THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. TO REINFORCE KITCHENER. FIRST DRAFT FROM ALDERSHOT. The first of innumerable drafts of mounted men left Aldershot on Saturday en route to South Africa. There were tour officers and two hundred mAD ot the Iteoovtnry.
THE COMBINED ATTACK. LARGE CAPTURES OF STOCK, THE MURDERS OF ENVOYS Lord Kitchener, in a dosparcn to the war Office, says that a British Column hts destroyed Applies belonging to the enemy at Petius- kurcj, and brought in three thousand five kundred horses and cattle, without a casualty. Lord Methuen has had an engagement, with the enemy at Lillifontein, East of Vtyburg. The Boers were dispersed, and WH captured 12 Of their wagons and two hundred cattle. De Wet is reported still North ot Smithfield, Moving East. A special correspondent, tele- graphing from Durban, mentions a report from Delagoa Bay, to the effect that, the Boers under Delart-Y and Blake are moving on the Portuguese border, 1rlth the intention of proceeding to lourenco Marques in order to obtain supplies and liberate the Boer prisoners The Portu- guese are taking precautionary measures. A telegram from Bloemfontein says that an ex- Burgher from Kroonstad has made a xtatement giving details of the outrages on the Peace Envoys, Morgendaal and Weasels. They WHe, he states, confined in De Wet's laager, and 1fere subsequently joined by <Twrhar<JU6, who -80S arrested for writing to his brother in-law On commando. He describes the flagging of 311orgondaitt by Froneman, who, subsequently, a.t the suggestion of De Wet. shot the Envoy, orendaal afterwards succumbed to his ^juries. Mullf>r was also flagged, aud Wease's 1F¡ reported to have been shot at Klipfontein, but no further particulars have been received.
Louis BOT HAD E F EAT E D. BOER LOSS OF OFFICERS. I DE WET IN THE SOUTH. The following despatch has been received from Lord Kitchener :— Pretoria, 9 February, 12.40 p.m. 9 Feb 11a.m. Columns working East occu- pied Ermelo on the 6th, with slight uposition, large force of Boers, estimated at 7 000, under touis Botha, retiring East. About 800 wagons, with families, passed through Ermelo on way to Amsterdam, v«ry largo quantities of sioek being driven East. A Peace Delegate sentenced to death and other Boer prisoners were taken away by the Boers. All reports 8hew Boers exceedingly bitter. Fiftv Boers surrendered to column. Louis Botha, with 2,000 men, attacked Smith-Dorrien, Orange Camp, at Both well, at 30 a.m. 6th. Were repulsed after severe fighting, General Spruit killed; General Baud><weyf>r severely wounded two ti-ld cornets killed 20 dead left in our hand*, many severely wounded. 'Our casualties :—24 killed, 53 wounded. Our movement east reported to have thoroughly upset all enemy's calculations, 'lDd CH,ated regular panic in district. De Wet appears to be crossing the line south of the ,Ja,g"Jlifont",in road, to west this morning, having failed to effect crossing by drifts east of Bethulie. In Colony, Calvinia was occupied by De Lisle on -6th, enemy retiring on Kunhardt. Haig is driving Midland Commando not tb wards past Aberdeen.
RETREAT OF BUTHA. THE SWAZILAND BORDER. I BOER INVASION. Since the desperate night attack by the Hoers oil General Smith-Dorrien, the enemy, under "Commandant Louis Botha and other leaders, have fallen back on the confined Svvazie border. They are stated to be in great consternation, seeking in vain for an outlet through which to escape with their guns and wagons. The failure of the night attack was complete, and ended in a retreat of the enemy everywhere. It is fully anticipated that they will be obliged to abandon their guns and convoy, or risk a general engagement. It is re- ported that two Boer commandos, numbering about two thousand men, have crossed Swaziland and entered the British territory on the coast. They appear to be awaiting the arrival of war material which was to be landed from an Austrian vessel near Kosi, at the mouth of St. Lucia Bay. The landing was not effected, as a British gun- boat was watching the English part of the coast, 'I while a Portuguese gunboat was guarding the Portuguese shore. Mr. Chamberlain has written to Sir A. Milner, approving of the reply of the latter to the deputation from the Worcester Con- gress, and adding that the Government have no intention of going back upon the policy they had deliberately adopted, and which has the support of the overwhelming weight of popular opinion throughout the Empire.
APPEAL BY PIET DE WET. I "ARE YOU BLIND?" I Bloemfontein, Feb. 5. The following letter from Piet de Wet to his brother Christian is published at Bloemfontein:- Lindley, Jan. 11th, 1901. Dear Brother,—I take the liberty to write you this letter, and request you to read it. I hear you are so angry that you have decided to kill me, accusing me of high treason. May God not allow you the opportunity to shed more innocent blood! When I saw that we were beaten by the British I wrote to the President and requested him to consider terms of peace, and rather to surrender than ruin the country and starve the people. I was afterwards with you for a month, and was then convinced that we had better lay dowrt our arms, but I did my duty whenever we had an engagement. In the battle at Schietmakaar, with Prinsloo, I charged the guns, when 1 was shamefully left in the lurch by Froneman. who fled. At last, convinced that the struggle was hopeless, I left with my staff, sur- rendered, and was sent to Durban. The fact that you and Steyn were carrying on a guerilla war- fare made me write to Lord Kitchener on December the 11th requesting an opportunity to come to the Free State, and persuade the men to lay down their arms, as no Free State Govern- ment then existed against which I could commit treason. Which is the better for the Republics- to continue the struggle and run the risk of total ruin as a nation, or to submit? Could we for a moment think of taking back the country if it were offered us, with thousands of people to be supported by a Government that has not a. farthing, and that has a debt of five or six millions, even if we received help from Europe? Do you think that any nation is so mad as to have thousands of men killed and Epend millions of money, and then to give us the Republics and the capital necessary to govern them? Put pas- sionate feeling aside for a moment, and use com- mon sense, and you will then agree with me that the best thing for the people and the country is to give in, be loyal to the new Government, and try to get responsible Government. As soon as the finances allow of its being done, we shall govern the country virtually ourselves, have our children properly educated, and save the people as a nation. On the other hand, should the war continue a few months longer, the nation will become so poor, as a great portion already is, that they will be the working-class in the country, and disappear as a nation in the future. I have heard that you and others accuse me of being paid by the English Government for what I am doing. I can only answer—there is a God. He will pass a righteous sentence. I have also heard that Lord Kitchener's offers and the attempts of myself and others are considered by you as a sign of weakness on the part of the British. When you cornered 50 British soldiers in a kraal at Blaauwbank, when you did the same to 400 at Mosterts Hoek, when you surrounded a small body of men at Rhenoster River, and, under a flag of truce, asked them to surrender willingly, was that weakness or a magnanimous deed on your part? The British are convinced that they have conquered the land and its people, and con- sider the matter ended, and they only try to treat magnanimously those who are continuing the struggle in order to prevent unnecessary blood- shed. Believe me when I tell you that no troops are being sent back to England, but that thou- sands are still coming to South Africa. If you do not consider the Free State you are not sensible and do not act sensibly. Are you blind? Can you not see that you are being deceived by the Transvaal Generals and Burghers? What are they doing? They do not fight a tenth part as much as we do. The Transvaal is not ruined to the same extent as the Free State. The Transvaal Generals are in- clined to submit, and are only waiting to see what you are going to do. The moment you surrender, fall, or are captured they will sur- render. I pray you again to consider before you proceed further."
A KEEN FIGHT WITH THE BOERS. I In a letter, dated January 3rd, to Mrs. Leaward Pope, who resides at 31, Orchard-street, Garden- lane, Brigadier E. Pope, of G. Section Pom-poms, now serving in South Africa, says that on October 20th the troops reached Frederickstad, and found to their surprise that the Boers were nearly all around them. They had to camp at the place for some time until more troops arrived. When the additional troops came they fairly forced the Boers out of the kopjes, and by so doing compelled them to come out into the open. A keen fight ensued, and it was estimated the Boers had 190 killed and wounded, while a number were taken prisoners. From Frederickstad the troops marched to "Buflles Doom" Pass, of which they took possession for a week with the expectation of meeting the Boers. However, the Boers did not come anywhere near them, so the British troops marched on to Modder- fontein, expecting a good capture, but they were disappointed. While they were marching to Bank Station one of the men, who was riding besides the writer, was shot through the right arm from ono of the kopjes with a Mauser bullet.
ROBERTS'S DESPATCHES. j BULLER AND HIS TASK. ) DETAILS OF SANNA'S POST. Despatches from Lord Roberts published on Friday till 152 pages of the Gazette." One in- teresting reference to the movements for the relief of Ladysmith runs:—"On the 6th February I received a telegram from Sir Redvers Buller reporting that he had pierced the enemy's line, and could hold the hill which divided their posi- tion, but that to drive back the enemy on either flank and thus give his own artillery access to the Ladysmith plain, ten miles from Sir George White's position, would cost him from 2,000 to 3,000 men, and sucoess was doubtful. General Builer inquired if 1 thought that the chance of relieving Ladysmith was worth such a risk. On tne same day 1 replied that Ladysmith must be relieved, even at the cost anticipated. I urged Sir Redvers Buller to persevere, and desired him to point out to his troops that the honour of the Empire was in their hands, and to assure them that I had no doubt whatever of their being suc- cessful. On the 9th February General Buller re- ported that he found himself not strong enough to relieve Ladysmith without reinforcements, and that with the force at his disposal he re- garded the operation upon which he was engaged as impracticable. As Sir Charles Warren con- firms the views of Sir Redvers Buller, I have informed the latter that though I have no wish to interfere with his dispositions or to stop his harassing the Boers as much as possible, my original instructions must hold good." SANNA'S POST REVERSE. This reverse has a special despatch to itself. The cause of the disaster can be briefly narrated A patrol of four men was pushed forward at sunset to a hill-Boesman's Kop-some distance from Sanna's Post on the Bloemfontein Road. In the night the Boers crept in between the patrol and the main body, cutting it off. It does not appear that the men composing it made any attempt to give the alarm by firing their rifles or by any other means, on discovering the presence of the Boers in ambush. After a careful consideration of the circumstances, I am of opinion that the disaster is mainly due to the failure of the patrol from Boesman's Kop to warn their comrades of the ambush which had been prepared during the night, and that no specific blame can be attributed to the General Officer Commanding the force. In my telegram dated March 31, 1900, I stated that the Boers had con- cealed themselves so well in the spruit that our leading scouts passed over the drift without dis- covering them. Subsequent investigation has proved, however, that such was not the case, but that the sequence of events was as indicated above. Thus Lord Roberts not only absolves Brigadier-General Broadwood from all blame, but warmly praises his presence of mind and gallantry in his endeavours to retrieve the disaster, while his troops behaved most gallantly. Lieutenant-Colonel Pilcher, who escorted the baggage from Thaba N'chu to Sanna's Post, is also exonerated from blame. Lord Roberts does, however, refer to Lieutenant-General Colvile. It will be recollected that this officer was moved witn the lith Division from Bloemfontein to help General Broadwood, who in his report remarks: — About noon a staff officer arrived from General Officer Commanding 9th Division to say he had reached Boesman's Kop. I suggested that a direct advance on the spruit offered the best chance of assisting. About 2 p.m. I was informed that the 9th Division had moved to- wards Waterval Drift, so, seeing any hope. of recapturing the guns at an end, I began sending the units to their camps, as, owing to the loss of the baggage, it was inadvisable to bivouac where we were. On this Lord Roberts remarks:—"As regards the point raised in paragraph 9 of the accompany- ing report, I consider that Lieutenant-General Sir H. Colvile would have done better if, on his arrival with the the 9th Division at Boesman's Kop, he had proceeded at once to the scene of the engagement, and ascertained personally how matters stood, before deciding on the flank move- ment towards Waterval Drift." TIME AND PATIENCE." Writing on October 10, Lord Roberts reports — Recent events have convinced me that the permanent tranquility of the Orange River Colony and the Transvaal is dependent on the complete disarmament of the inhabitants, and though the extent of the country to be visited, and the ease with which guns, rifles, and ammuni- tion can be hidden, will render the task a difficult one, its accomplishment is only a matter of time and patience. Finally, Lord Roberts describes how organised resistance split up in guerilla warfare, and how the British Army had to be divided up into small columns to deal with it. He adds that De Wet, Delarey, and other leaders must be successfully dealt with before the country can be said to be completely conquered.
MAIL TRAIN PLUNDERED. ♦ The Standard's special correspondent in a despatch from Pretoria, dated February 8th, eays :—Yesterday's Natal mail was held up near Vlakfontein. The few soldiers on board shot away their last cartridge, and the Boers then closed in on the train, after several passengers had been wounded. Having removed the luggage and mails, and robbed the passengers, including three nurses, of everything they possessed, the enemy permitted the train to proceed.
SIR A MILNER AND THE INVASION. Sir A. Milner, who was accompanied by Lieut. General Sir F: Foreetier- Walker, on Saturday inspected the City Guard at Capetown, number- ing between seven and eight thousand men. Addressing the officers, the High Commissioner said he was highly gratified at the display of civilian soldiers. He believed it was thought, when the late inroad occurred, that the Colony had exhausted its resources in men. But, since the spirited appeal made in December, large additions bad been made to the mounted forces. He was glad to see such a considerable increase, because, hav- ing regard to the condition of the country and the tactics of the enemy, the need of mounted men was particularly great. It was said that the enemy would not come to Capetown, but anyone who, in the face of the events of the past few months, said a thing was impossible because it seemed improbable was too silly to argue with. The oniy way of rendering im- possible what seemed improbable was to take the best steps to prevent, its happening. It was necessary to take every precaution.
CHESHIRE VOLUNTEERS AT THE FRONT. INTERESTING LETTER. A long and interesting letter detailing the movements of the Special Service Company of the Cheshire Regiment at the front during the past few months has been received in Chester from Private J. Fennah. Writing from the neighbourhood of Bloemfontein on January 12th, he describes a series of long marches the company underwent between the western boundary of the Boer States and Pretoria. After a fortnight's tedious work in the con- struction of the Orange River Bridge, which was badly wrecked by the enemy, they were ordered in April last to join a convoy as escort to Bloemfontein. Halting on the way at Springfontein, a portion of the company was told off to escort a train of provisions to Bloemfontein. The Free State capital was entered on the 19th of April, after a severe march of 143 miles. Their next movement was to Karee, about 21 miles in advance, where they joined the regiment which was in readiness for the great advance which commenced on May 2nd. Before leaving Karee the company were placed on outpost duty in sight of the Boer lines, and were warmly complimented for their work by the general of the division. The brigade advanced on the 2nd of May, and at Bramfort Heights they located the enemy, who gave them a warm reception with shell before their scouts could report their position. As Boers behind rocks were very poor targets the infantry were ordered to retire under cover, so the Cheshires enjoyed their bully and biscuit behind kopjes while the field battery was engaged in an artillery duel. After two hours' shelling victory fell to our force, our casualties in the engagement being only four killed and three wounded-remarkably few considering the splendid position the Boers held. Leaving Smaldeel on the 8th of May the Cheshires faced the roughest day's work in the campaign at the battle of Sand River. After completing a march of 21 miles in a broiling sun they were ordered to move oat in the evening and occupy a position in the Sand Rift, ten miles distant. In their exhausted state that was not a pleasant prospect. The excuse I can't do it" was not valid in the army, so it had to be done, and there were many pitiful faces among the victims of sore feet and dysentery. A soldier had to be well-nigh a dead man before he enlisted the sympathy of the Army doctor. Our guns kept up a continuous roar for five hours, and the infantry was I ordered to advance under the fire of the artillery, the Cheshires having a very prominent position in the tiring line. The Boers, however, retired and gave them no opportunity to shew their mettle. The brigade proceeded on their march, and arrived at Joban- linsburg, where they met Lord Roberts and his staff. The Cheshire men were there engaged at different times in guarding the main hospital, in acting as police, and playing a prominent part in quelling the conspiracy to destroy the troops stationed at Johannesburg, ana 1n guarding buildings of importance in the town. They remained many weeks there, and left to join a column under Colonel Bradley for the purpose of removing the mischief-makers in the Klip River district. Returning from that ex- pedition, which occupied twelve days, they were called upon to proceed to Pretoria, where they were required to complete an escort under the command of Colonel Broadwood to take a provision convoy to Rustenberg, about 78 miles north-west of the capital. The road to Ruetenberg bad proved a death- trap to the British soldier, but the column of which the Cheshire formed a part got through with very little fighting. After staying at Rustenberg four days they returned to Pretoria, where the Cheshire were warmly praised by their colonel. They eventually proceeded to Bloemfontein, vvhere they expected to be newly equipped for their embarkation, but they little thought at the time that they had to do five or six months' outpost duty. The company was now doing duty on Sussex Hill, near the town of Bloemfontein. The men tackled their work with the best of spirits, as they had done throughout the campaign, and he could honeatly support the opinion Colonel Curtis ex- pressed of them on their leaving Johannesburg, that whenever he gave the company a fatigue to do, it was done without a murmur.
RELIEF OF LADYSMITH. HONOURS RECOMMENDED. On Monday there was published a list of recom- mendations forwarded by Sir Redvers Butler soon after the successful termination of his efforts to raise the siege. Writing from the Convent, Lady- smith, on March 30th, Sir Redvers Buller brings to the notice of the War Office, through Lord Roberts, the names of a number of warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men whom he re- commends for the modal of distinguished conduct in the field. Included in the names are the follow- ing -1st Battalion Royal Welsh Fusiliers, Corpl. W. Roberts, February 24th, conspicuous gallantry in bringing machine gun into action by hand, and remaining in action until foresight shot away and gun rendered useless; wounded.- Next Sir Redvers calls attention to other ofifcers, non-commissioned officers and men whose services deserve "special mention." In the list of men "especially worthy of consideration" appear the following: Colonel (local Major-General) the Earl of Dundonald, C.B., M.V.O., has commanded a brigade of irregular cavalry with entire satisfac- tion. His outpost work and scouting are excellent. Lieutenant G. E. S. Salt, 1st Battalion Royal Welsh Fusiliers, showed conspicuous gallantry on February 24 in bringing the machine gun into action by hand under great difficulty. He re- mained in action until the foresight was shot away and the gun rendered useless.—He also recom- mends among others the following officer for con- sideration 10th Infantry Brigade Staff, Captain H. G. C. Phillips, Welsh Regiment, brigade- indjor. Among others who have been brought to Sir Redvers Buller's notice for gallantry or meri- torious service by general officers and officers com- manding units are the following: Captain the Marquis of Tullibardine, D.S.O., Royal Horse Guards; and 1st Battalion Royal Welsh Fusiliers, Major H. J. Archdale, Captain and Adjutant W. G. Braithwaite, Captain A. P. G. Gough, Captain P. R. Mantell and Captain H. Delme-Radcliffe.
INSULTING THE QUEEN'S MEMORY STERN PUNISHMENT. A correspondent, writing from Kimberley on Sunday, says —A local storekeeper has been con- victed by the military court here of traitorous and disloyal language against the late Queen and the British Government, and of disfiguring the Queen's picture. He was sentenced to twelve months' hard labour, and to pay a fine of £ 300 or undergo an additional six months' imprisonment.—Another man was sentenced to pay a tine of £ 150 or under- go three months' imprisonment for leaving Kim- berley while on the suspect list.
LOCAL CASUALTIES. j 5,843 Private J. Morgan, 1st Royal Welsh Fusiliers, was reported wounded at Donkerpoort, on February 8th, while 2719 Private E. Harris, 2nd Cheshire Regiment, was reported danger- ously ill at Germiston on February 9th, with anthritis. 6222 Private French, 6175 Private Walsh, and 6200 Private Bateman, of the same regiment, are also reported to be dangerously ill, but the disease they are suffering from is not stated. Privates 1449 Williams and 3865 Tew, together with 2947 Lance-Corporal Rollingson, of the 4th Cheshire Regiment, were stated to be seriously ill at Springfontein on February 9th. 3617 Bandsman P. l uffs, of the 2ad Cheshire Regiment, is reported to have died from enteric at Potchefstroom, on February 10th.
CHESHIu E BEE-KEEPERS' I ASSOCIATION. PAST YEAR'S WORK. I The annual meeting of this association, which was founded in 1899, was held at Kendrick's restaurant, Northgate-street, Chester, on Mon- day. There was a moderate attendance of mem- bers, under the chairmanship of the Rev. J. F. Buckler, M.A. His Grace the Duke of West- minster was re-elected president. The vice- presidents were also re-elected. The committee and other officers were appointed for 1901. The committee's second annual report shewed that a considerable number of new members had been enrolled, but owing to withdrawals from various causes the membership (323) is the same as in 1899. His Grace the Duke of West- minster had kindly continued the handsome con- tribution (£5) which was given by his predecessor in the previous year. The committee expressed the hope that the honorary local secretaries and other members would endeavour to increase the membership in 1901, by making the association more widely known and pointing out the advan- tages to be gained by joining it. In the past season the honey crop was in most districts un- satisfactory both in quantity and quality. A long cold spring was followed by a period of very dry weather, which had the effect of making the yield of nectar from white clover very small. Those bee-keepers who had other sources of honey to fall back upon were fortunate. Sections were apparently very scarce indeed, as in the members' class at Birkenhead Show there were but three exhibits, and at Congleton Show only one was staged. Mr. J. Gray was again engaged as expert. His tour extended over twelve weeks. The same route was followed as in 1899. The advisability of altering the route so that some members who had been hitherto visited somewhat late in the season might receive a visit from the expert in the early part of his tour in 1901, would be considered by the committee. It might be pointed out that 1,638 stocks were examined, 1,500 being in frame hives and 138 in skeps, as compared with 1,229 in frame hives and 130 in skepa in the previous year. The expert's report on the subject of foul blood was to some extent satisfactory. The apiaries affected were 40, being six less than in 1899, while the total number of diseased stocks was 74-a decrease of 44. But the prevalence of the disease was shewn by the fact that it was found to exist in the apiaries of 16 out of 66 new members, and by the fact that it had appeared in 12 apiaries belonging to old members which had previously been free from it. Under the auspices of the Technical Committee of the Cheshire County Council, lectures and bee demonstrations were given by the Rev. T. J. Evans and by Mr. F. H. Taylor. The Association supported and was entrusted with the manage- ment of the honey departments at the Cheshire and the Birkenhead and Wirral Agricultural Societies' shows at Congleton and Birkenhead. The entries on both occasions were fewer than in 1899, but this reduction was hardly to be won- dered at in view of the poor season. A silver medal was offered by the association at the Market Drayton Horticultural Society's Show for competition amongst members of the associa- tion in the district, but unfortunately no member was successful in securing it. Eight members entered for the examination for third class expert's certificate, and the following were suc- cessfulMessrs. E. P. Hinde (Heswall), H. Potts (Dutton, Warrington), H. E. Axton (Wood- church), J. J. Salisbury (Upton, Birkenhead), E. Eaton (Sandbach), and T. Comber (Frankby). The committee desired to offer the thanks of the association to the Technical Committee of the Cheshire County Council, to the committees of the Cheshire and the Birkenhead and Wirral Agricultural Societies, to the judges and stewards of the honey departments at the Birkenhead and Congleton shows, and to all who have assisted the work of the association during the past year by pecuniary support or personal effort. The summarised cash accounts for the year shewed a balance in the treasurer's hands of £26 7s. lid. The membership subscriptions were set down at JB71 Is. At a committee meeting held subsequently it was decided to engage two experts for a tour in the spring, in order that every member of the association might receive a visit early in the coming season.
ENTHUSIASTIC WELSH GATHERING AT CAPE- TOWiq.-On January 11th the Cambrian Society and the Welsh community of Capetown gave a complimentary concert, in the Metropolitan Hall, to the officers and men of the recently formed Prince of Wales's Light Horse. The hall was crowded, and the utmost enthusiasm was displayed. The audience, among whom were many members of the corps, fully appreciated the programme, many items of which were rendered in the language of Wales. During thn interval, Mr. T. R. Price expressed to Major Owen-Thomas, commanding officer, and the officers and men of the corps, the satisfaction felt at so many being present at the concert, and offered them a hearty welcome and good wishes on the occasion of their departure for the front.— Major Owen-Thomas, speaking in English, said the concert would be a brierht sDat in the lives of the men, and he hoped they would all meet again some day under the same happy con- ditions. They had now about 600 men en- rolled, hut be hoped to briner the strength up to 1,000 in time. Englishmen, Scotsmen, and Irishmen had all had a chance at the front, and he felt that gallant little Wales should do something also. It was not necessary for them to make a reputation for Wales for gallantry. It already had that, but they had to uphold the gallantry. E PPS S c OCOA. The most nutritious E PPS'S COCOA. Grateful and comforting. EPPSIS CliOCOA. For breakfast and supper. PPSIS IIOCOA. With natural flavour only. Jj^PPS'S ? ?OCOA. With ca-taraia?ourMly. JjlPPS b COCOA. From the finest brands.
THE FLINTSHIRE FATALITY. I THE CORONER AND THE DOCTOR. I SEVERE STRICTURE. On Wednesday the Flintshire Coroner (Mr. R. Bromley) held an adjourned inquest at Connah's Quay Police Station respecting the death of James Lamb,37 years of age, who resided at Connah's Quay. From the evidence given at the opening of the inquest last week it appeared that on the previous Friday Lamb and a man named Thomas Jones went to Holywell to fetch home a trap which he had bought. They drove as far as Bagillt, where they stopped to light the lamps. While Lamb was getting out of the trap the horse suddenly bolted, and coming into contact with the steps of the Royal Oak Inn, the trap was overturned and one of the wheels passed over the lower part of Lamb's body. Dr. Keys. a local practitioner, came to Lamb in ten minutes, and then went away for the police, returning in a quarter of an hour. There was no suggestion to take Lamb inside the house, though the weather was cold, and sleet was falling, and the man remained on the steps of the Royal Oak Inn half-an-hour before he was taken into the house. After being bandaged, the deceased was, at his own strong request, sent home in a trap, but he died before he arrived at Connah's Quay. The Coroner adjourned the inquest to give Dr. Keys an opportunity to be present and give evidence, and he now attended. The Coroner informed the jury that Dr. Purdon, of Connah's Quay, had made a post- mortem examination of the body, and his report stated that there were very extensive injuries. The bones of the pelvis were split asunder, there was a fracture of the bone on the left side, the soft parts of the pelvis were lacerated, and the bladder was torn from top to bottom. There was also a large bruise on the small of the back. The severity of the injuries was quite enough to account for the condition of shock, which he still considered was the immediate cause of death. Though deceased might have lived a little longer if he had been put to bed and kept warm, he could not have survived his injuries. The Coroner remarked that the result of the post-mortem examination removed the question of criminality. If the injuries had been found to be not of a fatal character, the jury would no doubt have had to decide whether the man had died in conse- quence of neglect, and if they considered there had been neglect on the part of Dr. Keys he might have bad to answer for it in another court. That question was, however, removed. but there were certainly very serious allega- tions against Dr. Keys which he ought to be called upon to explain. Dr. Purdon, Connah's Quay, gave the result of his post-mortem examination, and added that the injuries were of so serious a nature that deceased could not possibly have survived them. The Coroner: How long could he under proper treatment have lived with injuries of that kind?—Witness replied that he could not live very long, as the injuries were very severe. According to the evidence he was conscious up to within a very short time of his death. A man with injuries of that kind must have suffered intensely P—Yes, he must have. In answer to further questions witness said the exposure of the deceased on a doorstep for 20 minutes or half-an-bour might increase the shock. To place him in a sitting position would possibly increase the pain, and witness con- sidered the proper way to send the man home was in a lying posture. By Dr. Keys There was no external indica- tion on the body of rupture in the bladder or fracture. Dr. Keys: So that I could no, when I examined him, come to the conclusion you have by your post-mortem. The Coroner: Could you discover there was any fracture without a post-mortem examina- tion ?—Witness: I think it is very possible to diagnose a fracture of the pelvis without a post-mortem. But when a man is alive could you get from the man himself a sufficient description to diagnose his case ?-I think I would have diagnosed that case. The Coroner pointed out that some %.itnesses had s?id the deceased complained of pain, and when asked if he was seriously hurt he replied he was internally, and pointed to the region of the pain. P.C. William Roberts, stationed at Bagillt, deposed to seeing Dr. Keys the day after the accident. The doctor told him there had been a very serious accident the previous night, a man having died on the road, and asked him why he was not in Bagillt at the time. Witness told him he was at Holywell. Witness made inquiries about the matter, and hearing a rumour that Mrs. Lowe, the landlady of the Royal Oak, had refused to admit the deceased in her house, he asked Dr. Keys on the following j Monday if it was true. He said it was not, add- ing that after first roughly examiniag the man he went to witness' bouse, but went back to the injured man and took him in the public-bouse. The doctor also said he knew the deceased was injured badly and could not live. Dr. Robert Atcheson Keys, F.R.C.S., L.R.C.P" next gave evidence. He said he had been a medical practitioner about thirty years. When be was summoned to the deceased he examined him and found no bones broken and nothing out of joint. Witness then asked him if be had any pain, and he replied he had, and pointed to its location. There was a crowd of people around, and witness said he could not examine the man there. Nobody, however, seemed disposed to assist him by taking the injured man inside the house, and he wanted a stretcher to convey him to his surgery. He went m search of one, but failed to find one, and when he came back to the patient a man said Mrs. Lowe would take the man in her house. Two men helped witness to carry the deceased inside, where he made a more minute examination of the man. He could find no bruises or anything particular, but the patient was no doubt in a serious condition. He bandaged him, and Lamb then asked very strongly to be taken home. Witness therefore put him in a trap, which was the only available conveyance, wrapped him up, and gave the driver instructions to take the man to Dr. Purdon on his arrival at Connah's Quay. The Coroner: How far would the Bettiefield works be from the Royal Oak ?—Witness Not more than 40 or 50 yards. You knew there was a stretcher at the works ?—Yes. And you did not know there was a stretcher at the police office ?-I did not. Then do you say you went to the police office for the purpose of seeing whether a stretcher was there ?-I did. There were two reasons why I wanted a policeman. He was a man I could depend upon if an operation was to be done, and I thought he was an ambulance man. Witness added that he thought the local police- man had some ambulance knowledge, because he once bandaged a child's head skilfully and stopped the bleeding. But you did not trouble yourself to ascertain whether he was an ambulance man or not ?— I took it for granted he was by the manner in which he bandaged the child. How long ago was that ?—About three months. Did you ask him at that time whether he was a St. John Ambulance man ?-I didn't. And you have seen him daily since then, and I you never thought of asking him Are you a St. John Ambulance man," but when you came across him when he had not done anything you thought you would ask him if he was ?-I thought he would have an ambulance. I could not go to Bettisfield Colliery for a stretcher. I had a disagreement there, and consequently they would not perhaps have given me a stretcher there. If the policeman had been there he could have got it. There were plenty of people in the crowd from Bettisfield ?—None of them seemed to be willing to do anything. Did you ask anybody to get a stretcher?— No, I didn't. Continuing, the coroner asked if it would not have been very much simpler if witness had: taken the man into the house nrat ?—Witness I had no power. Did you ask Mrs. Lowe ?—No. A clergyman was present, and I think he might have asked her. There were plenty of people better acquainted with her than I am. I am a stranger in Bagillt. I thought by her manner that she did not want the man in the house. You were sent for, and after you looked at him he was on the sten. WAR not-ha almost tnn weak to speak ?—He was pretty weak, but he spoke a little. And it was a very cold night ?-Yes. Witness added that he had no power to take the man into the house. Why did not you go into the house and say, Can I bring this man into your house; he is badly injured ? "—There were lots of people there who were well acquainted with the woman and it was their business to ask her. I was doing my charitable business as well as I j possibly could, and I thought they should have asked her. I did not wish to be under an obli- gation to Mrs. Lowe. You know, doctor, you have been in practice about 30 years, and there is no question of your asking her to do you a favour. You were sent for not because you were a gentleman of the name of Keys, but because you were Dr. Keys. You were sent for because you were a doctor ?— I presume so. Well if you were called as a doctor you knew that the man was left in your hands ?—Yes. And therefore all that was necessary to IL ( done for this man was to be done by you ?-So far as the treatment for the man. Then how can you treat a man who is in your hands on a doorstep in a cold night ?—I could not do so, and said so. Then if that was so, why didn't you go into the bouse-nov-r mind the clergyman, the crowd, or the policeman—and say Will you let me bring this poor man into the house ?"- I did not, do it because I could see at a moment Mrs. Lowe did not want the man in. I saw her standing on the step. It is very easy to see one who wants to do a good turn and one who doesn't. You mean to say you saw an expression on Mrs. Lowe's face that, she did not want the man to come in ?-I didn't see her face. How long was it from the time you first came on the scene and the time y')U took him into the house ?-It would not be m)re than fifteen minutes. We are to take the answer from you that you thought Mrs. Lowe would not have him in ? That. is the reason why you would not take him in first ?—Yes. After I came back a man named Dale said She will have the man in now." You did not say Will you let me bring this man in ?—I did not say so. The jurymen must form their own opinion about that?—They are welcome to do so. You never said a word to P.C. Roberts that you could not get Lamb into the house, or that you saw this woman did not want him to come in ?-No, sir, I did not. Roberts asked you whether Mrs. Lowe refused. You said "No"?-"Not to me," I said. Witness having replied to further questions, the Coroner asked if he said on oath that Mrs. Lowe at any time shewed the slightest reluctance to take the man in.—Witness: Only by appear- ance. That appearance you never saw, because we judge by the face.—Oh, no, we can judge by other ways. If a man blocks the door and turns his back upon you you can tell very easily. Did she turn her back upon you?—I do not know. I am not going to argue with you. Do you say that by her appearance she refused admission to this man? I ask you to tell the jury what appearance she made at the door to suggest to your mind -By standing in it, and not asking the man in. And you as a doctor never thought of asking her?—No, I would not ask such a person as that. Did you ask anybody to assist you in taking him away?—I said: "I cannot examine the man here. Take him in somewhere, boys." A juror expressed the opinion that that was a sufficient hint for the landlady to ask the people to bring the man in, if she had any feelings. Another juror: The woman actually appealed to this man to bring him in, and if you read the evidence over you will find she says He shall have my bed if he likes to spend the night." Dale gave that in his evidence. The Coroner: You say you wanted a stretcher from the nolice-office. For what purpose 7- Carrying him to my own surgery. What did you intend doing?—Examining him, and seeing what was the matter with him. If you found he was fatally injured would you have sent him away?—If he wished to go I could not keep him. Do doctors let their patients do what they want, or is it the rule that the patient does what the doctor wants. What is your practice?—The doctor has no power over a patient. He may make suggestions, but that is all he can do. If a patient wishes to go to his own home I have no power to keep him. If a patient was dyin. and he wanted to go home through the cold night, would you let him? -1 could not prevent him. Did you ask the man where the wheel of the cart went over him?—I did not, but I asked him where he was pained. Do you mean to say you as a doctor did not ask him where he was run over by the cart?—I asked the man where he was pained. I did not ask him where the wheels of the cart went over him. Were you sober that night?—Witness (indig- nantly) Why should you make that suggestion? I was sober. You have no right to make that suggestion or insinuation. If you do not behave yourself I shall have you committed for contempt.—I am afraid you are provoking me to commit contempt of court. In answer to further questions witness said he did not to his knowledge tell P.C. Roberts that he knew Lamb was dying. The Coroner: He says on February 4th he saw you in Bagillt and had a conversation with you, and you told him the man was injured very badly, and that you knew he could not live. Witness: No, I did not state that. What did you say to him?—Well, I don't recol- lect all that I said to him. I cannot recollect all these little things. Did you know as a matter of fact that the man was badly injured?—I did not know for a matter of fact that the man was injured badly, and no other doctor could diagnose the case better than I did, I don't care who he is. Witness further stated that he put the deceased in the trap in a sitting position, as nothing else could be done. He made him as comfortable as possible under the circumstances. P.S. Pagan informed the coroner that the man could have been laid full length in the cart if the tail-board had been pulled down. A juror asked witness if he thought it proper to put the man in a sitting posture to sit upon his injuries in the manner he did.—Witness: The injury was only an abrasion, and I put that right with cotton wool. The Coroner: You have not heard the ques- tion. You have heard from Dr. Purdon what the injuries are. We will take his version of the thing. I want you to clearly understand it is no use casting reflections on the post mortem examination of Dr. Purdon. I certainly object to your doing that. The Coroner added that in his opinion it seemed a foolhardy trick to put a dying man to sit upon his injuries. The Coroner: I suppose you are aware of the fact that the deceased made an appeal to the man he came with to be laid down?—Witness: I am not aware of that. Did you give any instructions to the driver?— My instructions were for Dr. Purdon to attend to him at once. The Coroner: Samuel Jones states, Dr. Keys gave me no instructions." By a juror: Witness did not know how far Connah's Quay was from Bagillt, and he did not ask, but he was told it was not very far from Flint. Samuel Jones, the man who drove deceased home in the trap, was then re-called, and in answer to the coroner said Mrs. Lowe did not refuse to take the man in her house, neither did she show any disinclination to take him in. When it was suggested that the man should be taken in she agreed willingly. The reason Lamb was not taken into the house sooner was that the by- standers left the case in the hands of the doctor, and expected him to do everything. Mrs. Lowe did not block the doorway as if to stop anybody bringing the man in. The Coroner: Was it on her own suggestion at last that the man was taken in?—Witness: No, she was asked. Did you hear her say "Bring him in "?-Yes, sir. Did she say it willingly ?-Quite willingly. A juror: She might have done that before. The Coroner: Yes, but it is the easiest thing in the world to ask a favour. Dr. Keys: Did not I say You can take him in somewhere, boys," after I had examined him?— No, I did not hear you. A juror: Did the doctor give you any instruc- tions how to take him home on the road?—No, sir. Witness added that it was never suggested that the tail-board of the trap should be put down. Sergeant Pagan informed the coroner that he had interviewed Mrs. Lowe, and she distinctly denied having refused to take deceased into her house. The Coroner said this was all the evidence available. As he had already stated, if the post mortem examination had revealed that the man's injuries were not of a fatal nature the inquiry would have been a much more serious one than it was. It was quite clear that nothing could have been done to save the man's life, but the question was whether something could not have been done to relieve his sufferings ana to let mm die under circumstances very different to those under which he did die. Dr. Keys had been given an opportunity to explain away the very serious allegations which were made against him as a professional man, and he (the coroner) asked the jury if they considered the explanation he had given was such as to convince them he was not deserving of censure. All the witnesses had said the reason they did not do anything was that they were in the presence of a medical man who was expected to know what best to do. Had the man been left in the hands of the lay people they would have had him taken into the house by hook or by crook. He asked Dr. Keys a question to which he seemed to have taken offence, but he asked the question because he could not under- stand a man in possession of all his senses be- having as the doctor seemed to have behaved. The doctor, as a medical man of thirty years' The doctor, had certainly not done what might experienm, had certainly not done what might have been expected of a medical man. His conduct seemed to be most extraordinary. The disclosure that the poor man should have lain in the shocking condition he was in on a doorstep in inclement weather, although he was attended by a medical man, had affected him (the coroner) more than the curcumstances of any other inquest he had held. The jury returned a verdict of "Accidental death," and expressed the opinion that Dr. Keys, the landlady of the Royal Oak, and the group of people on the spot at the time were somewhat to blame. They praised the conduct of the witness Samuel Jones, who drove the deceased home.
ARCHAEOLOGY IN GREECE.—Telegrams from Cerig-o state that the divers havn discovered further statues, which cannot, however, lie brought to the surface without improved apparatus. M. Caradias, Inspector-General of Antiquities, speaking befnre the Archaeological i Association on the recently discovered brouze statue of a youth, expressed the opinion that it dates from the period of Phidias. It was the most perfect and beautiful relic of antiquity yet brought to light. The Minister of Public Instruction is going to Cerigo to superintend the researches. WATERPROOF GOODS.—Coats in a large variety of styles and patterns, at BRADLEY'S, Foregate- street. None but guaranteed articles sold. Prices 16/11, 21/11, 27/6, etc. Cycle Capes, Leggings, etc.
A Rig, t TO CHESHIRE FARMERS. PRfwf^-TS IN SODITi AFRICA. TO THE EDITOR. I Sir,—Having hs" aome "? in your town, Slr,-Havlng b, ? gret intrest in ?? ^n" and HtI1 tk1Ug at.. TO S*ND yuu ?" RUFIC °J necte<Í wIth It, I y"n&-UL ?Y witn a very shro?vd a t?iK 1 had the <?r <? ?? very shrewd Atrikander farmer who veB ere" me that land would gu extra.. 0DeaPat after the war, and thant ?tM? W Ttv. buying by new-comers. lie a<? a, farms were heavily mortg& a° ged, V most ot, farms were heaviiy muttgaged, ? most or kast two years interest waso?vin? o? ,° 1? them, and that there e 'uid po?tbiy ? ?. ? funds forthcoming to p»y off this lDt& ij consequently the Boers wouia just have to so, I- tor anything they could get. He told me be had a small farm near here off which he could make from E500 to £ 600 a year with vegetables alone, but-he was too lazy to trouble about it! People imagine that water is the difficulty out here. There is always a dam or spring on every farm, but to water and irrigate property is trouble, and this the worthy Boer nates. A young, hard-working, detcuiuiued farmer wouid do well out here, if he coutd afford to buy his farm straight off. The climate is lovely, the children thrive in it. Cattle will, at first, be terribly scarce, but if a man lives near a large town like this, and will attend to things him- self. he could do well with market-gardening and fowl-rearing alone. Tomato growing ought to pay well, too, and fruit growing, scientifi- cally. But the difficulty will be to be the firot in the field in buying.— fours faithfully, A. P. D. Bloemfontein, South Atrica, Jan. 18, 1901.
UNPREPAREDNESS OF OUR FIGHTING FLEETS. TO THE EDITOR. Sir,-The following letter, with enclosure, has been despatched by the Executive Committee of the Navy League to the Lord Mayors, Mayors and Lord Provosts of the principal towns in the United Kingdom. Its insertion in your columns would be esteemed a favour by my committee.—I am, your obedient servant, (Sgd.) WM. CAIUS CRUTCHLEY, Secretary to the Navy League. [COPY.] February 4th, 1901. Sir,—On behalf of the Navy League, I beg to enclose for your consideration a copy of the leading article upon the "Unpreparedness of our Fighting Fleets," which appeared in the "Times" of the 22nd January, 1901. The supreme importance of the question with which the article deals will, I venture to think, be sufficient warrant for my approaching you upon it. As a great commercial nation, our highest interest must be peace. We may seek peace, but there is only one way to secure it, and that is to be prepared for war. It is not long since Lord Salisbury and Lord Rosebery warned us that Continental peoples regarded us with unfriendly eyes. To-day, under the spell of sympathy with us in our great sorrow, different feelings may prevail. But for how long who can say? Dependent as we are upon sea-borne supplies of raw material for our manufactures And of foodstuffs for our teeming population, it is the Navy, and the Navy alone, that can give us the security which our trade interests require, and guarantee the peace upon which our prosperity depends. The Navy, then, must be as strong in all its component parts as the highest expert authority may consider necessary. But this is not all. Strength does not consist in numbers alone. We discovered this truth in South Africa. It con- sists equally in completeness of preparation. So the Navy must be not only numerically strong, but its fighting fleets must be placed and main- tained on a war footing. The Times," writing under the sense of responsibility which attaches to its great position, states that "for months past" it has been insisting "that our war fleets are not adequately prepared and equipped for war." What does this mean? It means delay in place of despatch, when despatch is of all things the one most needed. It means that paralysis will seize the arm at the very moment it should strike the blow. "Delays have dangerous ends." To be forced to delay is to invite disaster. Disaster on land we may re- pair. South Africa, as the "Times" says, tells us thIs. JJlsaster on the sea would be irretrievable. Regiments can be improvised, battleships cannot. With our Navy overpowered, the Empire is lost. In the dark days our fortunes have passed through in South Africa, confidence in the Navy, confidence implicit and absolute, has been our one stay. The war found the Army unprepared; that was bad enough, but it might pass, for had we not the Navy to keep the ring, and was not the Navy ready to go anywhere and do anything? Now we are told on high authority that our Navy itself is cursed with this fatal lack of preparation. Others have said the same thing, but they have been voices crying in the wilderness. A veritable Fool's Paradise the country has been living in. Meantime what is to be done? On the part of the Navy League I would suggest that, wherever possible, meetings of citizens should be held which should tell the Government, in terms they cannot afford to disregard, that their paramount duty is to furnish our fighting fleets with all the auxiliaries and equipment of which they stand in need.—I have the honour to be, sir, your obedient servant, R. YERBURGH, M.P., President of the Navy League. Feb. 5th, 1901.
THE CHESTER TRAM SCHEME. I AN APPEAL FROM BATH. I TO THE EDITOR. I Sir,-I should be greatly obliged to you for a corner of your valuable paper for a few re- marks on this new scheme for the adornment of Chester, which are born, I am quite sure, of the sympathy not of one but of tens of thousands of people within gunshot of the old city. In the whole of Europe, nay, in the whole world, it is allowed that there does not exist a single town of any description at all equal to the city of Chester proper, for its unique streets of shops and dwellings and its pic- turesque beauty of antiquity—to say nothing of the perfection of its remarkably ancient walls-like those old Roman thorn-grown ones of Silchester (between Reading and Strathfield- saye); and to say nothing of its position within the circuit of its flowing waters at the base of a long and rather angular peninsular, formed by the Mersey and the Dee, and stretching into the sea by a mighty seaport on the right hand, and the still rural line of land- scape of Wirral and North Wales, whose hills bound the eye for some 14 miles on the left. But there are men who become tired of their richest possessions. They would sell them for what they conceive to be still richer possessions, the more portable and winged property of gold! But, luckily, there are others who never tire of preserving their inheritances, and repairing and restoring them, for a posterity as remote as we are ourselves from the days of the builders of old castellated, and black and white. oak-timbered, Chester. u' Is it inconceivable, then, that more gooa | men and true should found t.o def"TIrl t,ho> possessions than those who would give tbem away, like so much cash, or utterly destroy their appearance, for the creation of cash, by the contempt and ridicule which new and altogether incongruous inventions work on the rural beauties of charming landscapes-like much-advertised patent pills ? I shall, of course, be told that this is "all-sentiment." But, we can tell them, again, that sentiment rules all creation. It was little else than sentiment" that gave John Bright the power I of a heathen deity over every servant girl in Great Britain. It was "sentiment" that raised millions upon millions, during the last 30 years, throughout the country, for the erection of ornate and roomy municipal build- ings. It was greatly sentiment that assisted the great funeral procession of & much-loved Queen. But, to what deplorable eud will "something practical come, as well as "sentiment," when your capitalists make Chester streets .-very day of the year like a washing-day, by stretching lines along or across them with poles bubf;jEg up and down like buffoons throughout the neart of the city—in order to drive au electric tram omnibus ? It would come to this, in the end :-IVith a con- stantly degenerating trade and P. rapidly grow- ing population, every farthing invested in either practical or s«ntimental under- takings must be lost. But we hope for some- thing better than that, by timely emigration, and by a practical wiejom in the avoidance of the violation of everything sentimental that needs a Conservative and preservative mind to protect it from Abust-in-the-name-of- use. And, for the same reason, we 1 no barracks erected in fair Delamere. I re- wa r when Aidershot was as free from brick m ￼ m b t? ? ? Deia.mere Forest ￼ now—or more r 8,3 Delamere Forest is now—or more and mo ?° years after the Cnme&n campaign so. "Ithin ? men in camp at ?idershot, where M??e? ? w? ? iq ? b.'? ??? ?o"? o? ??'e been there n to p^ '8e u™ *ould only have been very few regiments. A°d,. some afterwards quite a tw?- ? ?s?reeable town, had r?eu ? round the ?alf" of *[ge °r so, that h?d taken the pi? rd™ *t m which corks used to be h<? .Pn^oetical men.'• the day through. But, we are P??? The best use for "practical mei?- '.s very often -I s P&rncu- "masterly inactivity." And this h<? once ^s arly good in Chester. In Bath, a city in much of Rome as was Chester, even aimo? ?° "1e military sense, certainly in the civil sense, so," time ago a similar proposal was made as now not. too judicious people make in the latter city. But Bath having the fearful example before its eves of its neighbour, Bristol, after a toughish fight i utterly discountenanced the principle, and she goes along increasing her 60,uuu inhabitants without! electric trams. In Bristol we have an ancient city of mercantile and commercial wealth and industry, reputed a century ago as "the richest Corporation in England," save, I suppose, Lon- don. It is now still interesting for its kernal of antiquity, around which has grown a big, dirty- looking, if well-sewered, town, which needs loco- motion of all kinds. But to see it with its over- head scheme of wires and polar contrivances jerking along the tramlines weighty omnibuses for long distances is anything but agreeable, though you cannot object to it on any ground of incongruity. Quite the reverse; it is the outcome of the black manufacturers, whose grimy work- people it was primarily intended to relieve. In Bath, however, you have a city as clean as Chester, if by a few thousands larger; and what do visitors to its old Roman sites say, as well as do its inhabitants? They say, and truly say, that to deface the streets with such a machinery as is now proposed at Chester would rArhirv. the. t.-nom to the last extremity as a business centre. People will not stay long in a locality, whatever its at- tractions, where disgust takes the place of admira- tion. And as to traffic, Bath has pretty much the same facilities as Chester. She stands in the high- way from London to Exeter and Falmouth. She is only 150 minutes from the Metropolis. She is 10 miles from Bristol, 40 miles from Gloucester, Wells, Salisbury. Worcester lies midway to Birmingham, with which there is considerable trade. She is within easy distance of quite numer- ous towns the size of Stockport; and the Bristol Channel and the towns of South Wales, big and little, are all at her back doors. But she has deliberately damned both overhead rails and over- head electricity entanglements of all kinds—and hopes never to be electrocuted. Can Chester say more? And Chester, be it re- membered, is far and away, in point cf above- ground attractions, reaching back to the days of Jerusalem and Bethlehem, and the secular and spiritual days of Rome, and an inconceivable num- ber of pages of ancient Welsh and Saxon and Nor- man history, more than is Bath with all its manifold attractions of site and sanity. It would be well, if needful, to write to some honest New York papers, or ask the advice of the next batch of Americans, as to Chester's sanity and "sight" if she puts up so glaring an abomination in the name of "honest" trade in the olden streets of Randle de Blundeville and King Edward the Seventh.— I am, sir, your obedient servant, (HE)ART AND SCIENCE. Bath, Feb. 7th, 1901. I TO THE EDITOB. Sir,—I am one of that numerous body who are strongly averse to any trading schemes whatever that may in any wise tend to dis- figure an eminent city like Chester. This scheme is considered greatly tending in that repulsive direction. And, Jet me add, Chester does not belong merely to Chester; it does not belong simply to Cheshire; nor does it belong only to England, nor to the rest of Great Britain. It belongs to all the British-speaking nations of the earth! And it is preposterous to suppose that a handful of persons interested in mere money-making, however otherwise estimable, should, in the teeth of every sentiment of these overwhelmingly numerous peoples, take upon themselves, by a trumpery local vote, to disfigure and deface that upon which the affections of vast and enlightened multitudes are firmly fixed. At the same time one cannot but in some measure sympathise with the ambitions of enter- prising and energetic men bent upon making fortunes in a legitimate way of unspeculative business (for one never knows where "speculative" business ends), and but in away that violates the feelings and consciences of so many others—who are determined to put their feet down upon such a prospect as the present proposal offers.—I remain, sir. vours faithfullv, ONE OF THE MILLION.
———— —— w MR. WYNDHAM IN IRELAND. I HIS TOUR. The Times" Dublin correspondent, writing on Friday, says :—The Chief Secretary for Ireland returned to Dublin this evening, having concluded his tour through the congested districts of Connemara. He was met at various points throughout his journey in the West by crowds of the local people, headed in many instances by parish priests, and addresses were presented to him pointing out the industrial needs of the various localities. At Leenane, which is situated in a picturesque district on the shore of Killery Bay, bonfires were lighted in honour of Mr. Wyndham's visit. In reply to an address read by the local priest, the Chief Secretary promised to give careful consideration to all the sugges- tions which had been made with regard to the development of the resources of the West of Ireland. Mr. Wyndham visited various parts of South Connemara, including the islands of Gorumna, Lettermullen, and Lettermore, which, with the exception of three or four small areas in Donegal, comprise about the poorest divisions of the congested districts throughout Ireland. Mr. Wyndham was conducted to a number of schools where classes for lacemaking are in operation, and he was made acquainted with arrangements that are in progress for the extension of that industry. Both priests and people displayed great cordiality in their reception of the Chief Secretary. When he arrived in the town of Clifden he was met at the railway station by Canon McCalpine, parish priest, and a large crowd of townspeople, who cheered loudly. An address of welcome was subsequently presented on behalf of the priests and people, and Mr. Wyndham, in replying to it, said that he and his colleagues of the Congested Districts Board were most anxious to do what they could to improve the condition of the people.
ROYAL VISIT TO AUSTRALIA. LATE QUEEN'S DESIRE. NAVAL DEMONSTRATION. I It is officially announced that the Duke of I Cornwall will pay the promised visit to Australia. Mr. Chamberlain has telegraphed to Lord Hopetoun that the visit of the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York to Australia I takes place by desire of the late Queen, both to mark the greatness ef the occasion of the opening of the first session of the Common- wealth Parliament and her appreciation of the sense of loyalty and devotion which prompted the generous aid rrbich has been affordt-d by the Colonies in the South African War, as well as the splendid gallantry of the Colonial troops. This appreciation, adds the Colonial Secretary, is fully shared by the King. The Imperial troops have arrived at Wellington, in New Zealand, and have been accorded a warm welcome. An imposing naval demonstration will, it is now stated, mark the departure of the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall to Australia. The date of the embarkation on the steamship Ophir at Portsmouth is not yet definitely fixed. It is understood that both the King and Queen will be present on this occasion, and that the Duke and Duchess will be escorted from Portsmouth to Gibraltar by the Channel Squadron. At Gibraltar one-half of the Mediterranean Fleet will take them to Malta, and the other half of this Beet will accompany them to Port Said. A flotilla of destroyers is to accompany the ODbir I through the Suez Canal, and at Suez the St. George and Juno cruisers will loin the Ophir. The two latter cruisers go from Portsmouth to Suez on March 11th. The East Indies Squadron escorts the Duke from Perim to a point off the New Guinea coast, where their vessel will be handed over to the Australian Fleet for convoy to Sydney.
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ARSENICATED BEER. DR. BUCHANAN'S REPORT. The report of Dr. G. S. Buchanan to thal Government Board on the recent epidemic of arsenical poisoning attributed to beer was issued on Tuesday night. It embodies the results of the local inquiries made by the author and his col- league, Dr. Mair, and has been prepared as a basis of action for the Royal Commission appointed to consider the subject of arsenic in food and dri^k. Dr. Buchanan tabulates the number of persons attacked by the epidemic in the districts principally affected as follows .-—Manchester, 2,000; Salford. 782, afterwards increased to 996; Chester, 46; Birkenhead, 100; Lichfield urban and rural dis- tricts, 524; Dariaston urban district. 80: Stone urban district, 90; Drayton rural district \part of), 30. Dr. Buchanan next goes into a descriptJbn of the symptoms of disease arising from arsenipal poisoning, and gives a forcible illustration of the immense public injury done when he states that at Manchester, Liverpool, Chester and elsewhere most patients discharged from hospitals as relieved or cured have been inmates frnm one to thfooo months. Several, however, are likely to remain under treatment for many months to come. Dr. Reynolds (Manchester) estimates that many of his cases are unlikely to fully recover for two years. The disease appears to have attacked many whose consumption of beer was moderate, as well as those who were heavy drinkers. Women suffered more than men. "Of the thirty-six fatal cases in Man- chester between Nov. 25" and Jan. 10, twenty- three were women and thirteen men, and it is possible th-at in other districts a preponderance of death among women may be found. It is worth noting in this connection that women are more likely to get beer solely from one retailer than are men. In every locality atiected. Dr. Mair and I Icarnt that in many instances the per- sons attacked habitually drank large quantities of beer. Dr. auven instituted detailed inquiries, by his two assistant medical officers, into pichtv- ?ht 8f the numerous cases which had been seen ?. ~nvate practitioners in Manchester. Seven of b3? IP-- ?ty-e?ht admitted to drinking a gallon br e e.¡r;JIron: another t?n. without definition of r?r?°?? i? ??" el?siSed M 'heavy drinkers.' Dr. Prv^eyynnSoiads.; iS notes aaw w instance of two Pa,ioHS per dav. Reynolds ru)tes ?)er,?oris v;ere attacked w?o On the other hauct On the other hand, ™Lrnres of T. appareny drank quite -net with a severe at- Dr. ConM(6tourbridge) has se^rteat- tack in a woman "king only a p*_ ° Dr. Raw ?erpooi),Dr. Clark ???'? i n ea?h several others told us of similar instance ? ?c" of which they were satisfied of the genuinea? the patients' statements. I have heard of thlfc^ cases where the victims denied drinking any ba one noted by Dr. Niven at Manchester, and t?o by Drs. Newall and Prvtherch at Chester. 1 bg- been unable to make personal inquiries with reg.g to any one of these. I may note that at an inquest on a death from peripheral neuritis at Salford on January 17 evidence was given that the deceased woman had drunk no beer for three weeks before the onset of her illness." "As to the consumption by sufferers from the epidemic of articles of food or drink other tlfiLn beer which might possibly have conveyed arsenic, no Information seems to have been forthcoming. As might be expected in the circumstances, the at- tention of the various inquiries into the epiderpio has been almost entirely devoted to beer. In many instances persons who suffered bv the epidemic, if asked about their beer, said that they MM habitually obtained it from different retai!?re served by sundry separate breweries. Some, On the other hand, testified that it was their cusfjftn to "get beer solely from a single retailer, who, owing te the system of 'tied houses,' sold only the beer of a particular brewery. Statements of the latter sort, especially if they have come from heavy drinkers, must needs be accepted with considerable reserve. Nevertheless the result of inquiries in this direction which have been made in several of the places visited by Dr. Mair and myself appeared to afford more or less substantial grounds for sus- picion of certain breweries. In the following places which Dr. Mair and I visited we learnt that sam- ples of beer from certain breweries supplying the locality, taken at the end of November or in the following month, bad when tested either by pub- lie analysts employed by the brewers or by other chemists been found to contain arsenic: —Man- chester, Sa.!ford, Liverpool, Blackburn, Preston, CIIIU-- t er, Salford, Lichfield, NA- <)Iverha?i-lpton, Divr- Chester, Ilkley, Lichfield, Wolverhampton, ÐIIr- iaston, Bilston, Walsall, Worksop, Everton, Mar- kef. Drayton." Dr. Buchanan finds it difficult to draw any definite conclusions from the quantitative analyses of various samples of beer which gave results vary- ing from 1-1100 grain of arsenic per gallon up to Is grains, in the absence of knowledge of the procedure which they adopted in testing, and of its trustworthiness in regard of small quantities of arsenic in beer. "Without further inquiry m these directions, there appears no data by which to judge whether the beers to which the greater part. of the poisoning has been referred have in general been highly contaminated (e.g., I5 grains arsenious acid per gallon) or have been contam- inated to a much smaller degree (e.g., 1-3 to i grain arsenious acid per gallon, or less)." Glucose and invert sugar, however, are not the only channels by which arsenic finds its way into beer. In several cases contaminated sugars had been discarded, the plant thoroughly cleaned, apd yet the poison appeared. Dr. Buchanan says: "Various means, other than sugars, by which ar- senic may gain access to beer have been sug- gested. Attention has been specially directed to malt, which in some instances has been fouffd arsenical. Explanation has been given that 4it in the malting kiln may absorb arsenious acid which reaches it in consequence of the combustion of arsenical coal, coke, or sulphur. Arsenic "is said also to have been discovered in yeast, in hops, and in certain other substances used by brewers." Yet even this conclusion does not cover the case of a brewer whose ingredients had all, with the exception of the malt and hops, been analysed by two chemists independently, and found arsenic free. Twelve brews were made, the same materials, including the malt and hops, being used in the same proportions, yet only three of the dozen were certified free from arsenic. In three more both analysts found traces, and one or other reported similarly with regard to the remaining six. Truly the brewer's lot is not a happy one. APPALLING CALCULATION. Some startling evidence was given at a resumed inquest in Liverpool on Tuesday, on the body of a woman who is said to have died from arsenical poisoning in beer. Dr. Campbell Brown, a prqpa- inent analytical chemist associated with Liverpool University College, stated that he had analysed samples of sulphuric acid which had been supplied by Messrs. Nicholson and Sons, of Leeds, to Messrs. Bostock and Co., manufacturers of brew- ers' sugar, and found that they contained, on the average, about 2 per cent. of white arsenic. The deliveries of sulphuric acid to Messrs. Bostock were at t.he rate of seven to eight tons a week, and, assuming that the whole of the acid was im- pregnated ?ith arsenic similarly to the samples he had analysed, it meant that in 3U weeks there he had analy:t??, suppiy of over four tons of ar- senic, or Z191,000 grains per week. If divided into equal doses and administered at one time, it would be enough to kill a million people a week, or the whole inhabitants of Great Britain in a. period of 30 weeks.
REMARKABLE PEDESTRIAN FEAT BY A WOMAN. A remarkable pedestrian feat has recently been performed by a woman living in Crown- street, Awswortb, near Ilkeston, Derbyshire. A "Nottingham Express" reporter, hearing of the circumstances, visited her home and inter- viewed her on the subject. Her name is Gertrude Morley, and she is the wife of & miner. She informed the reporter that when 18 years of age she began to be troubled with anaemia. This became chronic, and for some time she was under the care ot a doctor. After a time she was able to return to her work, but the improvement was of short duration, and soon she was worse than ever. This state of things lasted until she was 22 years of age. She had then been married about twelve months, and went to reside at Awswortb, two miles from Ilkeston. Sleep seemed to afford her no benefit. She always felt tired and weary, as though she would like to lie down and not get up any more. She had also a swelling across the stomach, and suffered most severely from constipation. She lost all power to enjoy food, and with the loss of appetite went also the ability to digest food. So fear- fully emaciated and exhausted did she become that she could only walk a few steps. Even after so slight an exertion as that entailed, she was entirely done up." One day when in Ilkeston her husband heard of Chas. Forde's Bile Beans, and purchased a box. He gave them to his wife, who began to take them regularly. Before the box was finished, she felt a great improvement in her condition. She still continued taking the Beans, and her improvement became more and Sore rapid. The distressing constipation ft her; once more she felt a desire for food, and she found herself capable both of enjoying and of digesting it. Then came the feat which surprised not only herself and husband, but aU. her friends who had known of her condition. She had been one day to her mother's house at Ilkeston, two miles away. Upon returning, having walked the four miles, she found her husband on the point of setting out for Ilkeston. To his great surprise she proffered to accom- pany him. He at first thought she must be joking, knowing how ill she had been only a short time back. She persisted, however, and in the end he yielded. No one could have been more surprised tnan be was woen DO found that she had performed what for her was certainly a great pedestrian feat of walk- ing eight miles without the slightest trace of exhaustion. She continues to enjoy perfect health, and to recommend Chas, Forde's Bile I Beans wherever she hears of a person suffering from anaemia and debility. Chas. Forde's Bile I Beans for Biliousness are the world's specific for indigestion, anaemia, constipation, piles, debility, headache, liver and kidney disorders, nervousness, female ailments, cold, chill, and rheumatism. All Chemists now stock Chas. Forde's Bile Beans for Biliousness, or they may be had direct from the Bile Bean Manufacturing Co., by sending prices one and three half-pence or two and nine to their English depôt, 119, London Wall, London, E.C. Their effect in enabling Mrs. Morley to perform the pedestrian feat detailed above, has given rise to consider- able comment throughout Nottinghamshire! 14 Derbyshire.
WHAT IS A GENTLEMAN? TO THE EDITOK. bir,—As this question appeared in your last issue, and has been asked times without number, and has been as Indehnitely answered, may I pre- sume to give a definite answer? A gentleman is a member of an institution whose aim is the attain- ment of the highest standard of manhood. Cen- turies ago there arose out of the moral and mental darkness of the times a "principle," "the outcome of Christianity." It was called "chivalry," which was an institution of men wno banded themselves together and vowed to live up to certain restric- tions, namely, "To be pious, truthful and brave, to combine with manly exercises of the body gentle- ness of manner with culture of the mind; and although terrible in battle to wield, also, the sword of justice, to strike down the oppressor and the tyrant; to help the weak, and to give his life, if needs be, in the cause of the innocent." From this institution of chivalry have descended families who are proud of their desoent, and perhaps they well may be. They are the "gentry of our land," and so conservative were they in times past that unless anyone could shew, at a baronial court, that he was a bona fide descendant of an armorial- bearing ancestor, he could not come within the range of the "gentilitia" (the gentry). But ob- serve the word "gentilitia" is an adjective, which qualifies the nature of the persons alluded to, or otherwise there would be no distinction from the "gentleman" to any other person. That dis- tinction has been given and handed down, and guarded up to this day. The distinction may be inherent, but cannot be purchased by mines of gold, and may be retained under the most abject poverty. The principles of "chivalry" carried all before it, and although originally five miserably poor knights with, I think, only one poor half- starved horse between them, vowed at the cost of their lives to bring into the city of Jerusalem all poor wounded Christians and nurse them. So much were these poor knights thought of that em- pires and kings delighted to foilow in their train. Money did not make the gentleman then, nor can it make him now. You may say what have we to do with chivalry now? I answer everything, for "Gentilitia Cestriae" shall I translate it, not the. gentry of the county of Chester, but the "gen- tility" which makes them the "gentry" of the said county, i.e., not position, or money, or power, but being possessors only of those principles before alluded to, which were the outcome of Christianity. —Yours. &c.. WILLIAM H. BRADFORD. Great Saughall, 8th Feb., 1901.