused of not employing a curate in his benefice where there were two churches. Now he (the Bishop) knew that although that person did not employ a curate, he was expendingmore than a sufficient sum to pay a curate's salary in doing what he hoped would in the long run be a more effectual way of pro- moting the good of his parish. He never knew a person against whom there was less ground for such charges. One paper read at the last meeting, and subsequently printed, and which he thought received great attention in other places was upon Lay agency in Wales, written by his friend, Mr. Price, of Bangor. That paper was brought forward in Convocation, and was highly ap- preciated. It was a subject which might well exercise our thoughts in considering how it should be done ef- ficiently, and in consistency with the principles of the Church of England but he thought it must be clear to all that something must be done, not only in those parishes where large numbers of persons were brought together by large works, but also in others where the population was scattered over a large area. He did not see how the people living in distant parts of such a parish could be reached, and others who had left the church brought back, unless some means were adopted for bringing the church back to them. He would take the parish of Beddgelert as an example. It extended over a great deal of ground, and it could not be expected that in the present state of the feeling of the country that the people would build churches. They would not unless they were brought back to the church; and that eould not be done, unless the rector of the parish had some assistance How that could be done must be a matter for prayerful consideration. Another question he wished to bring before them, was one the solution of which was entirely in their own hands. Ever since he came into this district it had been a matter of great con- serti to him that the great societiesof thechurch received eo little support; but in these remarks he excepted some of the charities of the church. He wou!d not name the parishes which were not doing their duty; he would leave it for the hearts and consciences of the persons to whom he referred; but a very large proportion of the parishes in the diocese had done nothing of late years for some of the great societies. He would not wish to ex- ercise his influence as to particular societies (hear, hear) —he thought that was far better left to the clergy and parishioners themselves;—he would not for a moment press the claims of the Church Missionary Society or of the Propagation Society as opposed to each other; but they ought to do something for one or the other—some- thing for the cause of Christ and the church with which they were connected. How was this evil existing in go many parishes to be remedied ? He thought by meet- ing together, for the purpose of stating what had been done in each parish the clergy would strengthen one another's hand. Then again, as to the working of the establishment, it would surely be a good thing if the clergymen would takethe parishioners into their counsels, consult with them, and talk to them freely on the claims of the church societies. He knew parishes in which this had been done with great effect. His lordship then re- ferred to the papers to be read. The first would be one by Dr. Hill, of Beaumaris, on the Endowed Schools of the Principality," and there was no one who would not feel assured that a paper prepared by Dr. Hill must prove of very great advantage, especially upon a subject in which he had laboured with such great success. After that, papers would be read by the Revs. Henry Owen, Llangefni, and David Thomas, St. Ann's, and then Mr. Hoare would address them on a very important subject, for which purpose he had been kind enough to come from a great distance. The Rev. R. H. HILL, D.C.L., Head Master of the Beaumaris Grammar School, then came forward, and read a paper upon the ENDOWED SCHOOLS OF WALES. The Rev. Dr. Hill then read as follows :— I am permitted by his Lordship the Bishop to address to this meeting, and especially to my clerical brethren here present some remarks on the su bject of education in Wales, viewed partly from my own ground as master of a Welsh grammar school, and partly from that which is common to many of us in our clerical capacity. I trust that what I have to state will not be considered either out of time or out of place, and shall be well satisfied if your thoughts are directed to a matter of acknowledged importance, and your opinions elicited as to the best mode of action, where improvement seems to depend on yourselves, and those under your influence. A great deal has been said of late about the formation of a Welsh University. Probably such an establishment is regarded by some warm enthusiasts as the best means of regenerating the Principality. Now, I am not in a good position to judge of the professed intentions and objects of the promoters of the scheme, for though one would have thought that its powers of usefulness mainly depended on the young men supplied to the University from such training institutions as my own, I am officially uninformed that the idea of a Welsh University has been even canvassed. If those of you, my clerical brethren, who have the care of parishes, are equally un- invited to co-operate, I cannot regard the circumstance as accidental, but must suppose it to arise from the consciousness of sectarian views in those who head the ■movement. They cannot pretend to supersede the claims of Jesus College with its large endowments, and its arrangements so liberalised that in a very few years there will be almost as many scholarships and exhibitions M there are now young men applying for them, nor can they offer to Churchmen anything superior to Lampeter College, whose staff of tutors and professors is equal in efficiency to those of the old Universities, where nume- rous encouragements are given to students through former benefactions, and which, were the materials supplied to it equal to those supplied to Oxford and Cam- bridge, would doubtless in scholastic attainments hold an equal place with them. It is true that the promoters of a Welsh University talk of affiliating Lampeter, and inoorporating it iuto their contemplated University, nut it seems to me that the only advantage to be gained from this arrangement by the existing college would be the acquisition of degrees in arts, the value of which must depend entirely on the very doubtful credit of an untried institution. Deducting then the youth of the country, who still will hold to the Welsh College in Oxford, and those who, as now, attend Lampeter in its independent and unaffiliated condition, deducting also those who, for social reasons, resort to the more English Colleges in Oxford, and to the University of Cambridge, what residue do we leave to the new University ? We must not even concede to it those literate persons who, though intended for holy orders, yet for reasons of economy or otherwise, now seek a comparatively private education, or whose names are at present found on the rolls of such theological colleges as St. Bees', St. Aidan's, and Birmingham. The new University would certainly not satisfy their theological aspirations, but would rather take the London University for its mode!, and it would seem impossible that the education there given should be cheaper to them than it is where they now find it What then is left for our new University, but the non- conforming population of the country, and probably that portion of it which is designed for the ministry of the various nonconforming bodies ? It may be said that the young laity will go thither to be trained for their future callings in life. I cannot think so. The Welsh are a remarkably practical people, and would still go where they best ean get moat solid advantages. For social considerations they would desire the more deve loped civilization of England, nor could they find one subject of education which Wales could claim as its « >»cialiW. Merthyr and Swansea might from their po- pt.J k&m be made to form schools of medicine, but these would be entirely new creations, and their localities less accessible to us in the North than are Liverpool and Binravghaio, places where they cannot hope to be equal in population, and consequently in the frequent. recur- reiceof various forms of disease. Again, Wales has no yjouliar vyotom Qf kv, unless w. except the laws of Howell the Good. Mining, and such engineering as is connected with mines, might indeed be profitably learned here on the spot, but these could scarcely justify the establishment of a University. The very geography of Wales, it has been remarked to me, excludes the idea of isolation and seclusion. We kuow by what route we should now pass from Holyhead to Pembroke, that all our railways run east and west, and none through the length of the land from north to south, that no place or places can be conceived so central in Wales as to be practically lIearcr and more accessible than the great towns of the English border. And this close geogra- phical connection of Wales with England it is which constitutes the essential difference between it on the one hand and Scotland and Ireland on the other. Distance and natural barriers comparatively isolate the two last; and therefore I can complacently regard the foundation of new colleges in Ireland, and respect the time-honored Universities of Scotland, with their prescriptive right to the special teaching of medicine, and yet do not deem it advisable to have tried amongst ourselves the experiment of a Welsh University. Durham should be a warning to us; recently founded, amply endowed, and for a few years attended with much success, it now languishes because, having no specialitc, it cannot, under the spread of the railway system, compete on their own grounds with Oxford and Cambridge, nor can it, with all its earnest endeavours to establish a good theological sys- tem, with the aid it gives to tnedicol students, and with its overtures to the engineering pupils of the neighbour- ing town of Newcastle, the town, I may say, of Stephen- son and Armstrong, gain any adequate accession of numbers. Exhibitions, I am told, are now held there three and four together by accumulation, from the simple lack of students to hold them separately. And yet there may be evils amongst us which want remedying, and aspirations after education worthy of being realised. Our natural deaire is that Wales should stand at least on a par with all other parts of the king- dom in educational advantages, that no need should be felt, and left unsupplieJ, and especially that from Wales there should come forth a due supply of persons quali- fied to serve God in church and state. And perhaps thereare no two points nearer theheartof those who wish well to our four Welsh dioceses than first that we should possess ourselves and secure to our children an educated priesthood; and secondly, that the church should recover the alienated affections and loyalty of the Welsh population. Now, the amount of learning displayed by candidates for holy orders is best known to their Lordships the Bishops, and to their chaplains, but that, a great im- provement is possible must be patent to all, as also that It is a matter of difficnlty to fill the vacancies which periodically occur in the ranks of the clergy with men who can rely on the meaning of a Scripture passage from their knowledge of the original language in which it was written. Let me uot be supposed to be casting a slur on any of my brethren (for the deficiency is by no means peculiar to Wales), rather I would call on all to aid, if it be possible, in procuring for their children and others advantages which men do not the less appreciate when denied in full measure to themselves. My own experience tells me that the succession of regularly- trained candidates must be decreasing every year, unless indeed I am falling into the natural mistake of magni- fying the importance of my own office, when I find yearly the number increasing among my own pupils, of those who either decline holy orders altogether, or seek for them by preference in England. It was a fact as disappointing to me as it was ominous to the interests of the church in Wales, that until the recent ordination of Mr. Pughe Jones, which was closely to be followed by the return to the diocese of the new minor canon, Mr. C. Jones, and of the recently appointed incumbent of Llandrygarn, Mr. Williams, I had for some time no sin- gle pupil from Beaumaris School in holy orders within this or any other Welsh diocese, and this as the result of fourteen years' work. What is true of Beaumaris School must, in some degree, be true of some other si- milar schools, for I know no essential points of differ- ence between them and it. And if this be the case, may we not say that the supply of regularly educated candidates for holy orders has been failing at its very source ? I am not disposed to take on myself, or to throw on my brother schoolmasters any blame for the course things have taken, for the disinclination for holy orders has been of late general, and is especially prevalent in our Universities and herein Wales is under jicculiat disadvantages, for the better educated a man is the more successfully can he compete with Englishmen for prizes in England, the more ambitious he is liable to become for national rather than provincial distinctions, the more his tastes and interests lead him to embark on the larger sphere of action opening to him beyond the border. Even contact with England, is apt to inflict mischief of this kind on the working corps of the Principality. I doubt man's ordinarily returning from the Welsh college in Oxford as devoted Welshmen as before,-I mean Welshmen as devoted to Welsh work, --and it is quite certain that of the elite of the Princi- pality,—those, I mean, who have gained fellowships in Oxford, we receive back but a small proportion for the work of our own peculiar branch of the church. It is a formidable thing (some of the most thoughtful among my old pupils are apt to say to me) deliberately, and with English dioceses open to them, to choose the the life of a clergyman in Wales, in which the disap- pointments are so great, the success necessarily so limi- ted, and the proper sympathy between the pastor and the majority of his flock so little felt to subsist. For this state of things produced by the daily increasing fa- cilities of communication with England, there is but one remedy, I think, viz., that the welfare of Christ's church in our own Principality should be the subject of our constant prayer, if only God of his good pleasure would send labourers into a harvest which is so plenti- ful. We ought, perhaps, to regard our own branch of the church in its present condition less as an established than as a missionary church, demanding equal sacrifices, and equal energy, as if we were setting forth into heathen lands, for, if our province is to convert persons nearer to the fold of Christ than the heathen are, the difficulty (humanly speaking) of drawing to a purer faith those who have already in their own or their fathers' persons seceded from the national church, is far greater than the conversion of ignorant heathen, whose dormant reason has but to be reawakenedforthem to perceive at onee the difference between the idolatry of their past lives, and the religion of Christ now first set before them. It might not be too much to expect from clergymen and others fully alive to the position of the church in Wales that they should devote one or more of their children from their earliest years to the service of the church, so that amid the increasing allurements of commercial life, and prospects of advancement elsewhere, the fact may be always before them that they have a work to do here, to which all other objects and ends must be sub- servient. That all so devoted should not eventually become clergymen, need not be matter of serious dis- appointment, nor would it be even desirable that all should so become, bat a considerable number of earnest- minded persons might be secured for the service of the church, and their education early directed towards qualifying them to become ornaments of their future profession. It is at least in the power of a learned body like the clergy to educate their own children success- fully up to the age when they may be expected to go to school, and to surround them with religious and secular literature, such as suits their age, from the very first. For my part, I would wish every young family in Wales to be abundantly supplied with nursery rhymes, fairy tales, moral and religious stories, popularly and pleasing- ly told, and every attraction which books can give to the young and enquiring mind (if such exist in the Welsh language, so much the better): and were such aids, as much in the hands of the majority of Welsh children as they are in English of similar years, I cannot doubt that the first period of school-life would be spent with far more profit and pleasure, and the results astonish those who are uow driven to the unwilling conclusion that education in Wales commences in the majority. of instances when some, I had said four, of the most valua- ble years have been allowed to elapse. I m(ii-? deliberately state that at present, as far as my experience goes, the larger number, though by no means all of our young Welshmen, start in the race immeasurably be- hind their English competitors that they cannot have reached those offqual ability with themselves when at the age of twenty-two, the University impresses its enduring stamp on the candidates for final honours. If this be the case, it is a matter to be seriously weighed when the efficiency of our Welsh grammar schools are tested; for they, I think, have much to say for them- selves, when as the public school commissioners express it, or possibly (for I quote from memory) the Times newspaper commenting upon their report, "the respon- sibility of inadequate results is thrown by the Universi- ties on the schools, by the schools on indulgent parents, and by parents again on the Universities." The second point I called your attention to, is the re- covery of our lost ground with the Dissenters. Of this I need not say much before yourselves, for the best mode of dealing with this class of persons and the nu- merical proportion borne by Churchmen to, Non-con- formists in this country is better known to you than to me; but I cannot understand a better mode of re-at- taching them to the Church than by inducing them to avail themselves of the Church's instruction in schools; and as the strength of Dissent is supposed to lie in the class above that of the labouring poor, the class I may -an persuade t h ese call them of small investors, if you can persuade these that the best education for their children is to be found in the old Grammar Schools, you will have broken down a hitherto almost impenetrable barrier to re-union. I come now to speak more particularly of these local Grammar Schools, in which, as it appears to me, much of the future success of the Welsh Church is bound up, and which in former times probably supplied the ranks of the clergy almost exclusively, but now do so in a much lass degree. Various reasons may be assigned for this change; you may yourselves be able to suggest sons; I will offer two,one, that the advance in the price of provisions in Wales and the necessity for widen- ing the basis of education have considerably raised the charge made by masters for their boarders (and it must not be forgotten that mMtere are more exclusively masters now than before, and that they do not combine the office of master with that of parish priest, nor are encouraged to look as once they did for their future provision to episcopal and other patronage in the dio- cese) the other is, that the class of boys, coming from a distance, and residing in the town, but not with a master, is nearly extinct. I will not speak here of day- scholars, for though they sometimes recruited the ranks of the clergy, the difference in their case between what is and what was is not very important to our particular view; but I may say that the good effects of the old endowments of Bala and Dolgelley, which are more par- ticularly connected with day-scholars, are, to my mind, seriously impaired, if the schools are reduced to the level of National Schools, and no dead language taught, without which now, as formerly, no entrance isobtainedto the learned professions, and especially to our own, whichis at once learned and sacred. As to how far Bottwnog retains its powers of usefulness in this its original direc- tion, I am not informed; but I mention this school and the two former ones, lest the minds of any of us, when turned to the subject of utilizing Grammar Schools, should be confined unduly to the two larger foundations of Bangor and Beaumaris. Now'the most useful state of these Grammar Schools which I can conceive, and the one perhaps moat acceptable to yourselves, would be such that in the school house or houses boys should be boarded for terms within the reach of ordinary persons. Much may stiil be done towards this end, but we have not yet reached its possible attainment, if the sum of JE50 or X60 per annum is considered beyond the power of ordinary persons to afford for their children. A mas- ter must be able under any adopted system to make a sufficient income himself, and to provide for that in- struction being thoroughly given, which he undertakes to give. Far more masters are required now for a given number of boys than were sufficient under the regime of the' rod; and if we would keep up to the require- ments of the age, many additional subjects must he taught; some of them at higher rates here than in England, from the necessity of specially importing mas- ters for the purpose. Before then this happy consum- mation can be brought about of a master's house with charges moderate, say at the rate of je35 a-year, it is ne- cessary that the fixed income of a head-master should be more than a curate's average salary, and that he should not have to look mainly for his income to the profits of his boarding-house. A great deal has been done already, and still more contemplated in the way of developing the income of endowments, and I trust that much may yet again be done; but another element of success must be found in numbers. A full house with moderate fees may bring in a fair return for trouble and outlay, a half empty one never-and I am not quite sure that the state of the public or even of the clerical mind is at present such as to guarantee numbers to us, even on greatly reduced terms. I have sometimes had opportunities of testing the appreciation of such educational advantages as my own school affords, when offered at low rates, and always with feelings of disappointment at the general result. Perhaps one of the benefits to be hoped, for from an address like this is, that should the opportunity be ever given for a much reduced tariff at the Grammar Schools, it might meet with a cordial support from those whom it is intended to accommodate. It is quite cer- tain that a good education can be given at these schools, and in many respects the very best perhaps for those whose contemplated sphere of future action is Wales It would be possible for Welsh services to be attended, the Welsh language to be kept up; and masters might, so far as was thought advisable, be procured who could converse in that language. I now come to the nearly extinct class of boys from a distance, not residing in the school-house, a class which was once large, and the decay of which no doubt has told on the supply of Welsh clergymen from the lower middle ranks of the population. This decay has come about by no deliberate course of action on the part of masters, but by the gradual change of the times. We are not content now-a-days to launch our children on the world without comforts and safe-guards, and to let them rough it and form their characters for themsel ves. On the tare occasions when such boys apply to me for ad- mission, I tell them that I must be satisfied that they are lodging with respectable and responsible persons, and reserve to myself the power of withdrawing my leave for their residing in the town, a course which I regard as necessary for the keeping up of the discipline of the school. For should the members of this class of boys become formidable, they might be wholly subversive of a proper tone in the school, and a system which has been given up from the feeling of parents being against it, I could not, speaking for myself, permit to spring up again without every check being adopted to prevent its degenerating into a school-scandal. The system such as it was twenty or more years ago I think can never be restored in its pure and simple form but there have been suggested some modifications of it, e.g. a house connected with the school, but conducted by a matron independent of the school. I am here referring to the actual proposals, as far as I. understand them, of other persons, and especially of a gentleman who will doubt- less take the opportunity of stating his views more fully before you himself. I do not thiafe then the dame's house, as such, could answer expectations. True it is that such houses did exist commonly in schools in a former generation, but they have ceased to exist in Win- chester, Harrow, Westminster, and all other schools I can think of, except perhaps one; and if they still linger at that most Conservative of schools, Eton Col- lege, I believe that no new ones will be permitted when the present ones die out. The only dame of my ac- quaintance there is an ex-master, late fellow of his col- lege, and standing high in the literary world as an author. It is felt that something more than a woman's supervision is needed to meet the ever varying develop- ments of boys rising to manhood; and therefore it has been further suggested that an unmarried master of the school should live in the house, and conduct its discipline. A scheme like this seems to me perfectly fmsible, pro- vided that it be carried out in perfect harmony with the other arrangements of the school, and that it meets with the cordial support and approval of the school authorities in its entirety. But the great difficulty would be to make the plan economical. No master now free and disengaged and without responsibility ex- cept during school hours, will undertake the onerous duties of a house superintendent without compensation. Provision would have to be made for the expense of a matron, of servants, laundress, house.rent, taxes, light- ing, return for money invested, wear and tear, and the actual food required by boys of a growing age, from whose mental' powers much is demanded, with propor- tionate waste of cerebraJ tissues, and the necessity of good nourishment to supply the waste. For every boy a certain capitation fee would have to be paid to the school authorities, at Bangor a fixed one of X4 4s. per annum, at Beaumaris one varying, and if the education was not limited to Classics and Divinity, much what the head-master chose to make it. And it must not be supposed that there are funds existing, which could directly aid a house of this kind. I can answer for it, that at Beaumaris we have no superfluity of wealth, but rather feel ourselves crippled for want qf funds sufficient to carry out the present and general objects of the Trust, and I do not hear that other schools are better off than ourselves. Let me not be misunderstood; I am anxious that the experiment should be tried; but as I am informed that it is energetically promoted by others, I feel that I can do more good by representing the difficulties surrounding the case, than by anticipa- ting such arguments as the warm advocacy of others will bring forward in its favour. I do not think then it is possible that the expense to the promoters of the dame's house in its modified form could fall much more lightly upon them than at the rate of 1:35 per annum a head, supposing that twenty boys were to be boarded there. You will call to mind that this is the sum I mentioned as the one I should like to see charged in a school-house; but there is this difference, that the mas- ter would find remuneration in far greater numbers, in the fact that the school-house is only an addition to his ordinary establishment, in himself being the overlooker of the boys, in the absence of house-rent, taxes, and re- pairs, and he would also be backed by the fixed income he would derive from the Trust, without which I could not advise him to hazard the experiment. But if as is stated, large contributions are expected for an indepen- dent boarding-house, they may indeed be well employed in the original outlay, and in reducing the rate of charge to well deserving boys of poor circumstances; we should however be misled, I fear, were we to consider that much less than the above-mentioned sum would have to be expended by, or on behalf of, each student in the house. As to the probability and means of raising these funds, and of the question whether Dissenters are to be invited to contribute, and to share in the advantages of the scheme, I am not the best judge, only let me say, that however desirable it may be to bring Dissenters' children within the Church's influence in the Grammar Schools, we cannot make concessions to them, they must come over to us. It might even be impolitic to admit leading Dissenters to an equal share in the management of common funds, and certainly they would have to understand that any position they or others might hold on a Committee would not entitle them to a voice in the general management of the school. It is only by very recent legislation that Dissenters can claim to enter these schools at all; and when admitted they must submit to Church teaching, and conform, as I be- lieve, to Church services; it may be possible for a mas- ter to overlook the irregularities of a few Dissenting day-scholars, but out of the question for him to conduct the discipline of a boarding-house without the strictest conformity to established rules, Á Dissenter must, in fact, as a schoolboy in a boarding-bonse, positively cease for the time to difont altogether. I have endeavoured, my lord and gsntleiaen, to put [ three propositions before you, which I may here be al- lowed to re-state:— 1. That there are wants in education existing amongst us. 2. That a Welsh University will not adequately sup- ply them. 3. That the remedy is partly in our own hands at home, and partly to be found in the Grammar Schools. In conclusion I will add a few statements about these schools in correction of errors more or less popular, but a/l of which I do not pretend to have a direct bearing on my previous remarks. 1 That where an endowment is limited, the claims on, and the operations under, that endowment must be limited also. 2. That the necessary subjects of instruction in our Grammar Schools are confined to Latin, Greek, and Divinity, excepting where special alterations have been made on the original scheme, and that all other subjects are voluntarily undertaken by the school authorities, aud must be paid for as they arrange. 3. That unless specially stated in the Trust deeds, there are no local prefercnces in these schools, and the only presumption in favour of their being intended for the benefit of a locality is to be found in their being fixed in that locality. 4. That, except where specially stated in" the Trust deeds, poverty is no especial claim on the Trust funds. The idea of a school, through which all should have ac- cess to the Universities and to the higher professions, seems to have been prominent in the minds of the founders. The word Free as applied to these schools does not imply poverty, for it is sometimes used im- mediately before mention is made of the different fees to be paid by the sons of nobility and knights. The word Oharity implies nothing of the kind; for all per- manent benefactions, even the Universities themselves, come under the term, and the Universities are saved from the jurisdiction of the Charity Commissioners only by a special clause. It is as contrary to facts as it is to sound theory that in former times these local schools were mainly attended by the poor, rather than the rich. 5. That there is no essential difference between those which we are accustomed to regard as the great public schools of the country, and schools such as Bangor and Beaumaris, which some of late years have claimed as the special refuge of poverty. All public schools and Gram- mar Schools are equally free, equally charities, equally intended for members of the Church of England, and differing only in their being in different stages of de- velopment. I offer you my best thanks, my lord and gentlemen, for the kind hearing you have given me. Rev. R. POQHK JONES, Heneglwys, spoke as follows My Lord, Ladies, and Gentlemen,—Dr Hill in his able and comprehensive paper relating to the endowed schools having spoken of a plan submitted by me for your Lord- ship's consideration, for enabling the lower middle classes the better to avail themselves of the educational advantages bequeathed to them by the public liberality of the founders of our endowed schools, I time to state the reasons why I think we have a right to look to the Grammar Schools to improve the quality of the educa- tion now received by those classes, and remedying there- by many deficiencies-social, political, and religious, by elevating the tone of the employing class and thereby raising that of the employed, by resting their education upon the broad principle that its object is not only to inform but also to train the mind, not only to store it up with useful information, but also to make it a per- fect instrument in itself for the discharge of the after duties of life, and by supplying a link to connect the two parts of our social educational chain, the one stretching from our Universities and greatpublicschools, downwards, to the innumerable Colleges and Grammar Schools, which are more or less copies of the same type; the other, the separated links, being represented by the Cheshire Halls and Academies, the Lesser Grammar Schools and the National and British Schools. My con- duct may be viewed by some as a piece of officious med- dling on the part of a young man, who had no right to thrust himself forward; but I am confident that you will accord me that hearing which is considerately ex- tended to those addressing a public meeting for the first time. I am also confident that this discussion will be characterised by the highest degree of respect for the life interests involved, and that those vested interests will not demand the sacrifice of the humbler classes, for whom I contend these schools were chiefly de- signed. The first step towards a remedy, is to know ac- curately the amount and the causes of the evil forwhich a remedy is called Here the cause may be regarded as a factor of two dependent variables. The one repre- sents the parents. Parents do not feel the want of edu- cation they not only do not possess it, but see no use in it. The contentment of some of them is truly sur- prising. It sometimes finds expression in the phrase, Rest and let us be thankful." The other is necessarily dependent upon the staple required. The teaching and training power commanded by those large and most im- portant sections of society, stretching from the profes- sional ranks down to those of the superior artizan, is an heritage of the past. We are reminded of the old pa- rish Bcholmasters. Report speaks of men who having exhausted all opportunities of failure, and having had some ugly falls from fortune, perhaps from fame, have turned up as German Doctors, or in the persons of Principals of Cheshire Halls and Academies. Many of them are very ignorant, and but little more refined than their pupils; others are intelligent, and would make excellent assistant masters. The character of the edu- cation received, is described by the Right Hon. W. Cooper as being generally speaking, as faulty, in com- parison with all other education, as it is bad in itself. It has great pretension and show, without substance or solidity. There is no superintendence whatever. There is no test of the capacity of the master, and no test of the success of his teaching. The parents are left to judge, after their own uninstructed notions, of the ex- cellence of the schools, and generally pay most attention to what is really of the least importance." A Royal Com- mission will shortly be issued to inquire into the educa- tion of these classes, and to consider and report what measures are required for the extension of sound educa- tion to them; but the range of the enquiry cannot em- brace the private schools; unless the masters offer themselves for examinetion, in any case no improvement will take place in the character and training of these schools so long as the speculation pays, so long as the public are content, and the educated classes indifferent. The lead must and should be taken by the endowed schools. Their endowments would go a long way to- wards securing a staff of competent and trustworthy masters; some of the smaller Grammar Schools which are scattered about the country, and doing but little, and sometimes that little ill, might be affiliated to the larger ones, to the benefit of all-tlie vested rights of the neighbourhoods where these schools are localised, being respected and satisfied by the adoption of a scale of terms for admission into the country schools-by the creation of those associations—an esprit de corps supplied at present only by the great public schools. The trus- tees of these schools are responsible to the country for its interests in these schools, not only the GuardiaBS of the children severally, but as executors of the will of the Founders, responsible for the element of greatness, the educational and training developement which they were designed to supplement. I say this with the greatest confidence in the Trustees. But the question is not between the country and thetrustees; it is now be- tween the country and the Charity Commissioners. The Feoffees of the Beaumaris Grammar School; for example, administer the Charity endowment according to a sche- dule marked (a) in the Report of the Commissioners. I will presently examine this Schedule; bnt first a few words about these schools. Both are Free Grammar Schools, by which term I venture to understand, schools founded for the promotion of education, and specially for providing a sound training for those classes whose incomes would not admit of th :ir obtaining it at the great public schools, or elsewhere, without the profits of the masters being supplemented by an endowment. Will Dr. Hill permit me to say that I heard that portion of his paper which treated of this question, with regret. I ask, is it not the first suggestion of common sense, that a man who left Beaumaris a poor boy, could never have designed his school but for that class from whom he had sprung I Moreover, I find in the sketch of the will given in the Report before alluded to, the words The endowment for the Head Master and Usher were to be sufficient for the maintenance of meet and able scholars to take upon them the charge of teaching boys." Lower down The Masters are to be unmarried." The Head Master was to receive a yearly stipend of 40 marks; the Usher, 20 marks; large stipends in the year 1609. From the extracts I have read, I contend that this school was designed as a Free Day School, open to all classes. Those living at a distance could only avail themselves of the school, by taking lodgings in the town for their children. But when education became more sought for, it was found a good speculation for the Head Master to take in boarders, and it also conduced to the efficiency of the schools. But no provision was made for housing those whose parents were unable to pay the terms asked by the Head Master; they remained at large in the town; but even this right under the present arrange- ments is virtually, if not actually, denied them. We have been told that their doing so in large numbers, might affect the discipline of the school. Now, it was with the view of remedying this want of supervision, and of increasing the efficiency of the school, bytheadop- tion of thevery same plan, the verysame offerthat is being extended to the upper middle class, that it was proposed to establish in connection with each Grammar School a self-supporting boarding-house for the Lower Middle Classes. The house being under the supervision of au Usher, nominated by the Master, and approved of by the Trustees. The terms for board and tuition being as low as possible. If sufficient funds could be obtained to found a number of scholarships for the sons of the labouring poor and the smaller tradesmen and farmers, the scholarships being open to public competition, the object being to obtain the talent of that claw at as early an age as possible. With regard to the difficulties raised by Dr. Hill, the expense of boarding each boy, would to some extent depend upon the numbers. Some years ago, I understand, there were 30 boys of this is- laud educated at a day-school in Beaumaris, paying 68. a week for their lodging, and L2 a-year for their tuition. Taking into account the increasing numbers of this class, and the superior advantages which the Grammar School might bestow, I thought I might be justified on ultimately reckoning upon 80. If the House is erected by subscription, a charge of X20 per annum for their education, will, it is calculated be remunerat- ing. The charge at Balcomb, in Sussex, will be £16 per annum, if the buildings are erected by subscription. The number of boys calculated upon, being 100U. We are told that there are no funds from the Chirity availa- ble towards meeting such a movement. But will it be contended that the property might not realise by an ob- tainable letting, X200 a-year more than it does at pre- sent. Some years ago it was found necessary to borrow £ 2000, at 4 per cent., for building purposes, and about £ 200 is yearly reserved towards paying off this mortgage. And yet, ever since 1831, the Commissioners had been reserving for repairs, &c.more than a fourth of the School's income. The Lower Middle Classes are now told that they must wait until this money is paid, before anything can be done for them, -and this when they have no interest in the house whatever, being excluded by the Head Master's terms. Assuming, for the sake of argument, that they bad a right to mortgage the Charity to so large a sum, why should the present generation be sacrificed for the good of the next-the present lower middle classes for a paulo-post-future upper class ? Why not extend the period for paying off the mortgrge ? Re- serve a half of the present sum, and thus render avail- able aboat;CIOO a-year. Partly, therefore, by the reform of glaring abuses, partly by the better management of the corporate property, and partly, also, by the mere lapae-of time, about 1:900 a-year might be made availa- ble towards rendering this private school what it was designed to be-a Free Grammar School, with an espe- cial reference to the wants of the island of Anglesea; and I infer this from the facts of the Founder having been an Anglesea man; mark, born not in Beaumaris, but in the parish of Llautrisant; and from the almsmen, being of necessity natives of Anglesea. If it can be sbewn that the adoption of the plan would affect the number of the Head Master's boarders, he would be entitled to a compensation in an increase of salary. The stipends of the masters should be sufficient for the maintenance of meet and able scholars and should increase with the marketable value of the landed property. Dr. Hill has, for many years, presided over the school with zeal, assiduity, and anoblo self-R.%criifce-a self-sacrifice which, if I may take the liberty of expressing it, entitles him to the thanks of every friend of education in this Dio- cese. But I have been forgetting, that all this has been decided by authority to have nothing to do with the question. It may be so; but from my low position, I am compelled to look at things from a hard realistic point of view. Dr Hill has told us that the boys would only be entitled to Latin, Greek, and Divinity. I find, however, that the testator willed that the Feofeea from time to tima, or the major part of them, whereof the Bishop of Bangor to be one, should have power to establish rules and orders for the better government I of the said school, schoolmaster, and usher, aud <<McA- ing of the scholars And these powers conveyed to the Feoffees, continue in force. (See the Report of the Charity Commissioners, p. 729 14). Am I, therefore, not justified in contending, that it was the will of the Founder that the teaching of the scholars should be utilised to thedemands and requirementsoffuture ages ? Why should not a commercial element be engrafted up- on the grammar foundation ? Why should not the school system be adapted to the sons of yeomen, trades- men, and professional men, as-well as to boys one step higher in the social scale 1 The school is a Church school. What has it done for the Diocese? Why three graduates in 15 years ? What is it doing for Anglesea ? Are there 12, or even eight, of all classes at the present moment being educated at the school ? Why should not the school form a link to connect the lower middle classes with those immediately above them, and in Lord Fortescue's language, inspire the pupils, while.there and, afterwards, with some of those feelings towards it and each other, which in their present intensity, accu- mulated through many generations, constitute the most precious inheritance enjoyed by those time-honoured foundations (the great public schools), and are among their most powerful influence for good 1" From rock to rock the cry is echoed for more graduates or better trained candidates to fill up the ranks of the clergy. Why not open the doors of the Grammar Schools to those classes whence the supply can only come ? Here they might obtain a good training from an early age, upon which to found the special knowledge of Theology. Oxford we have Been told is groaning under a super- fluity of wealth. The difficulty is cot in obtaining a scholarship, but in getting scholars. And what of the farmers ? Their sons, speaking generally, are not only worse educated than the youth of the classes above them, but not unfrequently—strange as it may sound—they are no better—sometimes worse educated than the sons of their own la- bourers. They cannot afford to send them to the pri- vate schools, and they are too proud to send them to the National or British Schools. A sound re-organization of school-life and school-work for this class, would lead to a more general demand for the higher kinds of education, and would render the young farmer a more succesful economist and a better master. Co-operation in a scheme of such a thoroughly public character, would, there- fore, be specially calculated to benefit the lower middle classes. Why should not such an effort be concentrated upon the improvement of the existing institutions,upon rendering them available to those classes. Let such a house be attracting the sympathies of all by the removal of every reasonable ground of offeuce or pretext, and for the promotion of brotherly love and sound learning Dr. Hnx thought there was no greater fallacy exist- ing than the opinion advanced by Mr. Pugh Jones, that the Endowed Grammar Schools were founded specially for the poorer classes. They were evidently established with the view of benefitting every class the same as the University, and not for the benefit of any particular class. (Hear, hear). If that was not so, where were the children of the upper classed educated in days gone by; because it was well known that the highest nobility in the land, till very lately, were educated in these schools. The BISHOP, having said a few words, called upon the Rev. Henry Owen, Rector of Llangefni, to read a paper upon UNIVERSITY FOR WALES. I The Rev. Henry Owen then read as follows:- The question of a University for Wales has of late been agitated in certain quarters with much earnestness. And it appears to me to be a subject upon which it is most desirable that the clergy of the Principality should make their sentiments known. In dealing with the proposal to which I allude, two questions seem to suggest themselves first, is an addi- tional Institution for first-class education in Wales, a desideratum and a want; and, secondly, supposing this to be admitted, is the project by means of which it is proposed to supply this want, such as we as members and ministers of the Church ought to countenance and encourage. And first, is there any need of such an Institution, as is proposed ? Is there a deficiency of educational es- tablishments accessible to, and suitable for the inhabi- tants of Wales ? It will be admitted at once that the education offered to Welsh gentlemen, even in an University located in Wales, must correspond with that provided in the ex- isting Universities and Colleges, and more especially that the instruction must be conveyed through the same medium—the English language (not the Welsh). It may then fairly be asked, why will not the old Institutions suffice for the inhabitants of Wales, as well as for the other members of the community ? And if it be answered, Scotland has its Universities, and Ireland has its University and its Colleges, and why should Wales submit to the degradation of being an exception ?" -I would answer that this argument, unless it could be shown at the same time that the absence of such an In- stitution is a real and practical disadvantage to us- would do us but little credit; it would prove that we are under the influence of those narrow and selfish feel- ings for which free intercourse with other nationalities is the most effectual remedy, and which nothing tends more to foster and strengthen, than an isolated and se- cluded position. It may also be answered, that those establishments in Scotland and Ireland, were founded under circum- stances very different from those in which we are now placed-when those countries were not united and iden- tified with the Euglish nation, as they and we now hap- pily are. Moreover, those were days before distance was annihi- lated by means of railroads, when even good coach roads were wanting, and when to travel a hundred miles was considered a great undertaking, and was attended with much labour and expense. Whereas now, travelling is so expeditious and so cheap, that in calculating the ex- penses of an University education, it would make a scarcely appreciable difference whether a young man had to travel to Oxford, or to any convenient point in Wales, —say St. Asaph, Wrexham, Llanidloes, or some place in South Wales. But it will be argued that it is expected the education at the projected Institution may be supplied at a much cheaper rate than at the ancient Universities. I think that the necessary expense of a University education is usually much exaggerated. At all events, those who are acquainted with Oxford and Cambridge can testify, that a young man entering as a Servitor or Siter, and ap- plying diligently to his studies, may, with the aid of exhibitions and scholarships, obtain a Degree at very trifling personal expense. And what Welsh gentleman, careful to bring up his son on an equality with the sons of English gentlemen of corresponding position, would not, if possible, spend an additional £ 100 or so to secure to him the advantages, collateral and otherwise, which attach to a residence at our ancient Universities, rather than subject him to the disadvantages (the effects of which must cling to Mm during life) which every per- son of experience must know to be incident to a provin- cial local place of education. But besides our great Universities,.have we not already an important college within the borders of Wales (St David's, Lampeter) where young men may finish their course of education in two years, at a very reasonable rate of expense. If I am rightly informed, a young man, with the assistan" of a scholarship, (easily obtained), may accomplish the course at an expense considerably under;CLIOO. I must also direct attention to well-known Colleges without the boundaries of Wales (St. Bee's and St, A i(leii'.i), from which many Bishops accept candidates for Holy Orders, and where young men are prepared for the Ministry at a most moderate cost—so moderate that it is not to be expected or desired as I think, that the projected Institution should surpass those seminaries in economy. On the other hand, I must maintain that it is an advantage to Welsh youths to receive their educa- tion where they are not limited to the society of their fellow countrymen, but may have as their companions and associates persons from all parta and portions of the kingdom. Being myself a Welshman, and ardently attached to my native land, I, of course, do not intend any disrespect to Wales or Welshmen; but I think that most experi- enced persons will agree with me, that whether it be Wales or any other country, it is detrimental to the character of a people to live in a state of isolation, cut off from intercourse with any but those of their own nation. In my opinion, nothing tends more to cramp the mind, to foster bigotry, and to inspire persons with undue notious of their own merits and perfections. The conclusion I arrive at on this head, therefore, is, that an institution such as is proposed, is not required: that there is already abundant provisions for the education of the yoith of Wales, equally with those of other portions ot the kingdom,tand that detri- ment rather than advantage to the inhabitants of the Principality would ensue from the establishment of an. other educational Institution within our borders. And here, perhaps, I might conclude my remarks. But I feel as a Guardian (however unworthy) of the faith once delivered to the Saints," that I should evince a culpable want of moral courage and faithfulness to my trust, were I to shrink from giving expression to my opinion as to the character of the Institution it is pro- posed to found. If my information is correct, the chief movers in this undertaking are persons of the mpst liberal principles, including Dissenters and Unitarians-gentlemen, Idoubt not highly respectable and conscientious, and anxious to promote the interests of the Principality according to their own views of what is beneficial-and I would on no account speak of them otherwise than with perfect respect. But I hope it may be said without offence, that it could scarcely be expected that a project connected with education emanating from such a source, would be such as consistent and conscientious Churchmen could ac ceptand support. And this, as I submit to this nume- rous meeting of the Clergy of the Diocese has proved to be the cose. It is proposed to establish this University upon the principle of the Irish Colleges, in which all de. nominations receive a secular education together, where the creeds of the Church are excluded, and all definite religious teaching is consequently prohibited or ignored. To such a system of education, I have every confidence that none of the clergy or the faithful laity of the Prin- cipality will lend their countenance and support; espe- cially as we are already so well supplied with education- al eatabliahments in our celebrated Universities and St. David's College, where the principles of religion as re- ceived by the Church are recognised and enforced, lcav- eningand sanctifying, and directing to a goodly end, the whole system of instruction. But besides our accepting this Institution, founded upon principles so objectisnable, we seem to be expected to relinquish some of the priviliges which we at present enjoy; inasmuch ai that it is proposed to unite and amalgamate in some way or other our College at Lam- peter with this projected University; an arrangement whereby the Church would be deprived of one place of education where the Articles of the Christian Faith are inculcated and insisted upon, and made to pervade and influence the whole course of instruction. And where, for the future, are candidates for Holy Orders to be pre- pared ? Surely not in an Institution founded upon the principles indicated, where, according to the terms of its charter, all definite religious teaching will be, and must be systematically excluded. In conclusion, then, I respectfully submit, that a University within the precincts of Wales is not needed, and would bring no advantage to the inhabitants; and that were it otherwise, one established upon the princi- ples now proposed, would not be entitled to the support of the Clergy and the faithful laity of the Church. Canon JAMES WrrxrAMS remarked—that in these days, locomotion, electric telegraphs, steam packets, and the developement of industry, tend in the direction of bringing mankind together into one body. And why should they, in Wales, seek isolation? (Hear, hear.) There was a most marked difference between isolation and patriotism. In Scotland and Ireland the English language prevailed; but if an University was established in Wales for Wales, he supposed the masters would be Welsh, the superintendent, and all the servants would also be Welsh, and the students would have no means to acquire a thorough knowledge of the English language. They would all in fact be tinctured with what might be called a little Welshism; and be deprived of the great object of education—the bringing of our minds in contact with the minds of other nations. WELSH SUNDAY SCHOOLS. Rev. DAVID THOMAS, St. Ann's, read a paper upon "^Velsh Sunday Schools," which contained several use- ful suggestions to clergymen upon the best mode of con- ducting Sunday Schools. Among other suggestions, he recommended the appointment of school inspectors; and expressed his belief that the holding of united school meetings for catechetical purposes would be highly beneficial. Rev. W. HUGHES spoke of the difficulty which clergy- men might experience in getting schools to submit to an examination by an inspector not appointed by themselves. Rev. P. C. ELLIS could not see why intelligent lay- men might not go about to inspect schools in the man- ner indicated. He also wished to observe with regard to the prayers used in opening Sunday Schools, that the Liturgy would be much more adapted for that purpose than the collects in reading which the minds of the children wandered so much, and recommended to the notice of the Diocesan Committee a small book publish- ed upon that subject by the Sunday School Institute. Rev. G. A. JONES said that the scheme alluded to of united schools had been tried in his neighbourhood, when the members were examined in Griffith Jones s catechism. The moral effect of that plan was highly successful, especially in the rivalry which it excited between the four schools undergoing examination Canon J ONES was afraid it would not answer on the afternoon of Saturdays in rural districts, and thought the children should not be allowed to travel far unless they be accompanied by the clergyman of the pari-,h, liev. JOHY EVANS said that Mr. Thomas' suggestions required deal of consideration and maturing. In his own parish thley already held a quarterly examinaU"tJ, which answered exceedingly well; but if an inspector was appointed, they would be better prepared to under- go an examination; and he should be very glad to re- ceive any assistance his brother clergy might offer him. Canon LLOYD felt sure that adults would not submit to be examined by strangers. Rev. D. THOMAS replied, and the subject dropped. CHURCHWARDENS' ASSOCIATION. HKNRY HOARII, Bsq., of London, then rose and addres- sed the meeting as follow. :-My Lord Bishop, 1, everelia Sirs, and Gentlemen,-Before proceeding to offer any re- marks on the present occasion, let me express the extreme pleasure which it gives me to meet your Lordship and to attend this Conference of Clergy and Church Laity- The year 1853 comes vividly before my mind, when your own predecessor in the rule of this See, and also the bene- volent predecessor of my beloved friend on the left (the Dean), gave me such a welcome to Bangor, as made the deepest impressions on my mind. Your slate quarries afford a very practical illustration of my feeling" to' wards the Diocese in which they are found. Yon know what protection is afforded by a slate roof, which serves to keep off the wind and the rain; and it would indeed be difficult to express the amount of comfort and pro- tection steadily afforded me in arduous Church work these eleven years last past, during which so ninth sound progress has been happily made due in a great measure to the wisdom and experience so abundantly t» be found in this district. The objects concerning which it must be my firstduty to speak, har met with a considerable measure of success, owing to the abilities and exertions of the nUluerc"IO friends who in all parts of the country have diligently prosecuted them; and this success aflord, no small encouragement to the hope that the other to be laid before you now, will in due time be no blessed The main outline of these plans is to be F(IIIII" in the Rules and Statement of the Association 0 Churchwardens, Past and Present; and in laying UP')" the table fifty copies of these for your acceptance, & directed by the Chairman, and other members of the Committee to which it is my pleasing duty to act a* organizing Secretary, let me observe that this Associa"0 is entirely distinct from what is now extensively, reo cognised under the name of The Church Institution. Then again there is the constitutional and cle- rical body well known under the name 0 ( Continued in 3rd page.)