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A Pneumatic SPBAYEB.

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A Pneumatic SPBAYEB. The iuquiry which has reached me from #I Northern correspondent for a really useful gyriogor or sprayer, could not hare come at a more opportune time, for it is in the present month thsft the bark of the vines must be mltened in order that a free start can be ob. tained. Clear, 4tepid water must be used, 10 that there it neilher check nor chill. The apsayer, of which an illustration is given, can be used in a variety of ways, and when insects begin to trouble the grower, as they are sure to do sooner or later, ne better sprayer will be found than the one under notice. Its mechanism is sinaple, and it is not easily put out of order; while the fact that it is a good all-round appliance, and can be made as useful in tho orchard as in the greenhouse or vinery forras a sound recom- mendation. As regards cleaning th'e vinery, there is no time like the present. All thpaint should be scrubbed with a brush, and plenty of A PXEUt".TIC 8PBA.775B. strong soap and water used hot, insects which lurk in the cracks and crevices during the winter being killed in that way. The glass will also need washing, as it is a very important matter to have this clear, so that later on the leaves may have the full benefit of sun and light, both -of which are most essential during the early spring months to build up and strengthen the tissues. IMPORTANCE OF MOISTURE FOR VEGETATION. In Franco it is quite common to find around ,the vegetable and fruit gardens railings and thick edges arranged as wind protectors, the chief purpose of which is to prevent the wind j sweeping across the surface of the soil and dry- ing it up. In Engb.nd the observation has been made that coincident with the removal of hedges and trees from the boundaries of the fruit gar- dens and fields, the crops seem to have lost some of their former luxuriance, which is attributed to the lessened mo'siurc in the soil. It is estimated that the 1904 drought in Germany inflicted a ¡ loss of something like LICO.000,000 to German agriculture. This enormous, but it is the calculation of Dr. Backhus. of Berlin, a recog- nised authority on scientific questions connected with agriculture, and it is partly explained when we consider that the most valuable beet-root crop I was only about hnlf an average. The growth on a soil or its covering exercises great influence on the retention of moisture. According to experi- ments made by Wollery the moisture at the depth of a yard under grass is about 14 per cent., under fallow 23 per cent., and under farmyard I manure 29 per cent. Crops require for their best development varying quantities of moisture; for instance, according to the demonstrations of Adolf Meyer, barley makes the best growth when the top soil is saturated with about 60 per cent, of moisture, and oats develop with most advantage when 90 per cent. of moisture is pre- flent. It has also been ascertained that un- manured fields require nearly twice as much moisture as soils which have received the advan- tage of dressings of farmyard manure or arti- ficials. RANUNCULUS. I All the ranunculi are beautiful and very free- flowering; while the knowledge that they will I succeed in almost any soil or position, and, if planted any time up to the middle of April, will bloom abundantly during the summer, makes them very useful for cuttting. Early in the last century the ranunculus was all the rage, and fabulous figures were paid for varieties possess- inq certain points in form and oolour that attrac- ted the attention of the fancier. In the present day, however, fashions in flowers have altered to such an extent that what is in great demand one season is hardly required the next. As to its cultivation, the best soil for the finer sorts is a 7BENCH EANTTNCULUS. I retentive loam from the surface of a good old pasture, with the addition of some well-rotted cow-dung, peat, leaf-mould, and silver-sand, all to be will incorporated before using. It is desir- able that the rich soil be placed a few inches be- fow the tubers, and these to be covered with sandv loam. Perhaps the best time for planting is tie month of February, as they are somewhat tender, and if planted too early might start from •the ground before the danger of severe frost is over, when they would require a great amount of extra care in protection, or there might be a risk of losing the bloom. The ranunculus re- quires a firm soil, and it is desirable to workup the beds some time before planting, in order that the roots may be placed firmly. SECTIONAL BROODERS. The brooders of which an illustration is given were introduced from America some years ago; they have been; Terltly improved, and are now made in this country and have a very large sale. The improvements have thoroughly tested, and there is not the lea1- doubt that, as now made the bvr.vW are thor,^hly practical, ex- made- t manage; while the tremel r simp- • • ? Y'I. chance of failu'o j an _a/ui s <11 nail indeeod. T» "> *nain improvements are. (1) SF-'TIO' ZIOD" Is. effidi" *7 too" <?' Bummer reanu {.<: ■■■ '.el: «■ ■JJ' ™ Uere m The wire <e» n "v<" (l1Ia\l c gu nam JI i^n> H~~ shotdd 00 made impossible. U God save the shoald be I King and the Empire.

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A Pneumatic SPBAYEB.