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---------I Y GOLOFN GYMRfclG…







KURAL LIFE. Bf A SON OF THE SOIL. A GOOD HARDY PERENNIAL. Mrs. H. (Wigan); asks me to make a choice of a really pood Doronicum, or Leopard's Bane, and although there is a liberal choice I cannot go beyond the variety Harpur Crewe, undoubt- edly very commonf for it can be obtained of all seedsmen, but a magnificent species. The flower is golden yellow ir, colour, and the plant is hardy and vigorous. A'genond note as regards the growth of hardy jp<>remiia.ls may now be of ser- vice. With the exception of some few sorts, which require a somewhat different treatment, the greater part of these are best raised in the months of May, June. and July. Sow thinly, and when the plants re large enough prick out on nursery beds to strengthen, and plant out early in autumn, or in favourable weather in Febru- arv Itnd March, where they arc intended to flower. Early sowing is decidedly the best, as it gives the plants a far bettor opportunity of lie- coming sufficiently strong to resist severe frost in winter, and to bloom freely and finely in the -in, snrincr and summer. This is especially DORONICUM. I the case in reference to double German Wall- flowers and Brompton .Stocks, which should not be sown later than the end of May. These being less hardv than most classed as such should aa/ve the benefit of a, more sheltered spot when final y planted out. which ought to be done if possible in July. Sweet Williams, unless sown early will not all* bloom the following year. VALUE OF FOWL MANURE. The value of fowl manure depends tll--atlv upon its purity or otherwise, admixture with sub- stances used on floors, and also on the keeping of the manure from wet and ferrnentacicn. Fresh fowl manure contains from 181b. to 2511.. of nitrogen. 121b. to 241b. of phosphates, and alb. to 121b. of potash per top. A ton of a-erage well- rotted or short stable or farmyard manure com tain., 101b. to 121b. of nitrogen, 4!j. to 6lb. o! ph'.wphates, and 101b to 12!b. of potash. As ni- tro"n is the most valuable substance, fowl manure is worth, in its fresh state, about twice as much as widl-^otted stable or farmyard manure, this bemrr 5s. to 7s. 6d. per ton. hence the fresh fowl manure is worth 10s. to 15s. per ton. When the fowl manure is collected fre- quently, spread thinly so as not to heat or tor- ment, and this allowed to dry in the air, itrf value is double that of the fresh droppings, and is worth four times as much as stable or farm- varcl manure or £ 1 to El 10s. per ton. Pigeon manure, often confounded in value with fowl manure, is a much more valuable article, the scrapings from pigeon loft, carefully saved and kept thin and dry so as not to forment con- taining about 721b. of nitrogen, 451b. of phos- phates, and 251b. of potash., therefore its manu- rial value is about double that of dry fowl manure, or eight times that of rotted stable or farmvard manure, and the money value J52 to jM per ton, the distance of conveyance making the difference in the price. ARTICHOTVKS. I am glad to hear that amateurs are growing artichokes more freely than has been the case; while it is an admitted fact that the sale of both the Globe and the Jerusalem variety is in- creasing every year. Neither will ever depose ARTICHOKES. the potato, but as a chance the artichoke is well worth the attention of all growers, especially now that there is so ready a sale. New planta- tions will have been made by now in most gar- dens, but if not it is not yet too late to take up some of the old roots and divide them into moderate-sized pieces. Then plant them in patches of three, set triangularly at nine inches from plant to plant, allowing 4ft. to 5ft. between the patches and rows. The artichoke requires to be well grown to attain perfection, therefore it should have a rich and rather a moist place. Tubers of the Jerusalem variety can also be planted now: they arc usually put in places where scarcely anything else will thrive. Plant them 18in. from each other, in rows 3ft. apart and about 3in. deep. MORE ABOTT THE HomxG PIGEON*. The correspondents who wrote to me about the homing pigeon are thanked for whal were good enough to say with reference to my little paragraph sese weeks ago. I have been interested in pic-ons all my life, and I will readily answer any Questions which are sent to me concerning tho very fascinating hohhv. The training should, be in at not later than' twelve weeks from th dete of their hatching out. al- though. of coviirse. r they will have horn afforded opportunities of, learning their bearings before then. The first"# should not be more than ti. mile, and it is just a.s well to release the young birds one at liriie. The owner should be at the loft with some tempting tit-bit to encburage the AN AMATEUR'S LOFT. novice, and also to teach the homers to fly stnyght home. The distance to be flown can then be increased from one to two miles, and then to five, until, when six months old, the birds are well able t'o do their 150 miles with safety. The loft of which I give an illustration is quite a model one in^its way. A NOTE FOP. TULIKKY REARERS. An important point, but one that is sometimes neglected, -s th,at turkeys should be killed on the place where have been fattened, and on no account way alive, as they will probably lose as much flesh on the journey as has been added during tiie week. They should be starveci for twenty-'our or thirty-six hours before killing, in order to empty the system of food. Killiny ma^ be done in two ways: Fasten the bird by t!.e legs to a beam, and with the left hand and arm he'} it secure1?, while with the right hand firmly erasp the head and give it a jerk downwards, lt requires a strong person to kill a large bird, but when successfully accom- plished death is instantaneous. The second method is by curt'ng the throat, or by piercing the brain through d'd row" of the mouth with the point of a sharp knife. Immediately the bird is dead it shouid bo plucked, as while the body is warm the feathers c«,.i bo more easily removed; the feathers on the back of the wing and the top of the rump arc usually left on. In France, and in a few districts in East Anglia, it is cus. tomary to tie the bird, as soon as pinching is finished, in a linen Ah soJi ;11 millt, which imparts a smooth surface w the skin. and greatly improves the appearance. Turkeys should on no account be pecked till stone cold, IUJ, if sent away before, thoy arrive at their do. stination in a. eomparatively poor condition, The greatest caro should be exercised in pack- ing: if the skin gets at all damaged it detracts very considerably from the appearance, with the result that several pence a pound may be sacrificed.. THE CARNATION CRAZE. Tho owner oT a small town garden, who is in quest of a special flower which will yield him the utmost satisfaction, cannot make a better decision than '<<' adorn his little pleasaunce with a c-ollec- t' of border carnations. Always providing that ms land is a fair loam, and not dry, hot, and sandy soil of gravelly nature. We owe to an 11 i eminent London banker, Mr. Martin P. Smith, of Warren House, Hayes, Kent, the production of a magnificent race of new Carnations, suffi- cient in themselves to furnish a garden of limited sizo with interest and beauty. These new seed- lings are vigorous in habit, They produce superb blooms of large siz • and refined type. There is no absolute necessity for wintering und-u- glass the majority of border Carnations. Tiiey are quite hardy enough to withstand outside weather in soil- congenial to their nature. The most suitable soil is loam, mixed with old mortar. The family to which Carnations belong are fond of limo as an element in their food. An admix- ture of gypsum in their rooting places will help their happy development, where old mortar ia not available. Carnations wintered in the open resist disease the best. For this reason, as well as for labour-saving considerations, it is well in rural districts to give them the open air life all the year round. In towns the evils of dusty, foegy, and smoke-laden air make mischief enough to induce many Carnation-lovers to adopt glass protection in winter. The custom of lifting Carnation layers and potting them in order to winter them in cold frames is increasing, even in the country, and this is probably due to anxiety in respect of the many choice varieties in the possession of garden owners. Plants which have been so wintered should now be planted out as soon as possible. Those which were planted early in the autumn will have formed abundance of roots in the warm soil before winter chilled the earth, and will now be making vigorous growth. For these the soil should be lightly pricked over with a fork. A dressing of compost enriched with sweet, open, well-seasoned manure will be acceptable to them. Owners of Carna- tions must not forget to guard their treasures against the attacks of ravenous sparrows and other birds, which are apt to strip the leaves and pick the plants to pieces. Lines of black thread stretched over the Carnations are the best pro- tection. The sparrow distrusts thread arrange- ments of the kind, and hesitates to go below the tines, even for food. All correspondence affecting this column should be addressed to "A Son of the Soil," care of the Editor of this iournal.


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