CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT OF I POLICE. -=- A NOTABLE CAREER. Chief Superintendent N. Large, of Middlewich, is about to enter upon retirement with an honour- able career to his credit, and the Cheshire Con- stabulary is to lose the services of one of its most eminent and worthiest members. Twenty-nine of the best years of his life have been spent in the County Force, and the record of those years is something to be proud of, something to look back upon for the rest of his life with infinite satisfac- tion. To tell the story of his lengthy police career is to recite success after success, and to enumerate promotion after promotion, for Mr. Large has in turn worn the uniform of humble constable, car- Tied the stripes of a sergeant, and filled the more .responsible positions of inspector and superin- tendent. Like many another who has climbed the ladder of progress, Mr. Large left the paternal root at an early age and went forth to commence the battle of life with robust health on his side. He is the son of .a well-known and highly-respected Tarvin yeo- man, Mr. Daniel Large, of Broome Bank. Mr. -Large's grand-parents held the Rookery Farm, Maniey, lor very many years, and his grand- mother, who attained the ripe old age of 10d, was a noted Cheshire cheese-maker. Mr. Large him- self was born in Tarvin parish, and received his early education under Mr. Wilkes, who has now retired from the position of headmaster of the National Schools. It is interesting to recall that Mr. Large was a chorister in the old parish church in days when a surpliced choir was a thing un- dreamt of. His first venture into the outside world was when still a youth. His ambition at that time must have been to serve in her Majesty's Army, for he joined the Royal Garrison Artillery, and was in turn at Portsmouth, Woolwich and the Channel Islands. After three years' service be joined the Warrington Borough Police Force, and remained there two years. It was in 1872, when at the age of 20 years, he transferred himself to the Cheshire Constabulary, and commenced that notable career of faithful service which is about to be terminated. He was drafted to the Hyde Division, and after completing seven years there, was made acting sergeant and transferred to Farn- -don. His stay in the village of strawberry fame was short, and we find that his next move was to Tarporley with the rank of full sergeant. There lIe received his promotion to sub-inspector, a rank now extinct. After a residence of four or five years at Tarporley, Mr. Large was again pro- anoted to full inspector, and was sent to Tv ilmsiow, as the first inspector of that sub-division of AlaccJesifeld. Lfe subsequently took charge of Sale, a much more important station in the Altrincham Division. On the 16th June, 1885, Mr. Large was appointed superintendent, and was lentrusted with the care of the Macclesfield Division for four years. He was transferred to Runcorn, and thence to Middlewich. In May this year was announced his latest promotion, and congratula- tions showered upon him as the new chief super- intendent of the county. A career such as this has naturally not been without many interesting and thrilling experiences, but inasmuch as they cannot be recounted without creditable reflection upon Mr. Large, who is too modest to recall them for the public's delectation, we are reduced to the telling of what has come within our own knowledge. When a constable at Hyde he shewed remarkable detective abilities, for the columns of "The Ashton-under-Lyne Re- porter" recorded how he and another constable Unravelled a mysterious burglary at the Queen's -Hotel. An entrance had been effected by the bar ?oarlour window, and silver and copper extracted from tho till. The robbery followed upon a turglary at a shop, and it was suspected that 3?iYde had become the venue of expert burglars. ?very nerve was strained to catch the thieves, ?r the "inhabitants expressed in no niggard terms e Want of confidence in the protection of their ■P„ roperty by the police." It fell to the lot of Mr. Large and another constable to prove the injustice 1 this assertion. They conducted their search and inquiries with an astuteness which would have done credit to a Sherlock Holmes. Nobody was prooably more surprised at the result than the thief himself, who had taken infinite pains to conceal his treasure. Many in this locality will doubtless remember that it was Mr. Large who brought to justice the hunting "swell," who lived for a time in first-class style in the Tarporley neighbourhood, suddenly disappeared, and afterwards got a term of im- prisonment for a fraudulent bill transaction, in which a Wettenhall farmer was victimised. Mr. Large very cleverly traced him to Scarborough, -and caused him to be arrested there. While in the Macclesfield Division as inspector, Mr. Large ac- complished something which won the praise of Press and solicitors. Some in that district will doubtless remember the story of the Great War- ford debtor who, while bailiffs slept, disappeared with valuable live stock, etc., the property of his -creditors. It was a trek worthy of De Wet of ,South African fame, and the task allotted to Mr. Large was that of capturing him. Like most things which Mr. Large took in hand, he brought this to a successful issue. Within twenty-four hours he arrested the debtor, who was with re- markable audacity using the horse and trap of tke trustees of his creditors to speed his departure. "Through the active and able efforts of Inspector Large the defendant was apprehended, and, in the course of a day or two, the whole of the property, or nearly all, was traced," said Mr. Chew, an eminent Manchester solicitor, who conducted the prosecution. The "Stockport Chronicle" appended to its report of the case, which was headed "Clever Capture of Property," the following footnote:- "As previously stated, nearfy the wnoie of the property has been recovered through the vigilance and promptitude of Inspector Large, who is to be complimented on the success which has attended his energetic action." As superintendent of the Macclesfield Division, Mr. Large was called upon in conjunction with Mr. Sheasby, the Chief Constable of the borough, to unravel the mystery presented by the daring opera- tions of a gang of masked burglars. The combined efforts of the two officers resulted in the burglars being brought to justice and receiving long terms of imprisonment. If Mr. Large's abilities were ever recognised by the Chief Constable it was when he was removed to Runcorn at a time when the preservation of order was a work of ex- ceptional difficulty. The construction of the Ship Canal was in progress, and some thirteen miles— from Runcorn to Grappenhall—of that gigantic undertaking were within the police district which Mr. Large and his staff controlled. People of all nationalities were within his official ken, and, as ds still vividly remembered by the permanent resi- dents in that locality, rowdy scenes and lawlessness of many descriptions were nightly occurrences. Perhaps the feature of his work there was the raiding of shebeening establishments, in order to -accomplish which considerable cuteness was re- quired. During the three years he was there many offenders were brought before the local justices, and in the end Mr. Large's clever coups and the heavy fines imposed by the Bench had the effect of stopping this illegal practice. One man was fined £ 30 on three informations. It was un- questionably one of the most trying periods of Mr. Large's life, for his duties exacted vigilance by day and night. But he passed through the ordeal with credit to himself and satisfaction to his superiors, and obtained his well-deserved pro- motion to the important division which he has managed for the past nine years. Middlewich is a first-class division, and covers a wide area in Mid-Cheshire and South-east Cheshire, comprising Northwich, Winsford, Middlewich, Sandbach, Alsager, Holmes Chapel and a suburb of Congle- ton. The staff of the division numbers over 50, and includes an inspector. Mr. Large was prob- ably never called upon to grapple with a more serious situation than that which arose at W ins- ford when the salt workers came out on strike. Mr. Large's police arrangements, which were under the personal supervision of the Chief Con- stable himself, were highly efficient. Some idea -of the gravity of matters may be gathered from the fact that the military were eventually called out and the Riot Act read. Ere we conclude the incidents of Mr. Large's notable career we may mention that he has con- -ducted the investigations in two murder cases, one of which was the Northwich murder, which pre- sented no problematic features. It has been no uncommon thing to hear Mr. Large complimented by magistrates and solicitors ior the fair way in which he has ever brought his cases into court. Mr. Large would not hesitate to prosecute where it was his duty to do so, but he has never persecuted, and if he could say a word for a defendant or prisoner he was always ready and anxious to do it. The late Mr. John Brundritt, who was chairman of the Runcorn Bench, frequently spoke in eulogistic terms of Mr. Large's discretion and ability, and the writer himself has heard chairmen of petty sessional -divisions say complimentary things of him. Last of all we get the important testimony of the Chief -Constable himself, who at the Standing Joint Committee meeting on Saturday said with very great truth that Mr. Large had a very strong sense of duty. Colonel France-Hayhurst, the chair- man of the meeting, who spoke from a lengthy experience of Mr. Large in the Middlewich Division, said he knew no officer more conscien- tious or better. These are crowning testimonies -and well deserved. Mr. Large will leave the force with the entire goodwill of every member. Those who have served under him and worked with him are his greatest admirers. A strict disciplinarian, Mr. Large was never harsh in his dealings with his subordinates, whose esteem for their superior invariably resulted in faithful service and the proper discharge of their duties. Sir Herbert C -ft H.M. Inspector of Police, never paid a visit to Mr. Large's station without complimenting him on the high state of efficiency and the smart ap- pearance of his men. He has served under three 'Chief Constables of Cheshire, Captain John Smith, 'Captain Arrowsmith and Colonel Hamersley, the latter of whom will by Mr. Large's retirement be deprived of one of his most valued managers. Mr. Large is the senior superintendent of the county, having held the rank for 16 years. He has com- pleted three years over the term of service required by the Act of Parliament. We are sorry to note that the immediate cause of his retirement is fail- ing health, but we trust—and in this hope we are assuredly joined by a host of friends in all parts of the county—that this is only temporary. Tarvin people will be glad to know that Mr. Large is coming to spend the remainder of his life in his native parish. May he live to a good old age to -enjoy his well-earned rest!
The latest addition to the Brussels police consists of twenty powerful hounds to aceom. pany the policemen on their night rounds. The experiment recently attempted in the Belgian provinces (says a correspondent) has proved highly successful but really it does not appear altogether devoid of barbarity. Wbitbread's, or Ind-Coope's, A.) Y -nd Stout, ir pint bottles, can be bad in sin¡" dozens froa. H. Martin & Co., Forcgate-street, C i23ter
BOARDS OF GUARDIANS. CHESTER. A fortnightly meeting of this Board was held at the Workhouse on Tuesday morning, Mr. T. Knowles presiding over a good attendance, FIRE PRECAUTIONS. It appeared that at a meeting of the House Committee it was recommended that fire appliances should be got for the workhouse, and that the work be carried out at once. Mr. Vernon said the committee had gone into the matter very fairly with the superintendent of the Chester Fire Brigade, and the very lowest estimate they could bring it to, with anything like efficiency, was JB120 as stated. One or two other suggestions were made, which, if carried out, would add very greatly to the efficiency of the scheme. If the main was extended to the other end of the building it would greatly assist the efficiency of the fire appliances in case of fire. Under existing circumstances, if a fire broke out on the workhouse premises they would be entirely dependent upon the Chester Fire Brigade or the one from Hoole. They would find themselves in a difficulty if a fire occurred at the workhouse. It would be as well if they expended something like £ 150, so as to have the scheme more complete and more efficient. The committee were anxious that a thorough scheme in connection with the tire appliances should be carried out. Mr. Butler: How is it that this matter has not been brought before the Board previously? Mr. Vernon: The question was considered about two years ago. Mr. Butler: It ought not to have been left in abeyance like this. Mr. Dutton: I do not see why we should tie ourselves to a few pounds. We should have the thing done properly if it is to be done at all. (Hear, bear.) Nvhy not JB150 instead of L121? Mr. Vernon proposed that the minutes of the House Committee be adopted. The tire appliances were absolutely necessary. The Clerk (Mr. Turnock) wanted to know if Mr. Vernon proposed that the expenditure should be B150 instead of J6121. Mr. Vernon said he only suggested that a more complete scheme could be carried out by an ex- penditure of B150 than by the other sum. Mr. Minshull: Let it be put down as an approxi- mate sum. Mr. Butler: If we find that a more satisfactory scheme can be adopted by spending £ 150 what is the use of our tying ourselves to a few pounds? (Hear, hear.) Mr.. Vernon said the matter will be brought before the Board at another time. Mr. Lee said he was not agreeable to the ques- tion being left open. They should consider the matter fully before allowing it to drop in this fashion. Mr. Vernon reminded Mr. Lee that the Com- mittee would have to re-consider the whole thing, and the Board could decide again as to what money should be spent for fire appliances. Mr. Butler: We are not all angels around this Board. (Laughter.) We must have the scheme properly carried out. Mr. Vernon said he did not propose that J6150 should be spent for the purpose of carrying out the work, but he thought that B150 would perhaps be more desirable. The minutes of the committee were adopted, it being understood that the matter would again be brought forward for re-consideration. Tenders were received for supplying the Central Home, or headquarter block, with electricity or gas. Messrs. Belshaw and Co. sent in a tender amounting to JB74 Os. 6d. for lighting the home with electricity, and one from Messrs. Rooper came to L47 14s. 6d. A discussion ensued as to whether the home should be lighted with gas or electricity. Mr. Butler thought that gas was a thing of the past, and they as business men should adopt the electric light for the headquarter block in Wrex- ham-road. The electric light would be healthier and much safer, especially where there were children, and he would simply ask them as a busi- ness man to have electricity. He did not say, however, that they could not have extra gas for cooking or anything like that. (Hear, hear.) It was eventually decided that Messrs. Rooper's tender of j647 14s. 6d. should be accepted, Mr. Butler having hinted that this was a saving of over JB26 compared with the other estimate. THE ISOLATION HOSPITAL. I THE PATIENTS AND THEIR COST. I The Clerk said he had received a letter from Mr. Smith, Town Clerk of Chester Corporation, stating that the cost of the fever patients in the Chester Isolation Hospital from the Chester Union was JB2 8s. per head per week. Considering that the Chester Union was part and parcel of the Corporation they would not be charged the full amount, but two guineas, which they thought was a fair charge. He (the clerk) had also written to several unions and asked them what they were charged for patients. Macclesfield said they paid J61 a week for each case, which was exclusive of medical attendance, which was JB1 Is. for each case. The Northwich Union had no fixed charge, but paid all expenses. The Wirral Union cases were treated free, and no question of pauperism arose. Nantwich said they paid Crewe four guineas for adults and three guineas weekly for children. Mr. Butler: Poor Nantwich. (Laughter.) Mr. Hallmark wanted to know what order Mr. Harrop gave to have patients removed to the hos- pital. He could not see that Mr. Harrop had any right to order them there unless they were desti- tute. The Clerk said the agreement entered into with the Chester Corporation had been working satis- factorily for the last sixteen years. With regard to Mr. lIarrop'_autbority, any person in their jurisdiction not capable of paying for medical at- tendance, they had just as much .right to deal with that case as a person wanting bread and butter. Mr. Butler asked if they had many cases there at present. The Clerk said the average for the last twelve months was about 16.6. The Rev. F. Edwards asked if they were not taking upon themselves the work of the Town Council. The Clerk did not think so. The arrangement was the best one they could enter into, and if they broke with it, it would cost them more. He was speaking of the union as a whole. The Sheriff, as a member of the Hospital Sub-1j committee, said they had been losing about 15s. per week for the last eighteen months. The cost of a patient was £ 2 8s independent of their great outlay of about on the buildings. He thought the hospital was treating the Board very generously. The Clerk said they never gave an order for any case until it had been thoroughly investigated- Mr. Butler said he understood-any ratepayer in the city of Chester could go in free. Why were they paying for their patients? The Clerk said they must remember that was for those in the city. There were those who were not. The Sheriff said that outside the union they charged L3 3s. The Rev. F. Edwards understood they were pay- ing JB2 2s. for the pauper patients. Those who were not paupers, he understood, went in free in the city of Chester. Mr. Butler said if patients could go into the hospital free why were they paying for them. The discussion eventually ended, no settlement of the question being arrived at. A COMPLAINING MEMBER. I SBEKS MORE KNOWLEDGE. I Mr. Preston said he had a complaint to make. He was one of the youngest members of the Board, and he was anxious to learn the business more with regard to the administration of poor law and such like. So long as he was a member of the Board he was desirous of acquiring a sound knowledge of the work con- nected with his position. When he first became a member he thought he would learn a good deal, but he was of opinion that he had not learned enough to fit him for the position he filled. (Hear, hear.) The complaint he wished to mention to the Board was the fact that he was not a member of any committee, and the result was that he came there every fortnight and listened to the eloquence and somewhat unparliamentary language of other members to learn what he could from them. He must confess, however, that he had suffered more than he had gained—(laughter) —by attending the meetings of the Board. On three different occasions three different members of the Board bad promised that he should be put on a committee, but they had not fulfilled their Eromises. He therefore left his case in their ands. (Laughter.) Mr. Butler: I suggest, gentlemen, that you put Mr. Preston on the House Committee, as I cannot attend the meetings as often as I should do. I hope Mr. Preston will receive some benefit on that committee. I got a great deal. (Laughter.) Mr. Dutton: Will you kindly place him on the Finance Committee in place of myself. Then he will be among his own people. Mr. Preston: I should like to know what the Sheriff means by his last remark. The Chairman: I don't think that remark ought to pass by without comment. The Finance Com- mittee is composed of no particular party or clique. I hope Mr. Dutton will withdraw that remark. Mr. Preston: Will you kindly tell me what you mean by your remark. I like a man to speak out plain. Mr. Dutton: I meant nothing at all. Mr. Lee said he thought the time had come when they ought to abandon this foolish talk. Their time ought to be better occupied than in listening to a lot of foolish talk. Although he was always pleased to do his duty there was a com- mittee he could not possibly attend-(1aughr)- and that was the School Attendance Committee. He would be most pleased if Mr. Preston would become a member of that committee instead of himself. Mr. Butler: I am very pleased to second that. A Member: You can't. Mr. Lee: Well, that is my unfortunate luck. (Laughter.) Mr. Preston being assured of support the sub- iect was allowed to drop. THE WATER QUESTION. Mr. Crowder said he would like to draw the at- tention of the members to the water question. Mr. Coppack: I rise to a point of order. Mr. Lee: Do you intend making a resolution? Mr. Crowder: Yes. The reason I am bringing the matter forward now is because I shall, unfortu- nately, be unable to attend the meetings of this Board for the next few weeks. I consider that we are paying JB3 a week more for water than we ought to do, or over 2150 a year, which is a con- siderable item. It is a question which should be of great interest to every member. The Clerk said it would be better if Mr. Crowder gave notice, then, that he would move his resolu- tion at a future meeting. Mr. Crowder then gave notice that he would move a resolution about six weeks hence that they abolish the meter and obtain their water in future according to the annual value of the house. Mr. Butler: We can't do that. I WIRRAL. A fortnightly meeting of this Board was held on Monday, Mr. W. Knowles (chairman) presiding. —A letter was received from the Local Govern- ment Board approving of the erection of a new bakehouse at the workhouse.—It was decided to advertise for tenders.—Miss Foulkes, nurse at the workhouse, sent in her resignation, she having ob- tained another appointment at Toxteth.—It was decided to advertise the vacancy at a salary of JB18 per annum—The Local Government Board wrote calling the attention of the Board to the many advantages that have resulted from the use of training ships for the instruction and mainten- ance of boys.—It was stated that the Board had already three boys on the Indefatigable.—A letter was received from Mr. Hoult, M.P., acknowledg- ing the receipt of applications for the support of the Friendly Society Bill and the new Assessment Bill.—On the proposition of Mr. Gill, a vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Hoult for his attention and support.—Mr. Latham asked on behalf of the Finance Committee if any reply had been received from Mr. Hignett as to the clerk's letter in reference to the relieving officer's application for an assistant. Mr. Gill said the present state of things was unsatisfactory. He wanted to know what position they were in.- Mr. Hignett, in reply to the Chairman, said he supposed he must do his best until the Board could see their way to provide him at least with an office boy. WHITCHURCH. I f On Friday the fortnightly meeting of the mem- bers of the Whitchurch Board of Guardians was held, Mr. R. P. Ethelston (chairman) presiding.— The relieving officer's report shewed that the out- relief during the fortnight was as follows:- First week, 178 out-paupers relieved at a cost of JE16 Us.; second week, 178 at JE15 7s. The corre- sponding period for last year was: First week, 150, at E13 13s. 10d.; second week, 148, :612 6s. 6d.The Master's books shewed that during the past fortnight there had been 68 inmates in the house against 76 for the corresponding period of last year; and that 73 vagrants had been re- lieved during the same period, against 83 last year.—The master reported that Mr. Langley had visited the house on the 9th, and found everything satisfactory; he had called the master's attention to the need for the removal ot the aged infarm from the top of the house, and had asked him to make whatever recommenda- tions he though fit to the committee. The children had been taken to New Brighton on Wednesday, and had spent a most enjoyable day. —Mr. Vernon asked a question in reference to the pump well, etc., and the master stated that it was not in a satisfactory condition. Mr. Vernon said from what he had heard he believed the pump wanted taking out and repairing. It was decided that Mr. Wyatt be asked to examine it and report.—A discussion took place as the result of a statement by the Clerk that calls had not been paid. The Clerk was directed to write in- timating that the arrears must be paid at once.- Mr. Spencer E. Smith later on in the meeting remarked that it seemed a little ironical for this Board to call the overseers to order for not pay- ing arrears when tlais Board was in arrears with the same rates. He had no doubt the clerk had some satisfactory explanation to give, and it was highly desirable that such should be forthcoming. —The Clerk: Seeing that I got the demand note last evening, I think that the Board will admit that we have lost no time. (Laughter.)—Mr. Williams asked if the Salop County Council had done anything as the result of the clerk's letter to them re the removal of those patients charge- able to the Board who were in other asylums.— The Clerk said they had simply given a formal acknowledgment of his letter written twelve months ago.—Mr. Williams said they should write to the authorities stating that something should be done in the matter, or this Board would apply for transfer orders.—Mr. W. H. Smith said he hardly agreed with this, inasmuch as arrange- ments were at present q, little unsettled. He suggested that. the Clerk should write asking for a reply to his first letter, and that failing this they should consider the advisability of using the threat that Mr: Williams had proposed.— Mr. R. T. Smith, jun., suggested a compromise whereby the clerk could intimate to the County Council the feelings of the Board without doing it in a peremptory way.—This was agreed upon.
BOYS DROWNED AT SALTNEY. HEROIC CONDUCT. I Two boys named Samuel Cartwright, aged 10, residing at 9, Cambrian Row, Boundary- lane, Saltney, and John McHugh, aged 11, living at No. 1, Cambrian Row, Saltney, met their death by drowning on Sunday afternoon. McHugh's death occurred under particularly sad circumstances, as he sacrificed his life in an attempt to save his drowning companion. It appears that both boys were bathing in a clay- pit at Ten Coal Exchange Brickyard at Saltney when Cartwright went but of his depth and sank. McHugh dived in, and promptly went to his assistance, and he also sank. The bodies of the unfortunate boys were recovered about an hour afterwards, and re. moved to their homes.—The Deputy City Coroner (Mr. F. Turner) held an inquest on the bodies on Monday afternoon at the City Arms Hotel. Mrs.Cartwright, mother of the deceased boy Cartwright, stated she last saw her son alive at half-past eleven on Sunday morning, when he went out to play. He did not come home to dinner, and she heard nothing more about him until his body was brought home in the afternoon. A lot of boys were in the habit of bathing in the pit in which her son was drowned, and it was a dangerous place for children to bathe in, and they ought to be warned against it.—The coroner remarked that the parents of the children ought to be able to exercise control over them.—James McHugh, father of the deceased boy McHugh, deposed that his lad left home about half-past eleven on Sunday morning to play. In the afternoon a neighbour came and informed witness that his boy was drowned in the pit. He went to the spot, and found a man named Gibbons diving for the bodies. Witness did not go in the water to rescue his son.—The Coroner: Why didn't you ? You are his father. I should have thought you would be the first to jump in.—Witness added that another man was also trying to recover the bodies. The deceased boys could not swim. The depth of water in the pit was thirteen or fourteen feet. He warned his boy on Sunday morning not to bathe in the pit.—A young boy named Edmunds, living at No. 9, Boundary-lane, Saltney, said he was bathing in the pit on Sunday afternoon in company with the deceased boys, Cartwrighfs brother and another boy. They knew the pit was dangerous and kept to the side, and told Cartwright not to go in the middle of the pit, as they knew there was a hole there. Cartwright had bathed in the pit before, but had never ventured near the hole. Neither Cartwright nor McHugh could swim. As soon as they saw Cartwright in distress, swinging round helplessly in the centre of the pit, McHugh instantly dived off the bank with the exclamation Here's my life or nothing," he adding that he would try to save Cartwright. The drowning lad shouted, and McHugh said to him Give me your hand," but Cartwright seized him by the legs and pulled him under the water, and neither of the boys came again to the surface. As soon as this happened a girl who was watching ran away and gave an alarm. None of them could swim. Bella Price, aged thirteen, the daughter of the pit keeper, stated that she was watahing the boys bathing at half-past two o'clock when Cartwright suddenly twisted around in deep water. She saw McHugh jump in to save him, and then she ran to Cartwright's mother. Witness added that her father, as caretaker of the pit, had often warned the boys not to bathe in the pit, and he had a great deal of trouble with them, as they disregarded his warning and even threw stones at him.—James Gibbons, 16, Bridge-street, Saltney, said while he was going home about three o'clock in the afternoon two boys came and told him two lads were drowned. He immediately went to the pit and dived for the bodies, which he re- covered in a short time. There was a number of people-men and women—watching on the bank at the time, but nobody made an effort to get the bodies out of the water. The hole in which the boys were drowned was between twenty and twenty- five teet deep.—This was all the evidence, and Mr. Grice, who appeared to represent Mr. Urias Bromley, the owner of the pit, stated that there was a notice near the pit warning boys to keep from the pit, but they could not keep boys from it.—The Coroner: Boys have been drowned here before P-Mr. Grice replied that boys had been drowned before in an adjoin- ing pit, but not in this one. The deepest part of the pit was twenty feet. The pit was not railed off.-The Coroner Does not; Mr. Bromley think it necessary to protect it in some way P-Mr. Grice: No, because it is private property.—The Coroner: I know that, but we have had cases of drowning there before.-Mr. Grice We cannot keep the boys off. Mr. Price had to run some boys away only half-an-hour before these boys were drowned. The jury returned a verdict of Accidentally drowned."
GREAT FIRB IN MANCHESTER.—The Jackson- street Cotton Spinning Company's Mill, Manchester, was on Saturday destroyed by fire which was caused by a live electric wire falling into a mule carriage. The work- people became panic stricken, and in a mad rush to escape many were injured. Fifteen had to be treated at the hospital, where two, George Darren and Mary Deeley, are detained. The damage is estimated at over £ 60,000. WATEHPROOJ GOODs.-Coats in a large variety of styles and patterns, at BRADLEY'S, Foregate- street. None but guaranteed articles sold. Prices, 16/11, 21/11, 27/6, eto. Cycle Capes, Leggings, etc-.
[PROFIT-SHARING AT CHESTER. I THE GAS COMPANY'S SCHEME. I Mr. George Livesey writing in "The Gas World," sayi;The recent action of the Chester Gas Company, led by their chairman, in intro- ducing a profit-sharing system, is very encouraging. Doubly so, in fact; first, because the initiative was taken by the company with- out any outside prompting or pressure, and secondly, because the employes have responded so readily in the right spirit. If properly and intelligently worked, as I believe it will be, no prophetic power is required to predict a happy future for that company so far as the labour question is concerned. I confess I was be- ginning to despair of any extension of the system in gasworks. The Chester case is there- fore a welcome encouragement. It is not so much the non-adoption of our system but the general apathy that is the serious matter. If not convinced that it is wise to adopt a system of profit-sharing as a stepping stone to share- holding, why is not some other effort made to put the labour question on a satisfactory basis ? TWELVE YEARS EXPERIENCE OF PROFIT- I SHARING. I I will not occupy your space by a repetition of the details of our system. Suffice it to say that after twelve years' working by the South Metro- politan and seven years by the Crystal Palace District Gas Companies all are agreed that it has removed one of the greatest causes of anxiety and care from which gas managers suffer, and while benefiting the companies it has also greatly bene- fited a large proportion of the employes, who are now considerable shareholders-an abundant re- ward for the care and attention devoted to, and necessary for, the successful working of the profit- sharing system. In reply to your inquiry as to the practicability of profit-sharing and trade unionism working side by side, I can only say that in many instances in connection with other in- dustries they do so work. At the Crystal Palace District gasworks, when the system was intro- duced, the men were told that membership of their union would in no way be interfered with, and from 1894 to the present time no trouble whatever has arisen on that account. THE DICBIDICHATUM." I The desideratum is to create unity or identity of interest between capital and labour, employer and employed. This the wages system fails to do, and simple profit-sharing, distributing the annual bonus in cash, although a good step in the right direction, is only a step, and unless atiother and more important step be taken will most likely fail. That other step is partnership or shareholding, and the only way that I can see for making the great body of employes share- holders is by means of profit-sharing-paying certainly not less than half the annual bonus in stock or shares. For this gas companies have great facilities; and amongst the important ser- vices they have rendered to the community not the least may be to shew how industrial peace and goodwill may be attained, and the employed induced to work heartily with their employers for the prosperity of the business by which they both live and in which they have a common interest. If any better system can be devised for the attainment of these desirable objects, by all means let it be made public and adopted; but failing that, profit-sharing plus shareholding keeps the field.
SCHOOL ATTENDANCE PROBLEM. TEACHERS AND PRESS. I The "Chester Courant" of Wednesday con-I tained the following letter:- TO THE EDITOR. I Sir,—The committee of the Chester and Dis- trict Teachers' Association offer the folloiig?.s: I marks to the statements contained in the "Courant" leaders, Julv 3rd and 10th: — (a) "The state of school attendance was a stand- ing disgrace to Chester. Happily for the fair fame of the city this is not correct, and we cannot help thinking that the gathering must have been labour- ing under some mistake." The gathering was labouring under no mistake, and the figures quoted were from the last Government Blue Book, therefore authentic, and shew that the position of Chester was as described at the meeting. (b) "Chester as a matter of fact has a very fair record in respect of school attendance." Has it? inenwny does it stand 4drd out of 64 boroughs? (c) "It will thus be seen that the average was reduced by the infants, the ages of many of whom range from three to five years. The average is not at all bad when it is considered that many children are prevented from going to school for varying periods owing to measles, etc." Is Chester then particularly prolific in the matter of babies from three to five years? As to epidemics, measles, etc., are not other towns subject to these ills of the flesh, or is Chester more insanitary than most towns? Or is it that Chester children are a more feeble lot than the youngsters in other places? (d) "Criticism was passed upon school attendance authorities and magistrates. This criticism, how- ever, is not deserved they discharge their duties with great care, etc." If the authorities who are responsible for regular at- tendance discharged their duties with great care, then where does the fault lie that Chester occu- pies so humiliating a position? (e) "The school managers have never made a single complaint concerning the percentage of at- tendance." An excuse of this sort is mere equivo- cation. All negotiations relative to attendance .have been carried on hitherto between the teachers and thfe attendance officers. Can the authorities say that the teachers have never complained? On the contrary, complaints have been frequent and specific. (f) "If the Attendance Committee are annoyed at some of the remarks made at the teachers' meet- ing it is not surprising." Judging from your in- spired leader of the 3rd inst., the attendance officer appears to be annoyed (though no one found fault with him); but we have yet to learn that his com- mittee were annoyed, and if they were, we beg to say that we have a right to fair criticism of their work as a publio body, that the criticism was im- personal, open, and above board, and that only by public criticism (when private efforts have failed) can reforms be accomplished. In your second leader (July 10th) you ask, "Are the local teachers taking the proper steps to raise the standard of school attendance?" In reply to that we beg to say that private efforts (oft re- peated) on the part of the teachers having failed, the next proper step was deemed to be publio criticism. As to the reform of the system, we may say that the teachers have for years advocated an ad- ditional attendance officer, a weekly register in place of-the present three-weekly system, and gen- erally a more tactful visitation of the parents in place of the ( present methods. (Signed) H. LOCKETT, hon. sec. Commenting upon this the" Courant" observes:— We gladly publish another letter from the Committee of the Chester and District Teachers' Association on the school attendance problem. The committee rather cavil at our suggestion that the average attendances at Chester schools was materially reduced by the abstention of infants under five years of age. If we are wrong it is rather curious that a Chester teacher who, we believe, is a member of the association, some time ago, when asked by the school attendance authorities to account for the decrease in the number on her books, wrote, after stating that the population of her district was very migratory, So far as the low per- centage is concerned I can only remind you that it includes children under five years of age." Moreover, only lecently a local school manager wrote: The poor attend- ances are mostly those of children under ifve." Referring to our re- mark that the authorities discharge their duties with great care, the association ask "Then where does the fault lie that Chester occupies so humiliating a position ? We do not say that either the School Attendance Com- mittee or the officials are perfect, but on the other hand the teachers, admirably as for the most part they perform their duties, must not claftn for themselves a monopoly of this virtue Take the proficiency of the scholars. At two recent labour certificate examina- tions in Chester only 39 and 59 per cent. respectively passed, whereas years ago, when school attendance in Chester was far worse than it is now, about 90 per cent. passed. We are not blaming the teachers; no doubt the exam- inations are stiffer now than formerly, and there may be other reasons, but still the dis- crepancy exists. Another point to be taken into consideration in connection with school attendance in Chester is the fact that the education in 21 schools is not free, ahd a re- minder of this was furnished at the Police Court yesterday (Tuesday) when a person who was summoned for the non-attendance of a child offered the excuse that the child had been sent home by her teacher for the penny school fee. We go back, however to our original point-that the school teachers have not brought forward their complaints in the proper way, namely, through the school managers. We are certain that the School Attendance Committee would give the views of the school managers every consideration. A —
A HALF-PINT LEMON JELLY I FREE. We do not know when we have been bo pleased with a table delicacy as we have been with EiffêJ Tower Table Jellies." They are simply delicious, beautifully clear, exquisitely voured, and the colour a delight to the eye. A pint packet can be obtained of Grocers for 3. We understand that Messrs. Foster Clark and Co. (makers of the well-known Eiffel Tower Lemonade) are so desirous that everybody should become acquainted with the exceptional value of their jellies that they are sending a half-pint Lemon Jelly free on receipt of a post- card. Do not miss this opportunity, but send post-card at once to Foster Clark and Co., 3578, Eiffel Tower Factory, Maidstone.
Mr. Ernest Gardner, Unionist, was on Friday I elected without opposition to fill the vacancy in the Wokingham Division caused by the resignation of Captain Qliver Young.
f AGRICULTURE. I THE WEATHER AND THE CROPS. Since last writing the farming outlook has undergone little change. The long hoped for rain has not oeme, although there have been several promises during the week when the sky has become overcast, and a few drops have fallen which were fondly hoped to be the precursors of a liberal downfall. Growing crops of all kinds, therefore, remain much as they were, except that they are being pre- maturely forced towards maturity, and we shall in all probability see a much earlier harvest than was at one time anticipated. The rain at the end of last and beginning of the present month undoubtedly exercised a beneficial influence, but the subsequent fierae heat has considerably discounted present hopes. The chief feature for congratulation has of course been the capital hay-making season, which has proceeded apace. The weather, too, has suited the autumn-sown wheat, which scarcely ever looked better than it does at present; but spring-sown cereals are stunted in growth'and will be at best but poor crops, it is to be feared much below an average; for it is getting almost too late to look for recovery for them even with copious rains. Wheat and mangolds are spoken of everywhere as likely to be the crops of the season, but swedes are poor at present, and turnips almost nowhere, while the grazing meadows are brown and bare almost as in winter, and unless there is a good soaking of rain it seems likely that an attack will have to be made on the new hay crop before long. According to the cr Ross Gazette" harvesting operations were com- menced in Herefordshire on Monday week, when a field of barley extending to about eight acres, belonging to Mr. J. B. Sainsbury, White Cross Farm, near Ross, was cut. The barley was one of the Messrs. Garton's new varieties, and its maturity is quite exceptional, and conveys no reliable idea of the state of the crops generally in the county. There is little to report in regard to the cheese markets on the week. Trade in London was fairly maintained for English makes, but owing to the heat offerings of new produce con- tinued small. There was more inquiry for Canadian goods, and prices were firm at 46s. to 47s.; New Zealand, white, 52s.; coloured, 46s. per 1121b. At Liverpool the market was quiet, but with a fairly steady consumptive demand. Any stray lots of good old cheese found ready sale at 52s. to 54s. A GENERAL SURVEY. I The first special crop report for the present season has appeared in the "Times." The un- fortunate effects of the droughty weather which so far has dominated the first summer of the cen- tury are brought clearly into view by the result of this inquiry. All the ordinary field crops ex- cepting hops come out much below the average of recent years, but the state of affairs in the Northern counties of England and in Scotland is much superior to that of the remaining and larger parts of the island. The condition of wheat is lower in all sections, Scotland being as much as five points worse, though still having an average of 91. The difference between the present con- dition and that of last July is, however, much more prominent in the case of barley and oats, the for- mer for the whole of Great Britain being 13.4, and the latter 14.1 worse. Field beans, which are essentially an English crop, work out 15 points lower, and with regard to potatoes, of which about 70 per cent. of the acreage is in England and 25 per cent. in Scotland, the averages are 12.4 and 1.5 lower respectively. The root crops are in a very unsatisfactory position in England and Wales, but turnips and swedes are much worse than mangels. The condition in England is 19.5 worse, but in Scotland the position is far more promising, the depreciation being only 2.3. Grass crops of all kinds have been seriously handicapped by the drought, the average condition for England work- ing out at only 59, or 31.4 worse than last year. Peas are almost exclusively an English crop, and the average in this case is 14.2 worse. Hops, on the other hand, are 16 points better than last year. THE MILK STANDARD. I A correspondent in the "Agricultural Gazette" pertinently remarks: It has been long understood that milk from useful cows will shew an average quality of, say, 3.50 of butter- fat, and about the same of casein. This, or something like it, was the late Dr. Voelcker's standard, many years ago. It would, however, include the whole period of lactation—the lean months and the fat ones-and the Channel Islands cattle as well as other British breeds. But it is also well known that the quality of milk from even good cows may readily fall be- low 3 per cent. of butter-fat in the flush of lacta- tion. Herein lies the difficulty-the variability of cows' milk is the despair of magistrates, and ap- pears likely to remain so. For Mr. Hanbury's standard is no immutable standard in the sense that ordinary standards are understood to be im- mutable. It simply "raises a presumption," and furnishes those who administer the law with a guide. With the producer or the vendor of sus- pected milk it will rest in the future, as it has rested in the past, to rebut a charge of tampering with suspected milk. And, so far as justices are concerned, it will be within the limits of their jurisdiction, upon evidence regarded as sufficient for the purpose, to declare that a given sample of milk is genuine even though analysis gives a re- turn of less than 3 per cent, of fat and 8.5 per cent. of other solids. That is to say, magistrates will not -be bound to convict in all and every case where- milk falls below Mr. Hanbury's standard. They will have to go on the evidence in all cases, as they have hitherto done. TRANSPLANTING ROOTS. I Relative to this subject, which just now is at- tracting much attention, a correspondent writes: I have transplanted more or less mangel every year, and almost invariably with success. In my opinion the one thing most essential is that the plants are large. Unless the weather is very damp the root should, if possible, be as large as a pigeon's egg, but, practically speaking, the larger the better. The great difficulty in practice is having plants of sufficient size, as at the usual time of singling out they are not large enough, but the only best thing to do under the circum- stances is to collect during singling time the largest of the plants and set them on the ground in some cool, damp, shady position, to be ready for transplanting when the weather is favourable or time permits; and they will hold good for a length of time if they are not exposed to the weather, and are better for transplanting when pulled for a week if properly kept. The tops should be twisted or cut off about four inches from the root. They should be planted firm in the ground, but not too deep, as the orown of the root should not be covered. The above remarks apply equally to the transplanting of swedes, which I also found to do well and far better than re-sowing, but mangel will transplant better in dry weather.
AGRICULTURAL TRAINING FOR WOMEN. I The Countess of Warwick made an earnest appeal on Friday afternoon, at a meeting held at the Mansion House, on behalf of her agricul- tural scheme for women. It is three years since the Lady Warwick Hostel at Reading was started with the object of affording training to educated women in the lighter branches of agriculture. Its success has more than fulfilled the most sanguine expectations, and the scheme has now outgrown the limits of one person's responsibility and purse. The Hostel and grounds no longer suffice for the demands made upon them, and just at present a favourable opportunity has occurred for the purchase of a fine site in the neighbourhood of Reading. The public-spirited owner of the land offers it at a very reasonable price, and it is for the purchase of this site that Lady Warwick appealed. Fortunes are not made in agriculture, Lady Warwick rightly remarked but trained women can and do make as good a competence in this as in other professions; and it has the advantage of being very healthy work. Substantial sums of money were promised, and it is hoped the purses of the city companies will be opened for a project which is not by any means Utopian but has already the roots of success.
MILK ADULTERATION.—At Runcorn en Mon- day George Myers, of Weston Point, was summoned for selling adulterated milk. Mr. A. Timmis, inspector of weights and measures, prosecuted. Dr. Carter Bell, county analyst, certified that the milk contained 6 per cent. of added water. The defendant, who declined to give evidence on oath, said he had sold milk from the same farm for twenty years, and there had never been a complaint yet. There was no water added to the milk, which was the best in the village. He was fined 10s. and costs, 24s. 8d. AMERICAN MILK FOR LONDON.-A firm known as the Borden Milk Company, which has already revolutionised the trade of New York and other American cities, will shortly establish a branch in London. In America the milk required for the business is collected in nineteen different sections of the United States, where the com- pany's bottling and condensing factories are situated. The milk is delivered in glass bot- tles, filled by automatic machines. They are then packed in refrigerator trays, and covered with ice. A swift milk train, running fifty miles an hour, conveys them to the city, and delivery wagons carry them, still in the ice trays, to the customers.
CORNERING NORWEGIAN FISH.—A group of English capitalists already interested in Scan- dinavian commerce is making an attempt to gain control of the Norwegian export of pre- served fish. For some time past purchases of preserving factories situated on Stavanger Fjord have been quietly going on until the syndicate referred to has secured the bulk of the Norwegian interest, and now proposes to take all the remaining concerns at Stavanger. The capital of the syndicate is considerably over E100,000. UMBRELLAS RE-COVERED and REFINISHED equal to new. Ladies' or Gent's, with the noted B E M Silk, 3/6 each, and at all prices from 1/11 to 12/6.— BRADLEY'S, Foregate-street, Chester.
I CHESHIRE AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL. SUCCESSFUL YEAR'S WORKING. 9 ) By OUR OWN REPORTER."] On Tuesday afternoon the medals, diplomas, certificates and prizes gained during the past, year by the students at the Agricultural and Horticul- tural School, Holmes Chapel, were distributed by Mr. Alfred Hopkinson, K.C. (Principal of Owen's College, Manchester), at the School, in the presence of a large attendance. Mr. C. E. Thornycroft presided at the ceremony, and among those present were the Rev. J. H. Armitstead (vicar of Holmes Chapel), Dr. Vacher (county medical officer of health), Messrs. G. B. Baker-Wilbraham (Rode Hall), Alderman McNeill (Crewe), R. P. Ward (secretary to the Technical Instruction Committee of the County Council), Roger Bate, Chas. B. Davies (Eardswick Hall), Jas. Sadler (Nantwich). etc. The Principal of the school (Mr. Druce) reported that they had had a successful year's work, as shewn by the results gained during the twelve months. "In reviewing the work," he said, "we may do so under four distinct heads, viz., the work done by our old boys, theoretical or class-room work, practical or out-of-door work, experimental and research work. The old boys: At the Uni- versity of Edinburgh during the last-winter session one of our old students (Fred. Smith, of Maccles- field) gained four medals in various classes of the B.Sc. course, including the junior medal in agri- culture, for which he was bracketed equal with another old boy (C. Carter). S. Fraser, of Cheadle, who left three years ago, is now the agricultural teacher at the Agricultural School, Briarcliff, New York, U.S.A. J. Pimblett, of Weaverham, who left last Christmas, has been appointed super- viser of experiments under the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, Ireland, where he has for one of his colleagues a fellow- student, J. W. Steen. Besides these appointments I am more pleased to report that a number of old boys are doing exceedingly well in practical farm- ing and gardening. To mention an example or two: A student who came here from Manchester, and took out the full course, is at present doing well on a fairly large farm in Nottinghamshire; and another who gained the diploma here, al- though still quite young, is practically farming a large tarm in this county, his father only paying him flying visits occasionally.—Theoretical work: As our students come at the average age of 15 years we pay particular attention to the theoretical side of the subjects closely bearing on agriculture and horticulture, so that in after life the students may have a firm ground upon which they can build by their own observation and power of reasoning the superstructure of practical facts, a complete understanding of which is an essential to successful farming and gardening. Without this foundation of theoretical knowledge we believe that in the immediate future it will be impossible for any per- son to be successful either as a farmer or gardener. Nevertheless it is a certain fact that theoretical knowledge by itself is absolutely useless; thus we combine the practical instruction with the theo- retical. All the students take their part in the different operations carried out during the year, and thus become familiar with the details of the work which they will have to deal with in after life. At the same time it is a mistake to expect too much practical work from young boys, as it is impossible for the brain to work satisfactorily if the body is wearied, and I believe that there is a tendency to cause a distaste for practical work in the young mind if they are given a very large amount of it to do. I am glad to say that the school has well maintained its reputation at the public examinations this past year. An old student, B. W. Bull, an Essex county scholar, passed 3rd in part 2 of the examination of the National Examination Board in Agriculture, and was granted the national diploma in agriculture, while a present student, L. Scott, passed part 1 of the same examination. In the examination of the Royal Horticultural Society all our students who entered obtained certificates, three in the first class, viz., J. W. Parker, F. H. Billington and L. Scott. In the examinations of the Board of Education last year, the results of which were not known last July, R. Ashley obtained a medal and certificate ia the honours stage in agriculture, and L. Scott won the only Queen's prize granted in the ad- vance stage of agriculture. The last examination conducted by outside examiners is for our County Council diploma and certificate. Those students who have completed their third year's course and obtained 75 per cent. of marks in the science and practice of agriculture, 60 per cent. in chemistry (general and agricultural) botany, zoo- logy, geology, veterinary hygiene, land surveying and levelling, agricultural engineering and book- keeping have been awarded a diploma, while those who obtained 75 per cent. in either agriculture or horticulture alone obtained a first-class certificate." Continuing, the Principal stated: "From the re- ports of the examiners the work done appears to be satisfactory. Five students sat for the exam in- ation of these one obtained the diploma, one the certificate in agriculture, and one the certificate in horticulture. Professor Middleton reports: 'The work done by two of the candidates has been very good indeed all through, and that all the candidates did better in the orals than in the written paper. I was very pleased with the answers given by Scott and Sumner; they were well posted up in all that was going on upon the farm.' Dr. MacDougall says: 'L. Scott is certain- ly the strongest man, and his answers are very satisfactory. The next two men have a good know- ledge of their subjects.' Mr. Cock states: 'The answers of the candidate he examined were highly satisfactory, and that he displayed a good know- ledge of gardening.'—The experimental and re- search work: This is one of the most important branches of the work of the school, because we believe that by this means we can be, and are, of considerable use and benefit to the present genera- tion of farmers and gardeners. During the past year we have had some 500 visitors to inspect our various experiments, and they seemed to be pleased and satis&ed with what they saw here. We have already had several visitors this season, including a parish council in the county, and we shall be pleased if the secretaries of farmers' clubs, land agents and others who are thinking of bringing over parties would let us know their most con- venient days as soon as possible, there being some difficulty in arranging dates. We are very pleased to say that we have been repeatedly told that our experiments are not only of great interest to our visitors, but that they have also been of consider- able practical use to them. We are delighted to see in the local papers of a few weekjt ago a letter from a well-known farmer in the county, stating the advantages he had derived from our experiments on spraying with copper sulphate to kill charlock or yellow weed, carried out on his farm" last year. The demand for the copies of our experimental re- ports has been steadily increasing, and at the present time all our last year's reports are out of print, although the number published has been augmented. We have again published a state- ment and plan of the details of the experiments to serve as a guide to those who inspect the plot. The experiments we are at present carrying out are on the same lines as those in the previous year, in order that, if possible, there should be no break in the continuity of the experiments, in spite of the fact that the originator of them, my pre- decessor, has left the school. We are endeavour- ing to find out how to grow the maximum amount of the highest class produce at the minimum cost. There are three chief agents which control the growth of the different crops. The experiments are in connection with these points, viz.: (1) Different varieties of seed; (2) the texture or tilth of the soil; (3) the different manures used.—With potatoes: A considerable number of the different varieties which have been proved to be unsuccess- ful have been dropped out and new sorts added. We have at present 90 varieties under trial. We are also testing the effects of different manures, different sized sets, and drills of different widths.— With grain crops: The experiments are being car- ried out with 14 different varieties of wheat, in- cluding seed from U.S.A. and Canada, and with 16 varieties of oats, including three varieties from Sweden.—With roots: We are growing the same varieties of swedes and mangels as last year, so that we can compare the results both in quantity and quality of the different varieties with those obtained before. We find there is a considerable difference in the amount of nutriment present, and it does not follow that the heaviest crop is the most profitable.—Temporary pasture: Experi- ments are being carried out with different mix- tures of grass and clover seeds. This experiment is being conducted in two fields; in the first the seeds were sown in 1897. They were mown twice in the first year, and have been grazed since. In the second field the seeds were sown last year, and have been mown for hay this summer; thus we can compare both the mowing and the grazing capabilities of each mixture at the same time. Forty plots were laid out on a piece of permanent pasture, and were manured 14st spring with different manures. The differences in the herbage are not very strongly marked this year, probably owing to the dry weather and to the fact that the field has been very closely grazed. A few experiments on spraying of charlock have been carried out this spring, and for the destruction of the rough, hard variety they have proved very successful. An interesting fact in connection with this point was observed here this spring on a field which was badly infested with the weed two years ago, which was then sprayed. We noticed this spring that the strips left unsprayed were again badly infested with the weed, while the sprayed plots were, prac- tically speaking, free. A new feature on the farm this year is that we have collected typical specimens of the chief milk-producing breeds of cattle, so that the students and visitors can compare the different kinds in their natural state, and not over- laden with fat as we see them at agricultural shows. We have at present specimens of eight different breeds. During the past winter we have added some 2! acres to the gardens in order to give greater scope to the horticultural work." The Chairman, in requesting Mr. Hopkinson to distribute the prizes, remarked that although the institution was almost in its infancy, he believed it was doing a useful work. Mr. Druce had told them of the success of some of the students, and he thought they might be satisfied that the educa- tional standard was well up to the mark, because it was clearly proved so by the position which their boys held when they entered for the public examinations. There was one feature in the school which was not so satisfactory as the others, and that was that they did not get quite the num. ber of students they expected. The school afforded accommodation for sixty pupils, but at the present time they had only 35. Moreover, half that num- ber were educated free of expense, as they entered the school by means of scholarships; and to the boys who were coming to the school next term they were giving sixteen more exhibition scholarships. this sc h oo l He thought that the establishment of_this school, and the dairy school at Worleston, and the ex- perimental work carried on at the agricultural school shewed that the County Council were fully alive to the necessity for higher agricultural ed u- cation. They could only do their best by pointing out the benefits of the work they were carrying on to the farmers of the county, and by hoping that the farmers would soon take advantage of it. This time last year they were deploring the loss of their excellent principal (Mr. Gordon). They had in his successor a gentleman who was deeply interested in the welfare of the school, and would endeavour to the best of his ability to continue the good work which Mr. Gordon began. (Applause.) Mr. Hopkinson then distributed the awards to the successful students as follows :—Agriculture (class B), W. E. Moore; agriculture (class C), F. H. Billington; chemistry, F. H. Billington and W. Baldwin; natural science, J. W. Parker; horti- culture, O. Berry; mathematics, W. Baldwin; surveying, R. Harding; veterinary, J. W. Parker; drawing, W. E. Dodd; collection of grasses, A. Blackshaw; practical chemistry, H. Hulme; prac- tical horticulture, T. Lester; dairying, L. Scott; milking, W. E. Moore; potato planting (B), W E Moore; potato planting (C), R. W. Parker; mangel thinning (B), T. Williamson; mangel thin- ning (C), J. T. Ellison; fruit tree training, W. Baldwin; carrot thinning, T. Lester. After distributing the prizes Mr. Hopkinson gave a short address, at the outset of which he con- gratulated the scholars who had succeeded in ob- taining prizes, and expressed a wish that their successes would only be the earnest of a great suc- Lcoa oiterwaras in ine protession they had chosen. As he was not an agriculturist, he would not speak about the best methods of agriculture. He would like to say, however, that those who were engaged in the work of education—and he thought of all the work in which we could be engaged there was no higher occupation than that of making the next generation as competent and capable, in- tellectually, physically and morally, as it could be —hear, hear)—ought to meet together from time to time to become per- sonally acquainted with each other, and to learn what was going on. Those connected with university work in the town should learn as much as they could of the educational progress going on in the district, because they ought to re- member what was too much forgotten sometimes by those engaged in university work, that it would be only a small proportion of the total population who possibly could, or who ought to, go on to that state of education so much prolonged by those who sought a university degree. What he thought was satisfactory in the work of a school like this was that the vast majority of those who went there would go directly into the practical work of agri- culture or horticulture. (Hear, hear.) He believed there were some among the cleverest of the scholars who would, and ought to, go forward, and he trusted that very soon thev would be able to ar- range between Owen's College and the county councils of Lancashire and Cheshire a ready means by which scholars from schools of this kind should go forward to the kind of work which would be a preparation for important positions abroad, or im- portant positions in this country, as managers of estates, or teachers in agricultural colleges, and other positions requiring a long and somewhat difficult training. He hoped that kind of educa- tion would be given in our colleges, and that they would see many students from this school and others taking advantage of it. He often thought we were sometimes inclined to give too much at- tention to those who had achieved success, but after all what we wanted was the average man, by which he meant the one of fair average capa- bilities, the kind of man who afterwards would form the majority of those at home. The future welfare of our country depended not merely upon the sparkling successes. Of all kinds of work he knew of none that ought to appeal to us so much as the oldest of our national industries, the oldest industry of the human race—the agricultural and the horticultural industry. (Hear, hear.) With regard to our great manufacturing industries, he thought it was sometimes questionable whether it was altogether desirable that we should spoil the natural beauty of the country by constructing rail- ways and coal mines. We might think too much of our great industries which sometimes destroyed the beauty of the country, but there were no two sides to the agricultural question. A man en- gaged in agriculture was certainly doing good for his fellows, and conferring unadulterated benefits upon them and himself. A man who was able to produce more wholesome food at cheaper rates at the doors of the great mass of the population was a benefactor to his people, and those who by teach- ing him agriculture enabled him to do that were certainly among those whom our statesmen ought to do everything they possibly could to encourage. But he thought we would have to look to our- selves rather than to our statesmen if we were go- ing to do anything very successful in this or in any other kind of education. (Hear, hear.) Though he disclaimed being an expert in agriculture, he claimed to be an expert in infancy, and he judged by the infancy of the school at Holmes Chapel that it was likely to have a very robust manhood in a very short, time. He thought there were signs in that school that it would satisfy a demand, and that its research work was becoming appreciated by practical men. He dared say that even the six thousand years during which agriculture had been an industry had not yet added to human knowledge all that could be known as to the best means of making land produce as much as it was capable of producing. He believed the Board of Agriculture were anxious to assist as far as they could in the work of agricultural education in the county, but he thought that it was to the co-operataon of local effort they must look to if they must succeed, the men we wanted more than anyone else to meet the practical needs of the country were those who could do something to advance our industries, not merely by extraordinary strides, but keep them at all events up to the level of other countries, or per- haps superior. Why should not English cheese or butter be a shade better than anything we could import from abroad ? He dared say it was in some cases, but he had been told again and again that it was the high average quality of certain products from abroad which gave them the market where there might be occasional products here, but by no means the security of the same kind of high average product which was said to come from Den- mark and other foreign countries. He believed that schools of this sort were doing -an immense amount of good in enabling those whose work would sometimes be dull and uninteresting to have an additional interest in their work by bringing to bear upon it some of the general scientific know- ledge which could be gathered from books. Country life was probably often dull, but if that life was to be made more attractive and more efficient, he believed the way to make it so was to bring into it all that they could bring by having been trained first in all the knowledge of others bearing upon it, and in particular in the know- ledge of the broad lines of nature which were ex- emplified from day to day in the work they were undertaking. (Applause.) Mr. Baker-Wilbraham, in proposing a vote of thanks to Mr. Hopkinson for his services, re- marked that since the Holmes Chapel School was started it had had a great many imitators throughout the country, institutions having arisen in all directions in England very much on the lines of the one in Cheshire. As imitation was the sin- cerest form of flattery they might from that point of view congratulate themselves upon what was going on in other parts of England. Many of those institutions were better furnished in many ways than that at Holmes Chapel was at the be- ginning, and had the benefit of larger sums of money. But he was inclined to think that the limitation of the benefit was to some extent an ad- vantage, because it had obliged them to look from a more practical point of view at the whole of their scheme of education in Cheshire, and con- sequently to economise in many ways. He thought the result was that probably they were more severely practical than they would otherwise have been. The motion was seconded by Alderman McNeill, and heartily carried.—A vote of thanks to the chairman, on the proposition of the Rev. J. H. Armitstead, seconded by Mr. C. B. Davies, brought the meeting to a close. The visitors subsequently partook of tea and refreshments at the school.
BOATING ACCIDENT AT RUNCORN. 1 SCHOOLMASTER DROWNED. 1 1. 1 I- .1 1 A snocKing Doating disaster occurred on the Weaver Canal at Weston, near Runcorn, on Satur- day night, by which Samuel Rawlins, aged 21, of Mersey-road, Widnes, lost his life. Deceased and five other young men embarked on a small boat belonging to the Runcorn Boating Club for the purpose of rowing from Sutton to Weston Point. At half-past nine they were near the Castner- Kellner Chemical Works, when they were met by the steam barge Chanticleer, belonging to the Salt Union, travelling at a good speed. The occu- pants of the boat bailed this craft, but were ap- parently not heard, as the barge did not slacken speed, and caused a wave, according to eye wit- nesses, three feet high. This wave dashed into the little boat, completely swamping it, and it sank, and the occupants were left struggling in the water. Rawlins could not swim, but a companion, Ernest Moorfield, of Runcorn, a good swimmer, seized hold of the deceased, who struggled furi- ously, and the two went over and over in the water. Moorfield, becoming exhausted, lost his hold. Alfred Rowlands, of Rocksavage, swam towards Rawlins, who, however, sank before Rowlands could reach him, and did not rise again. Moor- field was dragged ashore in an unconscious state, but recovered. Another occupant named William Talbot, of Weston Point, was also unable to swim, but his friend, William Henry Dutton, a youth aged 15 years, pluckily seized him, and after a hard struggle sucoeeded in getting him to the bank. The boat was only registered to carry five persons. The body of Rawlins was taken to the Weaver Hotel, Weston Point. Rawlins was the only son of his widowed mother, for whom the greatest sympathy is felt. He was employed as assistant master at Holy Trinity day schools, Runoorn. He was an undergraduate of Owens College. I SKIFFS AND- STEAMERS. STRONG ALLEGATIONS. I The inquest was held on Tuesday.-In reply to ?le inq Hicks, Ernest Moor6eld, one of the oc- cupants of the boat who unsuccessfully tried to rescue Rawlins, said that neither the steamer Chanticleer nor the barge Mary, which was being towed, stopped to render assistance. It will be recollected that the skiff contained six persons in- stead of five, the number marked on her. Inspector Hicks: Complaints have been made that these steamers put on steam when passing these skiffs, and when they are overturned, and the people are left struggling in the water, simply laugh at them. How far had the steamer passed when the accident occurred?—About ten yards. And therefore the crew could have seen the ac- cident?—If they had seen it they would have come to us. The steamer and barge belonged to the Salt Union, and you are employed by the same firm.- Yes. Ephraim Palin, captain of the Chanticleer, who elected to give evidence, stated that when he saw the skiff deeply loaded with passengers, and on the wrong side of the canal, he eased off steam. He did not turn on steam again until he saw the skiff clear of the barge Mary. He had never seen a skiff so deeply laden before. The Chanticleer was not going more than three miles an hour. There were no bye-laws as to skiffs on the canal. The jury returned a verdict of "Accidentally drowned," and commended Moorfield and another man named Rowlands for their conduct.
I MR. TOLLEMACHE AND SWINE FEVER. I VIGOROUS PROTEST In the House of Commons, on Tuesday, on that vote of :627,094 for the Board of Agriculture, Mr. Lambert complained of the action of the President of the Board in reducing the standard of solid matter in milk from 12 to 11.5 per cent He also impressed upon the President the neces- sity of stamping out swine fever. Mr. Lloyd suggested that the Board should make more widely known what they were pre- pared to do in the way of compensation for animals wthic1 h had to be slaughtered. .Mr. H. Hobhouse said it was incumbent upon the Board of Agriculture to give guidance systematically to local authorities on this matter of swine fever. Mr. Henry Tollemache considered that when animals were isolated under the orders of the veterinary inspector because of the existence of swine fe-ver, the owner ought. to recei7n compensa- tion at once. and tho — _u uugnt to be slaughtered. He knew a farmer who had a large number of pigs, and swine fever set in An in- spector ordered the slaughter of four or five of the animals and the others were isolated. Although the disease continued to break out among these isolated swine day after day, the inspector would not order them to be slaughtered. The farmer saw his swine dying, yet never got authority to slaughter them, and never was paid compensation. From the circular recently issued it appeared that the authorities thought the chief remedy for the swine fever was for the magistrates to inflict more drastic penalties. His experience on the Bench was that the magistrates recognised the necessity of inflicting some penalty, but they also recognised the very harassing restrictions which all these orders entailed, and as a rule inflicted a penalty which adequately met the offence. His ex- perience was that the chief centres of contagion were local markets and fairs, and also small pig jobbers who went round to those places. (Hear hear.) The premises occupied by these men were in a most horrible condition, and he believed were great centres of outbreak. He asked the nghthon gentleman whether it was not possible to compel these men to take out a licence, not for the pur- pose of increasing the revenue, but to give the authorities a bold over them. He believed this nVUIU In tne iuture one of the great causes of the prevention of the disease. ("Oh.") Mr. j. H. Roberts thought it was quite time the Board of Agriculture threw a new light upon this matter. He knew a great number of people in the country thought these huge sums of money amounting to thousands of pounds, expended in the endeavour to get rid of this serious evil had been more or less wasted. He could not think fthw at, but he °rth, ought it woul,d be a wise policy on the part of the Board of Agriculture to spend less money in isolation and provide for the slaughter of the animals expeditiously, so as to prevent the spread of the disease. More attention should be paid to the buildings in which the animals were kept. He drew attention to the admirable work which had been done by the agricultural depart- ment of the University College of North Wales in Bangor in instructing farmers on this and other subjects, yet they merely received from the Board of Agriculture towards carrying on this very im- portant work the paltry sum of JB800. The discussion was continued bv Mr. Llewelm Mr. Mansfield, Sir J. Rankin, Mr. Strachey and others, the general contention being that slaughter was better than mere isolation as a method of stamping out swine fever. On the same vote there arose a debate as to the mixing of separated and "whole" milk. Mr. Hanbury began his reply by stating that the thanks of the community were due to Mr. Long, his predecessor, for having stamped out rabies. Answering next questions which had been put to him with reference to the statute prohibiting the adulteration of food, he expressed his deter- mination that the statute should be put into oper- ation, and assured the oommittee that, if local authorities neglected the duties which the law im- posed upon them, he would take action himself. Turning to the question of agricultural instruction, he announced that Professor Somerville, professor of agriculture at Cambridge, would probably join the Board as an educational adviser. He was con- vinced that a great deal more might be done for agricultural education than was done at present, and he indicated the steps that might be taken for the purpose. With regard to the butter standard, he observed that he had every reason to be satisfied with the reception given to his proposal. He re- garded the spread of swine fever as a very serious matter. It could best be dealt with, he believed, by isolation, for by slaughtering animals they really encouraged the spread of the disease, as the minimum of compensation that could be offered under the existing law was probably more than the owner of the animal would get for it in a healthy condition. He had been struck by the ignorance of local veterinary surgeons with regard to the disease, and he had decided not to trust to their knowledge of its symptoms any longer. Two or three of the best veterinary surgeons in each county would in future be appointed to watch for symptoms of the disease, and the number of the Board's travelling inspectors would be doubled. Experiments were also to be made with a view- to facilitating the diagnosis of the disease. He recog- nised fully how desirable it was to diffuse informa- tion on agricultural subjects among small farmers, and he intended to give practical effect to hia views on this subject. A reduction of the vote, which Mr. Lambert had moved, was negatived by 208 votes against 83, and then progress was reported.
STEAM VERSUS SAIL. NORTHSEA FLEET SOLD TO DUTCHMEN. The great North Sea fishing fleet known as the Short Blue trawlers, which for a century had headquarters at Yarmouth, was finally dispersed" recently, says the "Morning Post," the last of the vessels (which once numbered four hundred, and employed fifteen hundred men and boys) being sold by auction. This fleet could no longer be profitably worked on account of the North Sea being fished by the steam trawlers. The prices realised were remarkably low, vessels being knocked down at £ 24, XW, iC35, and jC40 each. Some of the purchasers were Dutchmen." The rest of the North Sea fleet, however, is still alive and kicking, and not infrequently those in authority have had the pleasure of presenting to these hardy mariners some tangible recognition of their bravery in rescuing ill-fated crews from the treacherous waters. A typical representative of this hardy and daring class is Mr. Austin Bates, of 20, Orwell- street, Grimsby, who has braved the North Sea in its most stormy moods. Mr. Bates is forty- eight years of age, and has lived in Grimsby ever since he was sixteen years of age, twenty years of which he has resided in Orwell-street. So that he is well known as an old resident in the neighbourhood. "Three and a half years ago," said Mr. Bates to a visitor, "I was skipper of the steamer Tynemouth. During a gale, in my anxiety to save the gear, I ran up out of the warm cabin on to the deck to assist in the operations, without waiting to put on my coat. It was raining in torrents, and I got wet through Vth skin in no time. When I turned in at last I found myself very ill as the result of the drenching I received. To give you some idea of how bad I was I may mention that directly we got into dock I had to be conveyed home in a fish cart. I was at home eight weeks suffering from a complica- tion of complaints—pleurisy, pneumonia, and bronchitis—and, of course, received medical attention. I grew worse, however, and it became necessary for me to go into the Grimsby Hospital. I was in the hospital two months, and then it was that I heard of Dr. Williams. pink pills for pale people, and determined to give them a trial. I had not taken many boxes before I noticed a decided improvement, and they have done me more good than all the other medicines I have taken put together. They seem to make new blood, and that was what I wanted. People used to smile at the idea that Dr. Williams' pink pills could cure my bad case, but I had great faith in them, and kept on taking them with the result that they did me a world of good." The trying heat of summer tempts people to become cool at any cost and brave the same risks as Mr. Batee. Dangerous chills are often the result. The effect may not be noticed immediately, but the blood is impoverished, and in late autumn a sharp attack of rheumatism or sciatica will be felt. Dr. Williams' pink pills are unrivalled as a tonic and as a remedy for the debilitating effects of hot, relaxing, summer weather. Among the other disorders cured by the genuine pills (sold by chemists and Dr. Williams' Medicine Company, Holborn Viaduct, London, at two shillings and nine- pence a box, or thirteen and nine for six boxes) may be named paralysis, consumption, bronchitis, rickets, anaemia, indigestion, palpi- tations, all forms of female weakness and hysteria, but substitutes (which never bear the full name) should always be rejected. Some shopkeepers try to press them upon people whom they think easy to deceive.
UNSKCTABIAN MISSION CHURCH, HOOLE.— The members of the bible class had a success- ful picnic on Saturday, when they journeyed in brakes to Delamere Forest. After an enjoyable ramble through the Willington Woods, per- mission having been kindly granted by M. Jas. Tomkinson, M.P., the party partook of tea. After tea an interesting presentation was made to the leader of the class, Mr. Gomer Welsh, who has been connected with the mission for upwards of twenty years. Mr. Duck (the hon. sec.) and Mr. Jenkins in a few appropriate words spoke of the example of Mr. Welsh and his faithfulness in carrying on the work, and the former presented Mr. Welsh, on behalf of the class, with a silver-mounted Malacca cane bearing the following inscription: Presented to Mr. Gomer Welsh by member of the bible class, Unsectarian Mission Church Hoole, 6th July, 1901." Mr. Welsh retume thanks. Mr. Hallmark also spoke and gave humorous recitation. Miss Anne Rathbon kindly opened her grounds, and a number hymns, &c., were sung, and the return joumer was safely accomplished.