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OUR COUNTRY COLUMN 1 FOR THE GARDENER [.p SMALLHOLDER. PROFITABLE PIG KEEPING. I Just at tiia present mome-nt it te prohable that no bra.nch of animal husbandry is of more im- portance to the natiOii, or can be more usefully extended, than pig keeping. Few animals are capable of giving a quicker return for food ;130!1- wined" and certainly none are better adapted for turning into wholesome meat much material that is generally regarded as of little or no value. In these abnormal days the great majority of us •re either gardeners. ailoimeiut. holders, or waste land cultivators, and for that reason the subject of Pig keeping has com.) into prominence of late, 86 it is utuitily within the intam of most people IWho possess a fair sized garden or piece of laisd to keep at least 0113 pi/. The garden and kitchen can bo made to supply tho biggest proportion of the animal's food, and with proper management and treatment a return of at least 25 per cent. Profit can be anticipated. Probably the best plan is to start pi? keeping- with a newly-weaned about eiht weeks old. care beim; taken to etcure a-9 good an ::r. ;nrd as pos-ible. All extra shilling P!' two opent in this way ivill be amply repaid, and the temptation to be ratisfied with an un- thrifty youngster, merely because it is to be lizid for k83 money should be stoutly resisted. Don't Vevobe too much attention to fancy points, Lut get an animal with n vigorous constitution, a Rreedy, lusty fellow, active on liis legs, lengthy and round in shape, with a clear. and pliable skin, covered with a fijio coat of soft glossy hair. YORKSHIRE WHITES. I Ag far n.9 housing is ooncorued no elaborate ttructuro is nccssary, the main essentials being clean and comfortable conditions. A dry ued, combined with suitable veiillilation, and the ab- sence of draughts, will serve to promote the health of the animal, prevent chills and rlieu- fiiathm. and minimise risk of disease. A t the start the pig should be allowed a modetute amount of exercise, and an occasional run outside the sty will nive it a healthy appetite and eucour- ■Ko growth. When it gets to about 1001b. live weight tho exercise shouid be curtailed, and the feeding should be rather more forced. Wheat loffai., accompanied by a littlo rice meal, mai1ù Jneal, or barley meal, whichever is the- ohoapest. taay be given freely, and the supply of the more bulky vegetable food correspondingly reduced. If fed from the start a. pig should .Weigit from i701bs. to ]801bs. live weight at from five to six months old, whoa it should be ready for killing. THE SMALLHOLDER'S COW. Almost everyone know3 the little Kerry cattle, the one breed indigenous to Ireland. It is black toi colour, quiet in disposition, and certainly a werv useful breed. At one time this race of tiny tolack cattle was only found in Ireland, but now it hils spread to many counties in England. It endid milker, and its milk comes next to I that f,,[ JeffeyG and Guernseys in richness of butter-fat. Kerries are hardy, wiry, vigorous in constitution, and capable of making a living i gge,r oatt'a would starve. No cattle are better adapted for grazing country lanes and rOfU(i-ide wastes, only this is not always allow- able, consequently the Kerry is just the animal for the cow-keeping labourer or smallholder, and uPon no thriftier animal can he bestow his care j ■ Of course the Kerry always responds to better tr^atmeijt on bettor land, and on this account is »ot to be despised by the upland farmer. SUITABLE CROPS FOR SOILS. I Now that so many thousands of acres of waste land aro being brought under oultivation the new allottees will find that they have all sorts on<i conditions of soil to deal with, good, bad, and in- afferent, and for that reason more than ordinary r must be exercised as to the crop to grow. 8ut whether the land be light or heavy the firct tllitill to do ia to turn it over at once. Where ft, is under grass this must be given time to d,e.cay and so provide food for the crop to be sed. Poor ciay lands especially will benefit by thla action, for the turves will help to keep the 501-1 more open. Largo numbers of wireworms usually hibernate en grass laud, and these must be dealt with, or v-hon the turf is turned underneath they will Prove troublesome to the crop. Where gaslime C4-11 be procured fresh from the gasworka this \'ill be leund to bo an excellent insecticide, but In using it great care should be taken, or the land may bo poisoned for a long time. It must be broken no into a lijie state, and then spread •vftnly on tho surface, at a rate not exceeding ()e and a half pounds to-the square yard. This Ilrill sotfc friend wirewbrm, but it must be applied at, least two months prior to sowing seeds Qr setting out crops. This is best dona on a soil. If the land is light a dressing of ^Rri_onltura! will account for various sorts lnf Pests, and will also assist in ketyping the-ground COol and moist during the drying days usually 'xpenenccd in April, May. and June, when the tOling plants are passing through the critical Turning to tho orops we find that on clav soils of all descriptions are likely to do weB. ^hilo carrots of tlu main season type and inter- mediate varieties, and parsnips, will generally cfivo gocd results. Potatoes, of the main or late ■ &neties, can be recommended, but spring onions ahould be left alone, though leeks and celery j\\>IIl do well. On the light land turnips oan be .e-\ied on to give a good crop, and so can all early or late produce. Such land is not so muit ?b)o for summer crops on account of the difh. onough moistura to carry the Plants ilirough the growing stage. Early cab- 0 Re. flarly potatoes, spring onions, dwarf peaj, ftd Prenoh beans should all be given a trial. fo,¡tl\rall.v on all thii waste land the first orop .Will not bo a largo one, but the value of the ird work put. in will be more apparent in rho •Ucceediivcr cropg. PLANTING POTATOES. Pointers form the principal crop in many gar- èlhl and nllotment?. and should, as a rule, be Planted during March or early April. They re- quiro good soil in which there is no freh Manure. b?t. i? thj ground has been !iberat!y ? *B?nurcd for ? previous crop. so much the better. -D" cn!ti\a<inn is eG¡1eciaUv desirah, for while I 4 Jms prevent^ an unduly lar?? amount of mois- S. ''prn?min? around the "ooi's it prevents t!)o < r??? '? ?mprtn? from drought In addition it thrd a td'el' f('cdn"g' Kro?i and tends to | d, Produc?i?), of !,c?v)or crops. r hilo the crops toIloi%-iii- tho potatoes ?-ro benefited. Pientv f 'l?,e afLord(t,,t t,o 1)ot?-tocs, the plants indix,d,]Iv roo? allotted to them !\lm- 'QRt for thesr full development. The rows ?"?R'? 'd bo from t?o to three fe3l apart. according i JO Ule naturc of the top arowth and s?ts should ■ from a foot to (:i hteen inoh apart for the reioOii. In> tead of dibbling, if time allows, reneher. about four inclie?. decr> should be openod ojjt, and along ti,c," the set-s laid afterwards filling- the foil in. When above ground moulding ■"ouid be commenced, the final hilling bsing don when the p'a.i:ts have made about a foot of growth. Cabbage or kalo arc sometimes Plante(I between tho rows, but this is not a good practice, cither the potatoes or intercrops being Inhred more or lcw. TRENCHING GARDEN GROUND. I d 's <1 good time to take to allotment gar Ha "Us. as it affords time for the proper prepryra- on of the soil for planting in spring. Some lnt on the rna;t(Vi' may therefore not be un- «f Pai'tic,lar!v as a well-kept, garden C)f this description proves of substantial benefit 40) its own or. The first thing to be done is to trench the soil at least two epits deep. and to breik the bottom up again, not necessarily throwing the surfaco soil to the bottom if the subsoil is unfavourable. The method of work- ing is shown in the illustration, and usuaUy this is applicable to all soils which are at all suitable for allotments. A dressing of manure is de- HOW TO TRENCH. j sirablle, and this should be worked into the top of tha soil during dry or frosty weather, as much of the mamiriai elements wprk into the subsoil with the iaiter rams. T io- object, of trenching is to provide a free ra-ttge for tho roots, axicl to prevent the soil drying up in hot seasons. Of course, if the ground is pare ft and, trenching would have little effect, but with all other earths t.ho results of trenohiiig are mœt marked, and althoug-h a somewhat costly matter as compared with plain diggiiiig, the ultimate profit is muoh larger, mora especially in hot, dry oeasons. ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. Vacant Land: Economic.—Yes, the frosts will have certainly dono a lot in this direction. 2. The lime serves the double prurpO,3 and sweetens the land. 3. Ordinary manure may be used alter an interval. 4. Yes, soot is very np3- ful. It is generally u&ed at tho rate of about 30 hushels to tho acre. P.S.—The author will be pleased to answer through thisoolumll auoh queries .with regard to small oulture. etc., as are likely to be of general interest to renders. Letters should be addressed to the Country Editor, 69, Highgate, Kendal Next Week: DUCKS, GEESE, AND TURKEYS.


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