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STRUMBLE nEAD LIGHT- HOUSE OPENED. ,& A Fine Imposing Structure. LOCAL MEN APPOINTED. Among the numerous advantages that have followed upon the inauguration by the Great Western Railway of the new and shortest route to Ireland, via Fishguard—the coming port of call for the American mail-carrying liners-is a fine rock lighthouse, opened by the Trinity Brethren on Tuesday, the 21st. For the past fifty or sixty years the vicinity of Strumble Head has been regarded by the shipping community as one of the most dan- gerous spots on the North Pembrokeshire coast. More vessels have gone to their doom on Strumble than on any other rock between Cardigan Head and St. Davids; yet it was not until Fishguard became the port for the latest cross-Channel vessels that the Trinity Breth- ren were aroused to a sense of duty. Doubtless they have now fully recognised that the Great Western Railway Co.'s harbour, possessing po- tentialities of world-wide importance, is soon to rival the gref Lancashire shipping port Liverpool, because of the fact that mails from America may reach London quicker by many hours, via Fishguard, than by of any other route. The G.W.R. Company's new Bill includes a scheme of development in the shape of constructive works, which must place Fish- guard in the foremost position in the world of shipping and commerce. Representations by the company prior to the opening of the new harbour induced Trinity House to place a temporary light about a mile east of Strumble, pending the erection of the permanent structure under notice. Upon "Ynis Onen," or Michael—respecting the name of which an action at law failed to decide-the imposing structure rises pyramid- like to a height of some 200 feet. Its walls are of stone, three to four feet in thickness. The 1 island was separated from the mainland by a chasm 45 feet across. This is now spanntd by a massive steel girder bridge. Standing upon this bridge when the tide is at flow reminds one of a rapidly-running river, and forms a picturesque scene. On each side rise the heather-covered cliffs, about which the gulls hover lazily. But the transformation from the once wild bleakness to a village by the sea is a striking feature of the whole. Adjacent is the coastguard's look-out station, always in- habited; a road leading from Tresenwen has been constructed to a length of nearly a mile down to the edge of the headland. From the latter a series of concrete steps lead down to the bridge; then some eighty or a hundred similar steps lead up to the lighthouse, whose base covers the summit of Ynis Onen. Secure as were the wave-washed rocks abutting on each side of the chasm, they are now doubly i secure by the addition of tons of cement, jammed into every fissure and crevice. Every conceivable precaution has been taken to pre- vent any possible damage to the bridge foun- dations of solid natural masonry. A laborious climb, and the lighthouse is reached. The building is the embodiment of solidity, for the dwelling apartments are sim- ply a square, formidable mass of rock and concrete. The boundary wall, ana the lower circular plateau, from which latter the signal mast rises, are encased in concrete. This applies also to the powder magazine and other outbuildings. To those who visited the spot before the commencement of operations, less than two years ago, it would seem a village complete grown out of the rugged rock Michael. The steps lead up to the court and to the door of the dwelling-house with square roof, specially constructed to collect rain-water, which is stored in tanks beneath the surface of the yard, then pumped into the scullery, and filtered as required for culinary purposes. The Trinity Brethren look well to the comfort of their keepers. All the interior is of pitch- pine. The kitchen contains a large cooking range, table and chairs. Leading from this spacious room are scullery (furnished with water filter and all the necessary household utensils) and pantry, shelved with slate slabs. On each side of the corridor leading to the tower are the men's sleeping apartments, con- nected by telephone to the lantern. No man is allowed to leave duty until relieved by another keeper. This is one of the strictest rules of Trinity House. Each room contains wardrobe, iron bed with spring mattress and hair palliasse, washstand, and dressing table, clock, clothes, and utensils, all provided by Trinity House. So generously do the authori- ties cater for the lighthouses that the store room presents the appearance of an iron- mongery and provision warehouse on a moder- ately large scale. THE TOWER. Entering the tower through two large glass doors, a mass of mechanical appliances meets the eye. The visitor steps from pitch-pine on to plates of solid cast-iron plates. Beneath these removable slabs is the oil storage, hold- ing 3,000 gallons of paraffin. This tank is twelve feet lower than the receiving tank on the mainland, so that the oil, when emptied therein from the casks, finds its way through a two-inch iron pipe-forming the hand-rail of the girder bridge previously referred to, and into the storage tank by gravitation. Modern invention and ingenuity have surmounted great difficulties in engineering, reducing manual labour to a minimum. Skill of the highest order enters into every detail of this mammoth beacon. In the centre of the tower is a steel tube, about fourteen inches in diameter, containing the weights of the clock actuating the lantern. The tower itself is of steel, with a network of lightning conductors terminating in the rock below. From the base an iron staircase leads to the lantern, glazed with half-inch glass. The lantern, it should be noted, is the iden- tical one used for many years on Portland Bill, and was made by Messrs. Chance Bros., Birmingham. By means of an iron ladder entrance to the revolving portion of the crystal structure is effected. There are four bull's-eyes having cor- responding prism reflectors. These multiply the naked, triple-mantle burners from 40,500 to 400,000 candle-power. The keepers wear thick blue glasses when on duty in the lantern. Four flashes take place every fifteen seconds, and are visible at a distance of from 18 to 21 miles, and reflecting 40 to 50 miles. Bull's- eyes and prisms weigh five tons, and revolve in lOcwt. of mercury. So sensitive is the bulk that it can be moved by slight pressure of the finger and thumb. From the base to the top of the gallery is a height of 200 feet, the whole being most elaborately constructed of polished steel and crystal discs. Every cog-wheel is cut by machinery and fitted to 1,000th part of an inch. The incandescent burners are Matthews' patent, and work on the Kitson system. Paraf- fin oil is confined in two cylinders under pres- sure of 541b. to the square inch, and forced through vapourisers to the burners, consuming three pints in an hour. Ordinary mantles are used, but everything is so simplified and effec- ti\ e that the keepers' work is reduced to a minimum. FOG SIGNALS. A very ingenious system of fog signalling is installed. A mechanically-operated jib on the outside of the tower is brought into position by turning a wheel opposite two small aper- tures. The keeper places the explosive on the jib, attaches the detonator, which is connected by a wire to an electric battery resting on the floor of the lantern; then after elevating the jib with the screw he depresses a plunger and an explosion takes place. Two shots are fired in quick succession every ten minutes during fog. The operation is performed from the inside of the lantern, and the small doors are so protected on the outside that no incon- venience is experienced during the operation. TELEPHONIC COMMUNICATION. with the nearest post-office at Goodwick is in- stalled, and is connected with the various coastguard stations. There is a mast for hoist- ing the weather cone and signalling. The engineering work has been most effi- ciently carried cut by Mr. W. Riley, from the Trinity workshops (where he has been for 22 years), under the supervision of Mr. T. Matthews, engineer-in-chief, who has effected a revolution in coast communication and lighting during recent years. The extensive masonry work is by Messrs. B. Jones, of Lynton, Devon, the clerk of works being a Mr. Matthews. There are two magazines of the latest" type, erected in one corner of the enclosure, for explosives. Among other details worthy of mention are the text plates in the tower beneath the clock, and which run— "Unless the Lord build the house, they I labour in vain that build it." "Unless the Lord keep the city, the watch- man keeper^h but in vain." j -Psalm exxvii., 1¡.







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