UCTUBX ON ALCOHOL AS A MKDICINE Dr. F. R. Lees, F.S.A., of Leeds (author of the Science of Symbols," and the Alliance Hundred Guinea* Primb Essayist), delivered a lecture on Monday evening last, at the Penrhyn Hall, Bangor, upon the Medical Question of Teetotalism; or the supposed virtues of Alcohol as a Mediciue in various disorders." W. Bulkeley Hughes, Esq., Plascoch, occupied the, chair. The CHAIBMAN, in introducing the speaker, remarked that when he was requested to preside at this meeting he did not hesitate to concede to the wishes of his friends, not only from a desire to promote the temper- ance movement, but also to show what his feelings were upon the oocasion. It was a novel portion for him to be placed in; but, however novel it might be, he came forward with his whole heart and mind devoted to tem- perance. From his position in this county, as one of the acting magistrates, perhaps there were few better able to judge of the benefits that might be derived from this society. The constantly occurring evil of intoxica- tion was weekly-and he might say daily-viiiiting them from all directions; and when they considered the ex- tensive works which surrounded them, not only in the mountains but in the city and its environs, it was quite clear that a movement of this kind was most desirable, and he thought ought to receive favour and encourage- ment from both gentle and simple. [Applause.] It had never fallen to his lot to attend these meetings; and aimply for this reason, he had never been solicited. [Laughter.] Had he tweii asked he would readily have responded to the call; and they might rest assured that hereafter, if he were honoured with a request to attend, they should have his services on any occasion. [AI" plause.) but he had not come there to dilate upon this excellent movement. Dr. Lees and his [the chairman's] friend the rector of N'eath woulil, lie had no nouut, do it In strains which would excite the admiration of the au- dience, and exceed everything he could say. He then failed upon Dr. Lees to address the meeting. Dr. LI:K» said that th" question which he had to dis- cuss that evening WM.I r^i-oguised question of religion and of morals—a question of progress and of happiness -since he-ttth was one of the conditions of progress and happine-is. He contended that the national faith in alcohol was superstitious and absurd; and though he was neither a prophet nor the sou of a prophet, lie ven- tured to predict that the people of this country would in 30 years hence look back upon the views which they now entertained of this question—the strengthening and life-sustjiiniucr properties of alcohol—-simply as an illu- *ion. Though it was recently said in Parliament by Mr. Buxton (an eminent brewer, by-the by") that beer would strengthen and aupfwrt the human body, he really did not know of anything so utterly groundless as that assertion What were the laws of nature by means of which health and strength was imparted to the human tiody T How were the physical :md mental powers of men exercised There was the locomotive engine, impelled by the power of steam, which was after- waids regulated by its size, and the quantity and quality of fuel by which it was generated ii they wi bed to put force into the human system, they must impart 1111- trition iuto it. If they tell him what aud how much ooal was consumed, he would tell them the work and how many miles the locomotive travelled. Now, it was no less absurd to throw bricks to the blacksmith to make iron, than to suppose that alcohol would produce heat, or that it can by any means enter into the composition of any living body. It was held by Baron Leibig, who was recognised m &; great scientific authority-and, he should observe, that the man who believed in scientific authority was a scientific believer in Popes. Science does not admit anything of any man who will believe that it is true. Now it was maintained by that great man and believed by the profession, that though alcohol could not become a part of the human body, it could give beat to the body. Twenty-nve years ago be (Dr. Lees) denied that proposition; and he had to wait till now before the medical world would admit of the truth of his theory. (Cheers.) That which nourished the body mu<t bee,ime a part of it-and that was the only possible condition of strength. Now, alcohol entered their body and was universally supposed to strengthen their ribs, while yet it came up decomposed, in the same state as it entered! If it was to nourish the body it would have to stop there; but contrary to the life BUS- taining property of other matter it went in alcohol and came out alcohol. It could not possibly warm them because the fuel was not decomposed. He challenged any medical authority in the world to prove to him that alcohol was strengthening. Oh," says one, "but I feel I am stronger when I have partaken of alcohol." But feeling was no proof. People in fever felt that they were hot, but v, hen he applied the thermometer to their blood, they were, in fact, much cooler than when in health. A friend of his lately at Tuubridge Wells asked Tom Savers if, when he was trained for the ring, he par- took literally of beef stakes aud double stout. Oh said Tom, "as to these I am no teetotaller; whenever I have any business to do there is nothing like water and dumb bells." So they found that there was in- nocence in water, and perniciousness in strong drink-it did not give strength, it destroyed strength. (Cheers ) Dr. Lees next dwelt upon the action of the nerves, and divided them into two sets-the voluntary and the in- voluntary and dwelt upon the irritation and the ar- tificial power whieh alcohol was supposed to excite. He also ridiculed the universal practice among his profes- sional brethren of prescribing strong drink in various disorders to their patients; but he not only blamed them, but blamed the people also, who wished them to prescribe what they liked-they wished to be deceived, and they were deceived. He then read an extract from the British Medical Journal," in which a learned man observed-that there never was a disease cured by al- cohol, and that it was at the best but an adjunct; and he bad himself read thousands of medical woi ks, yet he never saw a single instance recorded of any one cured by it It was prescribed because people liked it-because people believed in it; and as Pope said of another 8ubject- A man never iI, but always to be blessed. So he would say of those who had a certain faith in strong drink,- strong 44 They never are, but always to be cured." Medicine was ikot a science. He would prove it out of the mouths of medical men themselves. Dr. Richard- liOn, K.K.S., in the presence of 300 or 400 medical men at the Provincial Medical Society," remarked that their action, as said by Lord Bacon 200 years ago, was circular not progressive We are overwhelmed with details," said he, "but are as far as ever from principles; the first corner stone of medical science has not yet been laid." Dr. Lees further dwelt upon the universal ap- plication of alcohol in heart disease, which as a remedy left a worse disease behind. Mercury, bleeding, and purging had destroyed many, but alcohol was more des- tructive than all put together. Dr. Cheyne, Physician to the Forces in Ireland, as far back as 1829, said in a book which the lecturer then held in his hand, that those stricken with fever by the application of alcohol died not the victims of fever, but the victims of in- totiMtion -they were actually intoxicated. He next toide.ttion- -th ?fZd's theory, which medical men had read so much of, and pointed out to the numerous vic- tims of that pernicious system. Dr. Todd was at last killed by his own practice. It was also known thit their estimable Prince Consort perished under the same course of treatment, which slaughtered one out of every four patient, which it affected to cure. Professor Gardiner, who two years ago wrote strongly in favour of the alcoholic theory, had since confuted his own statement. Having referred to the evidence of Dr. Car- penter and Sir John Forbes, the talented lecturer en- tered minutely into the number of cases treated as de- lirium tremeni in the various hospitals in this kingdom. Out of 403 cases in a hospital at I dinburgh 25 per cent. were killed by the remedy and not by the disease; at Glasgow, out of 400 cases, 50 per cent. met with the same fate. Whilst out of all the cases treated according to the anti-alcoholic system in Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Philadelphia, not one died. Alcohol was a narcotic, not a stimulant, and as Dr. Ross observed, it was "a certain enemy and a doubtful friend In cases of cholera large doses of brandv were prescribed. He had been himself attacked by cholera three times, and never had recourse to brandy and in the course of his experience never prescribed it to others. During the time cholera last visited this country, and amidst its sad ravages, he was called to a patient who was one out of thirteen others in the same street labouring under the same disease. fle was a teetotaller, and refused to take brandy under the ad- "0 nT his nhvsician. He visited him, and treated him as he had been treated himself. That man recovered, whilst the twelve others died. In typbeed fever also al. cohol was administered. The only nutritive element in malt beer was the Ueer; but why take it in combina- tion with alcohol, when the essence of malt could be procured without the use of the narcotic Dr. Lees next read a statistical statement connected with inell. rance of the proportion of deaths among the various classes of society, and quoted the concluding observa- tiou of the compiler (Dr. Fleming), who was in no way connected with the temperance movement,-that lie could not account for the preponderance of deaths among the upper and middle ct?, except by thdr ability to procure a greater (litaiitity of intoxicating liquors. Having dwelt upon the persecution which Dr. Jenner and Dr. Harvey underwent iroiii the profession, by their important discoveries, he failed upon the au- dience to press this subject also upon the profession, and expressed a hope the day would soon arrive when alcohol should be dispensed not by the publican, but by the apothecary. He admitted having said strong things in the course of his lecture; but by far f lie strongest observations were made by members of the medical profession. (Dr. Lem sat down amidst continued cheering.) Kev. J. GRIMITH, rector of Neath, Glanmoiganshire, (who it WM stated, would have addreMed the meeting), said that time would not allow him to enter upon the temperance question that evening, and that he would have another opportunity of addressing the people of Bangor upon that important subject. He could have said much in confirmation of what Dr. Lees had said; but he did not lay aside the drinking practice from any scientific enquiry which he had made—he was a total abstainer from conclusions deducible from other pre- mises, as a member of another profession. He deter- mined to make what appeared hI him then a terrible sacrifice for the sake of his fellow-men, whom he saw. deeply embedded in the mire of drunkenness. (Ap- plause.) During a journey that day of 13 hours' dura- tion by rail he saw the frequent resort some of the pas- sengers had to the bottle, whilst he then stood before them with only one meal that day, having finished his journey without nothing stronger than water, with his mind and body in as good and sound working order as any man in Bangor. (Cheers.) There were prejudices both moral and physical to overcome; nothing but total abstinence seemed to him, however, able to uproot the evil which threatened to over-run the country at the present time. Much had been said during the last 30 years about moderation; but what was moderation- what was moderation to one man was drunkenness to another. Can the most experienced man in the social and moral renovation of mankind—can the excellent Bishop of Bangor, than whom no clergyman laboured more assiduously among the hardy sons of toil at Mer- thyr than he did—ask him, and he would tell them whether he was ever able to recover one working man by preaching moderation ? By the practice of self- denial they brought forth the brightest of Christian virtues, lie sought not any change of religious truths— from one novelty to another—lie feU back upon the first principles of their religion, when in the primitive agei of the world he saw this virtue brought forth in the lives of those who are now in glory. He exhorted all to continue in the pract ice of those principles which would ultimately conquer every prejudice, and surmount evet-7 obstacle, and then they would no longer hear the flip- pant remarks which were recently made in the hall of St. Stephens—remarks totally unworthy of senators — about those who sincerely endeavoured to benefit their fellow-men ( Applause.i Mr. OliirKITU again rose to propose a vote of thanks to the Chairman, which was seconded by T. HunHKt, Esq., M.D., Amlwch. The CHAIUMAN brielly acknowledged the compliment, and the meeting terminated.
I RUTHIN". SUKOEANT [(oss.- The ltuthin Volunteer Corps at tended a full dress parade on Wednesday evening last, under the command of Ensign Adams. They assembled specially for the purpose of witnessing their esteemed drill-instructor, Sergeant lioss, being presented with his <Uncharge froin the regular army, in which he had faith- fully Served for a period of twenty-one years, in the 11th regiment. Two years ago, he was transferred from Ire- land to Ruthin, and since then he lias endeared himself not only to the Volunteer Corps, but also to a large number of friends in the town. Although he has not distinguished himself as a warrior, fur the simple reason that he has not experienced any active service, he has won to himself a high moral character, which will heuce- forth serve to extol him as a soldier and a citizen in the opinion of his countrymen. As a proof of his fidelity in his regiment, he was rewarded with a silver medal bear- ing the inscription-" Good conduct;" and his dis- charge is couched in language full of glowing and eulo- gistic terms. The Voluuteers, after going through a few evolutions, adjourned to the new assembly-room of the Lion Hotel, where they spent a few hours in a friendly and convivial manner. A purse containing X 10, sub- scribed by the members of the Corps, was presented to Sergeant Ross as a mark of their appreciation of his valuable services as their Drill. Instructor. COUNTY HALL, Monday, July 4.—Before J. Maurice, Lsq., and Gabriel Itoberta, Es(1. Several persons was summoned by Air. Price Ro- berts, assistant-overseer, for non-payment of poor rates. All the cases were settled out of court, except one, in which David Williams, Llanrhydd-street, was defendant, who was allowed a week to pay. The license of the Cross Guns Tavern, Llanarmon, was transferred to Eleanor Davies. Richard Edwards, of Wrexham, was summoned by PJO. Vaughan for riding in his cart without reius in the parish of Llaufair-Dyffryn-Clwyd, on the 18th ult. Fined 5s. and costs. LECTURE ON MISSIONS.—An important and highly successful meeting was held in the National Schoolroom, under the p. esidency of the Rev. the Warden of Christ's Hospital, RuthiD, to hear from the Rev. H. Rowley, a returned missionary, some account of what was being done and what was still to be done in the interior of Africa. Several of the neighbouring clergy were pre- sent, notwithstanding it was an evening meeting. The meeting was in connection with the Central African Mission. After the school choir, with the nsøiatance of the se. nior pupil-teacher at the harmonium, had sung the hvmn- "From Greenland s icy mountains, fic and prayer to God had been offered up, I'he Chairman, in a few introductory remarks, ex- plained the object of the meeting, and then called upon The Rev. H. Rowley, who began his lecture with an account of the geography of Eastern Africa, illustrating his remarks by a map. He stated that the Portuguese had retained their hold over that country since the time little subsequent to the discoveries of Vascodi Gama; that it was under Portuguese governors, with a governor general at Mozambique, and that the object of these governors in most cases appeared to be to get as much money as possible from the district over which they were placed. The very excellent laws and regula- tions sent from Europe were not worth the paper they were written on. The natives of the interior were un- der the government of their own chiefs, issisted by a council; many of the people are slaves. But the slavery was not of the horrible kind, too common in some other parts of the world, the slaves under their chiefs being in a similar position to that of the trained servants" under the patriarch Abraham. Owing to the mutual good feeling between governors and governed, the chiefs could not be prevailed upon to sell those under them who were slaves, and hence the wretched slave dealeri from the coast incited internal wars, and supplied the chiefs with guns and powde. that they might have the opportunity of purchasing the prisoners on either side. These were the wicked men who [to serve their own lust of gain] were the great scourge and curse of all that part of Africa to which their influence extended. The coun- try before them was under a happy government, and behind them often a desert. When the rev. lecturer and his fellow-missionaries first reached the interior, a blave war was going on to the north of them for the purpose of obtaining women and children as slaves. This hereafter proved a cause of great trouble, adding greatly to the horrors of the dreadful famine of two years later. On their way they released 120 slaves- their drivers being glad to run away when they found the persons they met were English and the description thezf the sight of suffering, and disease, and weak- ness was most touching. Many of the unhappy cap- tives were still with open wounds, and the shoulders of all the men were sore from the weight of the heavy yoke they had to carry, and which, cutting into the flesh as it was doing, was never taken off night or day. The kindness and truthfulness of the English soon won for them complete confidence, and they were able to exercise a happy influence over the natives, irrespective of direct teaching. Many customs of doubtful expe- diency were given up, or partly so many times punish- ment was remitted or ameliorated on their entreaty, while. on one occasion they rescued from death a poor woman, the widow of a chief, intended to be killei that she might wait upon her recently deceased husband in the world of spirits. The frequent remark, what you say must be good; we know you English never tell lies," shewed why the argument ot the missionaries were so often successful. From the remarks of the lecturer it is evident the African tribes are well prepared for the teaching of the Gospel; and we may hope that by the labours of such as he, they may receive Christianity before the entrance and influence of a vicious civilisation makes their condition well-nigh incapable and hopeless of improvement. The lecture was of great length and interest, and listened to throughout with the utmost attention. When it was concluded, the Chairman called upon The Rev. ThomM Kirk, to whose labours tie ascnoea the great success of the evening, to address the meeting, who began by expressing his unwillingness to interrupt the impression of the lecture; though, being requested to speak on the occasion, he might supplement the words of the lecturer by stating something of the labours and dangerous journeys, and great aelf-sacrihce of that gentleman, concerning which he had forebore to say a word. He concluded by calling upon all present not to forget the needs of Africa when the meeting was over; but to help those called upon to labour where Satan's seat is," that their efforts autt smaller sacrifices being ac- cepted of God, they might wear a brighter crown in the world to come. Rev. James Jones, rector of Llanfwrog, proposed, and Dr. Jones, of Clwyd-street, seconded, a vote of thanks to the lecturer, which was carried by acclamation. After singing the evening hymn and prayer, the meeting was dismissed with the benediction. The more than usually excellent collection, and the remarks of many persons afterwards, testified to the great interest awakened by the lecture. It has been frequently said since, that such an excellent meeting bas not been seen in Ruthin for a long time. This will, it is hoped, be grateful to the incumbent, and enoourag- ing for the success of future similar meetings.
?Mp?t ?iKM?. HOUSE OF LORDS—FitiDAT. Earl GttfT moved a series of resolutions condemning the policy pursued by her Majesty's Ministers in their negotiations with Japan. On a division, the resolutions were negatived. I HOUSE OF COMMONS-FRIDAY. The business in the House of Commons was of a mis- cellaneous aud not very important c haracter, except an explanation given by Lord Palmerston relative to the propMat of arbitration made by Earl Russell at the Conference. ft HOUSE OF LORDS.—MONDAY. THE LATE CONFERENCE. The Earl of MAUJESBURY gave notice that on Friday next he would move a resolution to the effect that this house regretted the failure of the Conference, and that in their Opinion the course pursued by her Majesty's Govern- ment, with reference to Denmark, had lowered this coun- try in the estimation of Europe, and thereby endangered the continuance of peace. Several bills were advanced a stage, and the house adjourned. HOUSE OF COMMONS-M()Xllky. The house met at four o'clock. Col. TA VLOU moved for a new writ for East Gloucestershire, iu the room of Sir W. Codringtou, de- Ceased. Mr. DISKARLI, OIL entering the house, was received with enthusiastic cheers from the Opposition. Sir G. OttKV, in reply to Sir L. Palk, stated that the Government had not received any information from the Allied Powers, declaring that they no longer considered themselves ullulI,1 to thd Conventions made by themselves in the Conference. Mr. I.U'Aitn, iu reply to a further question, said Go- vernment w.M not aware that the Allied Powers WM-e about to attack the Danish IsI.uKh. THE VOTE OF CENSURE. Mr. DISIUKLI then rose to move his resolution. In moving a vote of censure on the Government., he said that nearly all the great wars of Europe had been wars of succession, and unfortunately, the war going on be- tween Denmark and Germany came under this category. Unfortunately, the efforts of the Great Powers to avoid this result, and the celebrated treaty of 1852, had proved abortive. This was not the first time that the territory of Denmark had been occupied by the forces of Germany. This was the case in 1846, but the result then was nothing, owing to the revolutionary movement in 184K, which shock every throne in Germany. At that time, the whole of the continental possessions of Denmark were in the occupation of Germany, but Prussia interfered, and saved Denmark. No doubt the King of Denmark then entered into certain engagements partly to remedy the evils complained of, and partly to an honourable excuse to the Germans for withdrawing their forces. Those engagements, when lh« pressure was withdrawn, were not fulfilled. In 1 Ho2, when tran- quility was entirely restored, the treaty of London was negotiated, and in that treaty there was not the slightest reference to those engagements; but the King of Den- mark, as Duke of Holstein, was a German prince, and a question arose between him and the Federal Diet with respect to them. Those engagements were not European or international, but local and municipal; since that the question had slumbered until shortly after the Govern- ment entered office, when it suddenly assumed a new character. Her Majesty's Minister thought fit to inter- fere in that local dispute, and whether they were wise in so doing, the house would decide but for his own part he thought they would have done better to let it work itself out. Her Majesty's Ministers felt it their duty to interfere with great activity, all was shown by the enor- mous mass of correspondence laid on the table—a testi- mony to the assiduity and extreme ingenuity of the Foreign Secretary, who found a congenial employment in drawing up constitutions for other countries; but what was most remarkable was, that the other Powers did not interfere at all. He might also remark that this pragmatical correspondence was conducted amidst com- plete ignorance on the part of the people of this country, until a celebrated despatch of the Foreign Secretary ap- peared in the autumn of 1862, which created great ex- citement in Germany, and called the attention of the people of England to what was going on. Some anxiety began to be felt, and at last, in the session of 1863, ques- tions were put to the noble lord, the First Minister, who replied witn his usual perspicuity. The noble lord, in conclusion, said that "lie concurred with all reasonable men in Europe, including France and Russia, in hoping that the independence and integrity of Denmark might be maintained; and if any attempt was made to over- throw that independence, or violate those rights, those who made the attempt would find that they had not Denmark alone to contend with." Cheers.) That was a wise and statesmanlike declaration. The Foreign Se- cretary followed up by a series of despatches to all the Governments of Europe, warning the German Powers that they must take the consequences of vioating the rights of Denmark. This showed that the declaration of the noble lord, who knew what he was about, was then sincere He would n6w show that it was a wise policy. The noble lord knew that France was ready not only to co-operate with us in any way, but spontaneously offered to do so. (Hear, hear.) That was in July last. What were the causes of a change on the part of France ? There had been an insurrection in Poland which had en- gaged the serious consideration of the two Governments. Previous Governments had had to consider this question, and they had determined that they could not interefere to restore Poland, and that any interference without ac- tion would be derogatory to England. (Cheers.) In 1832, the Foreign Secretary of the Government, who came to this sound decision, was the present Prime Minister; and when the question was raised in 1853 at Vienna, the representative of England was the present Foreign Secretary. An insurrection iu Poland was regarded very differently in France to what it was in England. In France it went home to the heaits of the people, and the sagacious ruler of that country, feeling himself in a most delicate position, with with great reserve. In 18E5 lie had suggested to England to follow up the war with Russia for the sake of Poland. Our Foreign Se- cretary acted very differently. He called on all the Powers, great and small, to serve a notice of ejectment upon Russia. It was not, therefore, strange that these despatches of the noble lord had a great effect in France. Identical notes were sent to Russia, to which Russia re- plied with indignation and sarcasm. The French Go- vernment, having acted hitherto with great reserve. thought that there was only one course—that of action; but her Majesty's Government then fell back upon the traditional policy of the country; they placed the French Emperor in a false position, both as regards Po- land and his own subjects; and it was not surprising that he hesitated, in September, to place himself in a similar position as regard Germany. The French Minis- ter replied to this effects, but the Foreign Secretary reiterated more strongly than ever the value which the Government attached to the independence and iiitegrity of Deumark, to insist more forcibly than ever that the German Powers were bound to respect it, and to declare in the strongest possible terms that they would not re- cognise, and could not remain indifferent to the Federal execution in Holstein. In November, the Emperor of the French proposed a general Congress. As a general principle, it was not desirable to anticipate action by a Congress, and he had thought the Government had acted wisely in declining it; but whether that refusal was wise or not, there could not be two opinions as to the character of that refusal, which was offensive in the ex- treme. (Loud cheers.) It was a pity that some of that curt and rude frankness had not been administered to Denmark when her fortunes were at stake, (Cheers.) In November, also, the King of Denmark died, and the character of the whole question was changed. Again, the Foreign Secretary would have done well to have re- flected on his position, and considered his future course, lie did no such thing. His tone was not only unchanged, but was even more energetic and more minatory toward* the German Powers. There were two courses open to it, both intelligible, both honourable. The French Go- vernment at once informed Denmark that, if attacked by Germany, France would not assist. If England had done so, that would have been intelligible and honoura- ble, If the Government, however, thought that the M.Ø w. one which threatened the balance of power in .v Europe, they were justified in acting with vigour; but they had adopted a policy unheard of in the history of England. It was one of menaces never accomplished, and promises never fulfilled but there never was a mi- nister who wrote with such spirit, or displayed so promi- nently the phantom of proud courage. (Cheers.) A special envoy was sent to Copenhagen, and his instruc- tions were to insist upon the integrity of Denmark, the maintenance of the treaty of 1852, and the fulfilment of the engagements by Austria, Prussia, and Denmark. This was the policy of the Government. N otwithstand- ing all these efforts, all these menaces, the federal exe eution took place in Holstein; and that was a proof of the influence of the Government in Europe. Theu the Government went supplicating France in a state of com- plete panic. They said that they were willing to act with France. He had no doubt they were, He was not disputing their wisdom he was only showing their intense incapacity. To this plaintive appeal the I rench Government said that it agreed that, unless the two Go- vernments could act in concert, war was imminent. But it could say no more than it had previoi«sly done. After this rejection, the Foreign Secretary proceeded to indite the fiercest despatch be had yet written to the German Governments. He would now show how Government, bAd all this time acted with respect to Denmark. They I tfrgfcd Denmark to revoke the flllÜDt, giving Holstein a tepafMte constitution. The pat. Was revoked » coa- sequeftm, and in order to avoid t Federal executihfl; but that execution was completed, afcfcd Oe Danes were advised not to resist it on the ground that if Schleswig was attacked they would be in a better fomtion to de- mand the aid of the other great powers. Alt through the Foreign Secretary was most obtrusive vfith his ad- vice, and allowed Denmark to do nothing without his- counsel. Denmark was warned on more than one oeva- sion that unless this advice was taken she would be left to encounter the hostility of Germany, and when it was taken, she was finally told that the responsibility of commencing hostilities now rested with Germany, Well, Scblepwig was invaded, and the Foreign Secretary now warned the German Powers that the question had become international, and he redoubled the vigour and urgency of menaces. What did the Government then do ? They again hurried to Paris; but, to their appeal, the French Government replied that it did not wfch to provoke a reply from Austria of the character of that received from Russia, to be treated with the same in- difference. On this, the Foreign Minister made up his mind to offer to go to war on behalf of Denmark, if France would; but the French Minister pointed out that, iterance interfered, she would become an object of general suspicion, and that the war would involve all the Continent, and the Emperor must, for the present, decline to accept any engagement. One word with respect to the Conference, the only result of which had been six weeks wasted. In that Conference Govern- ment had made two propositions of importance One was to guarantee Denmark, and make it the scene of the same unhappiness and rivalry as Turkey; the other was a compromise, after rejecting the treaty of London and every other stipulation which the Foreign Secretary had'initiated upon in his despatches; but in spite of all these concessions the Conference was a failure The result Was, that the policy of Government had failed, the influence of the country was lowered, and the securities for peace diminished, The influence of Kngland rested on the behalf that thtr resources of Kuglaiid were great, and its policy moderate and steadfast. But what were the consequences of the policy of Government? Twice within twelve months it bad been reputed at St. I eteis- "mg. and twice it had vainly supplicated at Paris. It hid menaced Austria, but Austria regarded ib menaces with indifferent*; it had threatened t'ruMM, but Prus- sia had received its threats with contempt, and its des- pitches had pissed over the federal Diet like the wind. There was only one touch wanting to the picture aud the noble lord the First Minister had supplied that when he deplored the vices of his victim and reproached Den- mark with her obstinacy in rejecting the arbitration, for which she could get no guaruntee that the nuiitr.il. Powers would enforce that arbitration if it were were in her favour. Thf result was that Kussia was alienated, and France estranged, and the country on the brink of a war with Germany; but Government had not felt ashamed to pursue a policy which had lowered the dig- nity of the cotintry; and then come to Parliament and Say England could not act because she had no anie. (Cheers.) On a former occasion, the noble lord the First Minister had asked tauntingly, what is your policy? It was no business of Parliament nor of the Opposition to suggest a foreign policy to the Government, but he would tell the noble lord what his policy would have been, and he trusted that by it the honour of England would not have been stained by pledges and expectations which ought never to have been made by prudent or wise statesmen; but whilst the honour of Kugland and the peace of Europe had been stained by the noble lord, his policy could not have been one of incessant interfer- ence. of menaces never intended to be accomplished, or of expectations never meant to be fulfilled j and he trusted that he should never have to come to Parliament and announce that the country could not act because it had no allies. (Cheers.* He trusted that, however, even in such a strait as this, Kugland would, if ueces- sary, rise iu the magnitude of her strength to conquer triumphantly the objects for which men lived and na- tions existed but he for one would never consent to a war to extricate a mi-iistry from the consequences of its mismanagement, and in that spirit he had drawn up his resolutions in the spirit of the address to the Crown at the beginning of the session, and in interests of peace. (Enthusiastic cheers.) The right hon. gentleman, in conclusion, moved the resolutions, which have already been Duhliehed. The CHANCELLOR of the EXCHEQUER said he could assure the house that the Government had no desire to shrink from any responsibility that attached to it. He was not astonished that hon. mernoorslike Mr. Nedegate and Mr. Kinglake, who were mindful of the honour of the house, had desired to substitute resolutions for reso- lution of the right hon. gentleman, which had no policy at all. The gravaman of the charges of the right hon. gentleman were that France, which, at one time, was dis- posed to act cordially with us with respect to Denmark had been alienated and changed her policy. Again, the right honourable gentleman charged his noble friend with having declined the proposal for a general Congress in a curt and offensive manner. He then proceeded to show that Mr. Disreali had not fairly quoted the des- patches, and had striven to mislead the house. The right honourable gentleman had charged the Government with having urged the Danes to concessions, and then abandoned her when she made them. The answer was that no concession was urged on Denmark, but in com- mon with the other Powers; and, again, that the con- cessions were made so late that they were no longer available. It was too much that, for the sake of wound- ing the Government, imputations should be fixed on England which she ought not to bear. The word of England was her bond, whatever Government was ill office, The truth of the case was, that, as soon as it was passed, England had urged the Danes to recall the patent of November, which she refused to do until at the eleventh hour, when the Federal troops were on the point of entering the duchy. This Government con- ceived that England had no direct or special interests in the independence of Denmark. France had from traditional ties, as also had Russia. Why, then, did Go. vernment interfere ? They interfered to prevent the shedding of blood. The right hon. gentleman, with incontestable logic, laid down that with France, Russia, and England united, war was impossible in Europe. Why, the whole of the efforts of Government had been directed to obtain the unity France, Russia, and Eng- land on the question. The Government still believed that if the treaty of 1852 could have been supported the present difficulties would have been obviated. The right hon. gentleman had charged the Government with having betrayed Denmark in the Conference. England could not go single-handed into war on behalf of the treaty of 1852 without having fully ascertained the in- tentions of the other parties to it. Now, what were the 'resolutions of the right hon. gentleman! They were the result of a week's incubation by the right hon. gen- tleman and all the talent of his party. It was clear that their first object was to put an end to the existence of the Government, but the house was entitled to ask what would be the policy of those who desired to be installed in their places. It would be disingenuous to deny that the feelings and the pride of the country had received a blow at the failure of their efforts. But he did not be- lieve that the influence of the country was lowered. The resolutions were nothing better than a repetition of the almost ribald language of a few )bsctire German papers. It was astonishing that the right honourable gentleman should import such trash and recommend it to the House of Commons as a guide for the foreign policy of the country. Instead of a simple issue of want of confidence, the right hon. gentleman had drawn up a resolution, which might be sufficient for its object, but which, whilst transfixing Government, would also trans- fix the heart of the country. He trusted that the house would reject the resolution. Mr. NEWDEOATE moved—"That in the opinion of this house, the independence and possession of Denmark on the terms proposed by the neutral Powers ought to be guaranteed." Mr. H. GonE LANQTOH seconded the amendment. Mr. KINGLAKE objected to the amendment on the ground that it must lead to a war. General PEEL, in a very forcible speech, denounced the policy of the Government. The Lord Advocate defended the Government. Lord STANLEY contended that the imputation thrown out that the treaty of 1852 was concluded by the Government of Lord Derby was perfectly unwarrantable. He denied that the resolution advocated a war policy. The Chancellor of the Exchequer would have done better if he had confined himself to the defence ot the Govern- ment, without attacking the Opposition. It was easy to denounce the form of a vote of censure, but not so easy to make it agreeable to the objects of it. The re- solution* meant that the Government had mis-managed the negotiations from beginning to end, and, for so do- ing, deserved the censure of the house. The Chancellor of the Exchequer said that they could not wound the Government without transfixing the heart of the coun- try; but that doctrine was perfectly monstrous. He believed that a war for the sake of the Duclues would be an act of insanity but the noble lord, at the head of the Government, threatened them conditionally with a war. It was all very well to talk of the trash of foreign newspapers, but the rtcord of the Congress gave com- plete proof of the consideration in which the Govern- ment was held, and there never had been in the hwtory of the country an occasion in which the policy of the Government had been commented on in such terms as it now was all over Europe. The Danes would have been able to have made better terms than they would now obtain if they had been left in the first instance to decide for themselves without the interference of her Majesty's Government. They were threatened with an spinal to the country. They were ready to meet it. But the Government had nothing to show for its donieg- tic policy but its financial measures, of which he should always speak with respect; but as regarded its foreigu policy it could no4 be very noxious to go to the consti- tuenciea with the watchwords of "Raima offended, "France insulted," "Denmark ahandoned," and "Poland encouraged to revolt and deserted." (*tile iiiotioodof Mr. Cobdes, the debate wm ad- joornmi until the tuWowk^f day. The house adjtnWMd At twelve minutes past one o'clock. I HOUSED Off lORTiS^TWAT. I Lord STRATFORD Dt REMAP?Z &fen-ed the question of which he had given notice; to dye fawonred revival of the so-called Holy Alliante, fifi fridtty, the 15th inst. tor(I SHAFTFCSBURT asked if the (fctfermaent had re- ceiyeg amy information confirming the report that the Prussiafr troops had refused quarter to a the Swedish volunteers found in the Danish ranks when; the island of Alsen was taken. From the previous conduct of the Prussians, he believed they were quite capable of eom- mitting the inhuman act attributed to them. Lord RussKtt, had received no official information of such an occurrence, but would make the requisite in- quires. In answer to a question by Lord CBANWORTH. Lord BKOUOHAM stated he should not proceed further with the Bribery Bill in the present Session. The Bill giving facilities for the performance of Divine service in collegiate schools passed through Committee. In Committee on the Publichouses Bill, Lord KaBliTOM of VATTON moved the omission of the words giving power to towit councils to adopt the pro- visions the Act if they think fit. Lord UriASvu.t.s opposed to the amendment, and on a division it was negatived by a majority of 7, the num- bet-s being—for the amendment, 24 against, 31. Their Lordships adjourned at 20 minutes to 7. HOUSE OF COMMONS—TUKSDAY. I Mr. COBDKN observed that Mr. DISRAELI and Mr NEWDKOATF. had enlarged the scope of the discussion- The latter had raised the issue of peace or war the former had proposed a declaration that the policy of the Government had lowered the just influence of this country iii the ei)t%nAels'of Europe. Whether this wai 80 would depend upon our future conduct. He did not say that we stood in a very satisfactory position towards other countries; but that this would diminish the se- curities for peace was a question upon which he joined issue with Mr. Disraeli. Experience of the utter futility of our foreign policy, and the break down of our diplo- macy, afforded, in his opinion, the best guarantee of peace. He had been struck with the want of sagacity of our Foreign Minister, which had expose I him to re- bulls and this country to humiliation iu all parts of the world. Hut there waa a question beyond this. There had grown out of this debate a question of principle, connected with our external r,olicy --namely, the dynas- tic engagements of our Foreign-oiffce. What was this Treaty of 1852, of which so much was heard ? A few gentlemen sat around a table and decreed the destinies of nations wbich were not consulted in the matter. After a short notice of the causes of the present war in Denmark, which he traced to the pressure put upon the Sovereigns of Austria and Prussia by the German population, he asked what we should have done when the two j'owera invaded Schleswig- H olstein ? We ought, he said, to have mediated But what had we done ? When we set up for the office of mediator we could not draw the line between mediator and partisan. There was, he observed, a party of menace in this country. O ir power, it was true, was almost (omnipotent at home; but, great as it was, we had no means of bringing it effectually to bear upon Germany. It would be childish to conceal from ourselves this fact; yet our Government, within the last six months, had proposed to other Powers to go to war with Germany, and we were saved from war, not by the discretion of our own Government, but by the wisdom of the Emperor of the French. ( ould this be terined policy I He put it to both fides of the House whether it was not high time that the Govern- ment should know its wishes on these ambiguous ques- tions. After speaking in terms of contempt of the ob- solete theory of the balance of power, and of the Treaty of Vienna, and deprecating our championship of weak States, he expressed a hope that something might grow out of these discussions that would improve our foreign relations, this country having, throughits foreign policy, lost credit with other nations. Lord R. CECIL reviewed the course of policy pursued by Earl Russell, who, he insisted, had neglected means of healing the quarrel by arbitration or mediation before the death of the late Kittg of Denmark, which took place before the Earl could make up his dilatory mind. He dwelt upon his menacing language, amounting in more than one instance, he said, to a distinct threat in the subsequent correspondence, and to the evidence it afford- ed that the Government meditated resisting the Germans by England alone. The language of Lord Palmerston in July last, he contended, must be understood as a threat. If the considerations were sufficient to prevent England fromjMguging in war, they should have pre- vented threats;mue non-f ulfilment of which produced a loss of actual power that could be recovered only by future bloodshed. As to the future, if they could not save Denmark, they could rescue England from the risk of suffering similar dishonour. Mr. W. E. FOSTER observed that Lord ROBERT had not told the House what should have been the policy of the Government, and what the Opposition would do Mr. Ilisraeli had dealt only in vague generalities. He would, he had said, secure the honour af England and the peacc of Europe; but the House should know by what means. The motion was a vote of censure, and it was necessary that the I louse should make up its mind whether it had confidence in the Oppositin or not. A vote of censure for the past was a vote of confidence for the future. In the consequences of the treaty of 1852, and in the Schleswig-Holstein question, we had, he thought, received a great lesson,—that it was our busi- ness to make the rule of non-intervention the guide of our foreign policy. The time had come to replace that meddling, dishonest system of apparent intervention, but real non-intervention, by an honest, a dignified, and an open system of non-intervention. Mr. B. JOHNSTONE, after replying to the speeches of the CHNCELLORof the EXCHEQUER and the Lord Advo- cate on the previous evening, complained of the mystery in which the policy of The Government had been enve- loped during the late transactions. He did not defend the conduct of the German Powers, he said, which had been marked by overbearing violence; but what the Go- vernment ought to have done two years ago was to come to a distinct conclusion as to whether this country should interfere or not. Instead of that they had adopted a mysterious policy, marked by a tissue of blunders, and the House, he thought, wai bound to record a solemn protest against the manner in which our foreign policy had been conducted. Lord H. VANE observered that the Goverment had been blamed for recommending certain concessions to be made to Denmark, whereas he was of opinion that those concessions would have placed her in a better position. He could find no proof of any hopes of assistance to Denmark held out from this country. Our office had been that of a mediator, and after the refusal of France, which was not unnatural, all we could do was to re- monstrate. He did not blame the Opposition for their motion, but they had not declared what would be their policy. The Government had done all they were called upon to do, and, although they had not been successful, he did not see that we had suffered any humiliation. Mr. LIDDRLL, in suppjrting the motion, observed that the great argument of the other side was that the Op. position had no policy; but it had been auserced by them, on another occasion, that it was not the function of an Opposition to declare their policy. That the policy of the Government was that of interference was, he consi- pointed out the dered, proved by the papers, and he pointed out the evils which had been caused by foreign interference in tko Dano-Germanic quarrel, which, while it irritated Germany, had rendered Denmark obstinate and more determined to resist. Mischief, he said, had resulted from foreign interference in the Conference, where the question of the frontier would have been settled but for the interference of the neutral Powers. Lord R. MQNTAGU maintained that the motion did not recommend a war policy. The policy of the Opposition was one of non-interference'; that of the Government was a policy of meddling with the affairs of our nations, and this was the reason why the name of England was execrated, as he knew it was, abroad. Mr. WHALLEY, in opposing the motion, Bucceded in infusing a little mirth into the debate by allusions to the apparently incongruous topic of Papal usurpations. Mr. ROEBUCK said he felt almost terror in approaching this subject. The Conference had met; a great cere- mony had been performed, and every man seemed to have worn a mask, there appearing to be desire among them to avoid the real matter in hand. He could un- derstand the motion,—to get the Ministers out Hut he asked whether the real question bad been put before, and he proceeded to suggest and discuss five subject- matters involved in the question—namely, Denmark, the people of the small German States, the princes of those States, Prussia, and Austria. The people of the small States, of Germany had, he said, gone mad on. the question of nationality, and that showed the futility of this notion; it was a farce, he observed, and a mischiev- ous farce, ending in tragedy. Each nationality should endeavour to become one, and it was the duty and in- tei-obt of England to maintain an adherence to this prin- ciple. The question was the manner of doing it. He pronounced a severe condemnation upon the Foreign Department; he biameil much that the Government had done and omitted to do; but, with all their faults, he would rather, he confessed, have them than those whIt sought their places. Mr. HORSMAN observed that the motion contained two propositions—one, that the policy of the Govern- ment had failed; the second, that the failure had been so injurious to our national influence that the Govern- I meut ought to be blamed. The first was admitted; the facts, in his opinion, did not juatfy the second.. The House, he eontended, had acquiesced in the polity of A* Government; it had even directed that policy. He in- sisted that, according to constitutional principles, it W$S the duty of the House to berutinize our foreign policy M much as a Bill upon a domestic subject By holding their peace the Opposition incurred a complicity in evtry act of the Government, and a responsibility for the con- sequences. The policy of the Government WM for only ministerial, and if the country had been dishonoured tt was not by the Ministry, but by Parliament. After al- luding to the conduct of the Opposition upon the fotatt question, he discussed the doctrine of non-iritervennoo, which meant, in his opinion, non-interference to tte domestic government and the internal arrangements of other nations, and to this construction ef the phrase he gave his full and unqualified assent. But M r, CobdeD definition went a great deal farther, and he (Mr. Mors- man) could not consent to place this country in a of isolation and seclusion. He then considered the pOtt- tion of this sountry in relation to the Dauish quesUoi4 and condemned the policy adopted by the Government as an injudicious and dangerous policy, which bad plung- ed them into difficulties. The Treaty of 1852 wam » bad measure, but the Government could not have repu- diated it.- They ought, however, to have proposed to the contracting Powers to annul it, and substitute a de- claration binding the parties to defend Denmark. Un- fortunately, they took their stand upon the treaty, aDd rashly plunged headlong into all the embarrassments of the question our diplomacy was unskilful, and a stroke or Lord Russell's pen let loose an army of German filflk buaters upon Denmark. He pursued the history of these transactions, pointing out, as he proceeded, what he regarded as the errors of our policy, but for which, he thought, the free soil of Denmark would never haw been polluted by the German trOOp8. Then it wa.1 the Conference had been a failure. Did not the Oppo#- tion know it would be a. failure ? Would it not h*M been better then to have denounced it at the tun* 1 But Mr Disraeli not only did not originate a diseiuwon upon the subject, but he would not allow of a discussion, but threatened to strangle a motion to raise a discusawn by the previoiifc question." The Government, he ob- served, had made mistakes, but their Opponents had In- dorsed them; so the parties were pretty nitteh upon aD equality. The motion bore upon the face of It two ob- jectg,to condemn the Government as much as possible, and to compliment their opponents as little as possible. It affirmed uo principle, it enunciated no policy. Hu was afraid the Government had established no claim to con- fidence but for the mistakes of a Government there wo always an excuse. The opposition, had howe\er, done nothing to prevent or remedy t he.se mistakes, but end- voured to use them as a .tepping"tolle to power. Pub- lie policy did not require that at that critical moment the present Government should be displaced in order to make way for those who had ahowu more weakness and less courage. Mr. 8. FITZC-F.R,ti,i), after expositng some errors of date on the part of Mr. Horaman, observed that this Wall. oil tile 1);trt of qnektion tit ""ufillenee in the fmeign policy of the Go- vernment, and the independent members who had spoken had avowed a want uf such confidence, and yet were go- ing to give a vote against the motion and expressive of confidence. He then replied to some criticisms of the Chancellor of the Exchequer upon the speech of Mr. Disraeli, in which he had, he said, totally misrepresent- ed him. He charged Mr. Gladstone likewise with mis- takes in regard to transactions in the Conference. He defended the Resolution against the charge of its being unpatriotic; those who opposed the Resolution, he maid. were more open to that charge. The motion separated the-Parliament from the conduct of the Government He objected that it did not point out a policy had been sufficiently answered. It was impossible for an Opposi- tion to indicate a policy He contended that thejMMra justified in challenging the opinion of the House conduct of the Government. On the motion of Mr. LAYABD, the debate was again, adjourned. The other orders of the day were then proceeded witk and the House adjourned at 1 o'clock. HOUSE OF COMMONS.—WEDNESDAY. The House assembled at noon and went into com- mitte on the Trespass (Ireland) Bill Mr. BAOWELL opposed the ineitgtire, as he thought it. would virtually extend the game laws of England to. Ireland. The opposition. however, was unsuccessful, and the clauses of the bill, with various amendmelit4 were agreed to. The Puuishment of the Rape Bill WM rejected on the motion for going into committee, it being succemfudy contended that, as the crime in question had not recent- ly increased, further legislation was unnecessary. The Municipal Corporations Bill and the Fisherim (Fresh Water) Bill were withdrawn.
I BANGO. AND BEAUMARIS UNION. The usual fortnightly meeting of this Board was held on Wednesday last. Guardians presentCharier Bicknell, Esq., (in the Chair), and Messrs. William Griffith, George Simpson, Rowland Parry, Wm. Hughes, Evan Roberts, Robert Evans, Robert Roberts, John Williams, Richard Evans, Robert Williams, Thorns Hughes, and Kichard Jones. A precept for the Carnarvonshire police rate for this Quarter amounting to L338 5s. Sid., payable on the 13th August next, was laid bofore the meeting, as was also a statement of the condition of pauper lunatics confined in the Denbigh Asylum during the half year ending 30th June last. The consideration of the letter of Mr. Ricbard Tho medical officer, as to nuisances at Menai Bridge, was postponed until next meeting. The following letter as to additional Guardians for Bangor, Llandegai, and Llanllechid, was read, viz. "Poor Law Board, Whitehall, S.W., 24 th June, 1864. "Sir,-I am directed by the Poor Law Board to acknowledge the receipt of ydhr letter of the 27th ultimo, on the subject of the application previously made to them by the Guardians of the Bangor and Beaumaria Union, for an increase of the number of Guardians for the parishes of Bangor, Llandegai, and Llanllechid. I am directed to state that the Board have carefully con- sidered the application of the Guardians, and are of opinion that the interests of the parish of Bangor and Llanllechid would be adequately represented by an in- crease in the number of Guardians for the first mention. ed parish of three, and for the last mentioned parish d .n? = ing the number of Guardians for the parish of Bangor 9, and for the parish of Llanllechid 6 in futur& With regard to the parish of Llandegai, the Board are disposed to think that this parish may properly have two additional Guardians, making the number fur the future 6 instead of 4. The Board will therefore issue an order, increasing the number of Guardians for these parishes as above mentioned. I am Sir, Your obedient servant, "H. FLEMMINO, "SecretMy." To John Thomas, Esq., Clerk to the Guardians, Of the Bangor and Beaumaris Union, Bangor. Out relief during the last fortnight (parochial) t208 8e. 2d. (immoveable • f 208 6s. 2d.; (non-settled) .£40 16s. 6d. Treasurers balance, 9481 7s SrI. to Unioa. Adjourned to Wednesday, the 13th, at 10 a.m.
I LLANDUDNO. GRAND CONCtRT.-On Friday evening, the lst instant, a graPd concert was given at the St. George's Hall, in this town, by a troup of imported talent from Liver- pool, Manchester, and elsewhere. All came off under the baton of Mr. John Handel Jones, who, we and, is respectable tradesman in the town; and by the way, deserves well at the hands of ue. the visitors, and the residents generally, for the spirit of enterprise shewn by his gettiug up, on his individual responsibility, such in- tellectual means of: recreation. In the programme were the following artistes mentioned:—Mrs. Small, Mrs. Brooke, Mr. Graham, Mr. Jones, Mr. Eos Bradwen, Mr. T. J. Hughes, and Mr. Sheafe. Too often performances of this description are unneeessarily applauded through the press, and it has become the fashion to say that, everything attempted is excellent. I am eccentric on this point. I am going to quit the beaten track which f damages art, and brings the popularity of deserving con- cerns level with the ground. I shall bestow praise and censure according to the deserts of the parties. And to begin with tho ladies, I shall dispose of them by saying that they sang their parts very well. Mr. Graham sang three songs, in a very ordinary way; he met with very little arplause. The conductor oame out in the "white tiqtial," and it was mortifying to hear the way he delinea- ted this one of our best songs. A soug with such fine dimensions, and which requires such force and fire, cou- pled with corresponding pathos, could not have been put into worse hands. Mr. Bradwen deserved our better opinion-he sings with tolerably correct feeling those "eight knocks an hour" class of songs, such as Balfe's "And you'll remember me." Were he a little leas fan- tastic in some of his cadeuoes, he would improve in favour. The favourite was Mr. T. J. Hughes, whom I shall compliment as a fine full-toned baaso--his rich voice t'jld well. Mr. Sheafe accompanied with much taste throughout, but for reasons which satisfied him- self only, he declined to play the sola which was pro- misod iu the programme. The hall, whieh is capitally suited for singing, was well attended. I express a hope that Mr. Jones has lost no money by a misadven- ture. A SAKOLN,