_=-r- JUDGES AS TARGETS. The injury from which Mr Justice Grantham has now happily recovered, reminds us that there seems to be a strange fatality which makes judges the object of missiles, both in and out of Court. Sir William Grantham's colleagues, Mr Justice Darling, was struck by a piece of brick while electioneering at Deptford, and the occasion on which Vice-Chancellor Malina Wall niadti tins target fur an egg by an angry Suitor, is best remembered on account of the self-possession which was manifested by the learned judge. "That," he said (referring to his colleague in the Chancery Division), 41 must have been intended for my brother Bacon." Sir William Grantham, so far as the records go, is alone among the judges in having been struck by a bottle thrown from a train, but there is a story which might be placed in the same category in Benson's life of his father, the Archbishop. A comfortable-looking Yorkshire clergyman having purchased a basket of strawberries, and consumed the contents with great en- joyment, threw the basket out of the window of the railway carriage. This proceeding evoked from a fellow passenger in a far corner, the remark, A dangerous thing to do is that, sir." The clergyman, apparently reflected for a moment, and then, looking round with a genial smile, said, 4' We live, sir, in a world of risks."
"KISSING THE BOOK." Sir Thomas Snagge has added his pro- test to those of many other County Court justices on the subject of -1 kissing the book," which he describes as the most unhealthy. insanitary, and objectionable formality in Christendom." Nobody who has had experience of courts of justice, particularly those devoted to the trial of criminal cases, will be disposed to com- plain of this declaration of the learned judge. Those witnesses who realise the, possibilities of contagion generally increase their chances of safety by opening the took, and kissing an inside page; but there is no necessity for anybody to adopt this form of oath unless he Jikes, the al- ternative being open to every witness to request that he may be sworn in the Scottish form, with uplifted hand. County Court judges might, of course, suggest this sub etitution, and if they do not it is probably because they realise how frequently per- jury is committed before them, and hesitate to suggest to people who may be bent upon lying an oath which is incompar- ably more solemu than the form usually adopted. In the East End of London Courts, where many witnesses resort to perjury as a matter of course, it would "be very shockiug to hear such persons commence their evidence with so solemn a declaration as that contained in the Scottish oath.
I N RTON S PILLS CAMOMILE PjLLS omE INDIGESTION, t HEADACHE, BILIOUSNESS, CONSTIPATION, I DYSPEPSIA, STOMACH & LIVER COMPLAINTS. | INVALUABLE FOR LADIES- 1 120 rea. Reputation as an Unrivalled Family Medicine. Perfectly Safe. I ALWAYS KEEP THEM IN YOUR HOUSE. I Sold all over the World. NORTON'S LTD., 21 Spital Square, London. M f
WHES JUDGES DIFFER The Law Courts having adjourned for the Long Vacation, suitors are relieved from the attendance which the solicitors have advised, in case the actions in which they are interested might be reached un- expectedly. They can now be sure that their cases will not be tried at the earliest until late in October, and, unless they know the other side to be altogether unreason- able, they would do well to endeavour to settle the matter on the best possible terms. They may say, "We have a perfectly good and indeed unanswerable case." No doubt -they have; both sides generally go into court with a case which they think it im- possible to loose, so that we are reminded of the problem which a too clever boy set to a professor, "What would happen, air, if an irresistable locomotive came into contact with an immovable post ?" The Explanatiùn which the professor may be pposed to have given, would apply to these perfect cases with which people go to law. One side will have to submit to defeat, and if any: litigant wants to know hich side is going to win in his case, he may be referred to a suit which had its origin in the Dartford County Court, and has now got as far as the Court of Appeal. The last that was heard of it was that two Lord Justices and the County Court Judge were of one opinion, while one Lord Justice, the Lord Chief Justice, and two other Justices were of another. That is not a very satisfactory result for any- body, and least of all for the unsuccessful party who wants to know how it is that he has lost his case when a majority of judges are in his favour. Perhaps he had better apply to Mr W. S Gilbert who is a barrister, and J.P among other things. If that gentleman cannot throw any light on the matter he will, at least, be able to offer some useful advice.
THE FARWELL COMMISSION. I There are two kinds of censure in the report of the Farwell Commission, one with regard to officers who have not exercised sufficient vigilance, and the other concerning those officers and non-commissioned officers who were engaged in unsavoury transac- tions. As to whether or not the former class should be punished depends upon the character of their neglect. It is not usual j to punish a man for natural stupidity, I except by removing him from his command, and while laziness cannot be tolerated in a person holding a responsible position, it is in general necessary to observe a very clear distinction between misfeasance and mere nonfeasance. With regard to those against whom moral turpitude can be proved the case is quite different. The system of bribery by contractors is always going on to some extent in the public service, and contemporaneously with it the levy of blackmail by subordinate officers, who make it clear that unless they receive cheques the contractor will experience difficulty in -J=_J _-r- =- ¥- getting his goods passed. In the war stores scandal, discovery has been made of persons who have been engaged in a wide- spread system of corruption, and the nation will not be satisfied unless the opportunity is accepted of making an example ef them. On previous occasions it has been declared that the principal offenders have been allowed to escape, while the non-commis- sioned officers have been punished, and it is to be hoped that this mistake will not be I made again.
f THOUSANDS ARE going Bradford's VOWEL' Washing Machine TOK WASHING AT HOME, saving time, labour, and wear and tear of clothes. Illustrated Catalogue on application. THOMAS BRADFORD & CO., 110 to 142, High Holborn, London; Victoria A.retro#. Manchester; ISO, Bold Street, Liverpool; VV Crescent Iron Works. Salford. JJ
THE LATE DUKE OF RUTLAND Much has been said of the politica services of the late Duke of Rutland but there has been less reference to his associations with Lord Beaconsfield as a member of the New England Party. The warm frieneship which subsisted between the two men caused Beaconsfield to in- clude Lord John Manners (as the late Duke then was) among the characters in Coningsby," where he is introduced as the sweet tempered Lord Henry Sydney, son of the ducal proprietor of the Palla- dian palace of Beaumanoir, or, in other words, Belvoir Castle. Although Lord Beaconsfield and Lord John Manners re- mained warm friends until the former's death in 1881, yet their friendship was not at first approved by the then Duke of Rutland who wrote in 1844 to Lord t:F: .70 Strangford I lament as much as you can do the influence which Mr Disraeli has acquired over several young British senators, and over your son and mine espe- cially. I do not know Mr Disraeli by sight, but I have respect only for his talents, which I think he sadly misuses." Either the Duke must have changed his opinions or at least yielded to the hope- lessness of the situation, for two years later Beaconsfield was staying as a guest at Belvoir Castle.
MERRYWEATHER ON WATER SUPPLY AND FIRE PROTECTION of COUNTRY MANSIONS. EXPERTS SENT TO ALL PARTS TO Report on EXISTING Arrangements. WRITE FOR PAMPHLETS: MERRYWEATHER & SONS, 63, LONG ACRE, LONDON, W.C.
SCARCITY OF SWALTOWS. I The plague of flies which is reported from many rival districts is ascribed to the scarcity of wasps, and it is suggested that in order to escape the flies people should be less zealous in their attempts to destroy wasps. The wasp is not popular, and it may therefore be well to point out that they are not the only energies of flies. A plague of flies would not continue long where swal- lows and martins were numerous, but instead of encouraging the presence of these beautiful birds, many people do their best to destroy them, or drive them away. The result is that these birds are no longer seen in many districts where they used to be plentiful, and the number of them which visit our shores appears to be becoming less every year. From the point of view of the flies that may be entirely satisfactory, but in destroying the swallow, man is helping I to exterminate one of his most useful friends.
Nonconformist Liberals of Monmouthshire at Work. Alderman P. Wilson Raffan, Abertillery, pre- sided over a meeting of presidents and secretaries of the various Liberal organisations, Free Church Councils, and denominational organisations in the county of Monmouth, which was held at the Mill-street Liberal Institute, Newport. Mr W. H. Hughes (secretary of the Central Evidence Committee) attended, and explained the decision of the committee with respect to the collection of evidence for presentation to the Welsh Disestablishment Commission and other matters pertaining to the inquiry. This was supplemented by a statement by the Chairman, and the meeting then proceeded to deal in camera with important questions relating to Monmouthshire, and it was understood that steps were being taken to prepare the case for Monmouthshire for presentation at an early date. The secretaries of the four Liberal associations in the county, together with two other gentlemen, were appointed a sub-committee for the purposes of organisation.
The Voting of Local M.P.s. There has been an extraordinary number of divi- sions this Session-318-and the number of Mem- bers voting has been remarkably large. The closure has been enforced 23 times. There were 15 divisions in which the minority was not more than 25, and twice it was only 3. Mr Godfrey Baring (Isle of Wight) voted every time. Local Members voted as follows:— Mr Lewis Haslam (Mon. District Boroughs) 248 Col. J. Ivor C. Herbert (South Mon.) 197 Mr Reginald M'Kenna (North Mon.). 260 Mr Thomas Richards (West Mon.) 177
COINS You DO NOT HEAR OF. I There are some strange facts in connection with our coinage which few people are aware of. For instance, how many of us ever see a L5 piece, let alone possess it? Yet 34,911 of these rare coins were struck in one year lately, besides 45,807 L2 pieces—another coin seldom seen. But per- haps the most interesting fact is that there were 10,117 silver fourpenny pieces, 14,079 silver two- penny pieces, and 21,278 silver pennies struck in the. same year. These last were "Maundy Money," which is distributed by the King's almoner to needy persons who attend a service in the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, on the Thursday of Holy Week.
ELEPHANT SOLDIERS. I The Siamese Army has an elephant corps. Eight hundred of these animals, which are stronger, though smaller, than those of India are organised into a special corps, commanded by a retired Ang/"o-Indian officer, and their heads, trunks and other vulnerable parts are pro- tected against bullets by indiarubber armour. heads, trunks and other vulnerable parts are pro- tected against bullets by indiarubber armour.
Iv ■ IT TAKES A LIFETIME. A piece of genuine Japanese lacquer costs the native artist almost a lifetime to perfect, and is produced by hundreds of thin coats of lacquer laid on at considerable intervals of time, the value consisting rather in the labour bestowed than in the quality of the material used. First- class lacquer work can scarcely be scratched by a needle.
I RACE AND LONGEVITY. The coloured race Is certainly shorter lived than the white, and has a very high infantile death-rate; it is especially liable to tuberculosis and pneumonia, and less liable than the white race to malaria, yellow fever, and capcer. The Irish race has a rather low death-rate among its young children, but a very high one among adults, due to a considerable extent to the effects of tuberculosis and pneumonia. The Ger- mans appear to be particularly liable to dis- orders of the digestive organs and to cancer. The Jews have a low death-rate and a more than average longevity; they are less affected than other races by consumption, pneumonia, and alcoholism, but are especially liable to diabetes, locomotor ataxy, and certain other diseases of the nervous system.
—— A LONDON EARTHQUAKE. The most severe shock of an earthquake experi- enced in modern times took place in London, March 8th, 1750. It was preceded by continued, though confused, lightning till a minute or two of its being felt; then a noise like the roaring of a park of artillery was heard, the houses reeled, and many of them fell in. Some damage was done to Westminster Abbey, and a number of chim- neys collapsed.
v I WHVT IS SICKNESS? I That which we know as sickness is in reality but the effort of nature to overcome disease, says Good Health. Nature is always kindly, al- ways benevolent, and is for ever seeking to over- come the follies growing out of the ignorance of mankind. Thus it is, that after a time of habitual violation in some way, or various ways, of the laws of our being, nature, to prevent the final catastrophe of death, steps in to compel a discontinuance of our vicious courses, and to de- mand the restoration of health. This creates a convulsion of the system, which manifests itself in accordance with the constitution of the patient and the nature of the violations of law. Sometimes it is fever, sometimes dysentery, neuralgia, rheumatism, cholera, or one or more of the ills that flesh is heir to. But whatever it is, it is but the outward evidence of the struggle of nature to restore to health a constitution vitiated by habits of indulgence, more or less protracted, and more or less pernicious. It fol- lows, then, as the night follows the day, that all healing efforts can have use and efficiency only as they work in harmony with and aid nature in this struggle to restore health.
EGG AS CURRENCY. I In some parts of Peru-for example, in the I province of Jauja—hen's eggs are circulated as email coins, ten to twelve being counted for a shilling. In the market-places and in the shops the Indians make most of their purchases with this brittle sort of money. One will give two or three eggs for brandy, another for indigo, and a third for cigars. These eggs are packed in boxes by the shopkeepers and sent to Lima,
THE RUSSIAN GIRL. I The Russian girl asserts herself in the world, and, as in the English-speaking countries, before she is a woman she is an individual. No one in Russia thinks the less of a girl for her wish to learn, to lead an independent life, and Wirth- echaft" is not considered a unique occupation for a girl. If her scientific career is cut short, as it undoubtedly is sometimes, it is more for political reasons than any others. In appear- ance the Russian girl is oftener blonde than dark. She generally has a good figure and well- shaped hands and feet. She dresses well, for, like the Pole, she has the instinct for beauty that is characteristic of the Slavonic woman. From her earliest childhood, the Russian girl becomes the companion of her parents, a cus- tom that makes her sociable and at her ease with grown-up people. ■*■
BLACK BABIES. 1, I The negro baby when it comes into the worict presents a delicate pink colour, the second day it is lilac, ten days afterwards it is the colour of tanned leather, and at fifteen days it is chocolate colour. The colouring matter which lies between the layers of the epidermis is semi-fluid, or m the form of fine granulators; in the Indian it in red, and in the Mongolian yellow. It is mflu. eneed not only by sun and by climate, but by certain maladies, and the negro changes in tint just as the white person does.
▼ IN the churchyard of a Welsh village there are four large yew trees, and a hollow m one of them, which is protected by a door, is used lor storing coal needed to heat the church during the winter months. Japanese children begin to go to school when six years old. During the first four years they learn Japanese and Chinese; in the next four fears every child has to learn English.
Markets. NEWPORT, CORK, Wednesday.—-Average atten- dance, trade dull, prices at last week's rate. NEWPORT, CATTLE, Wednesday.—Cattle, sheep, and lambs more numerous, calves in moderate, supply. There was a good attendance and sellers obtained late rates. QuotationsBest beef 61d. per lb, inferior sorts 6id.; fat cows, 4d. to 5ld. 4 best wether mutton 8id., ewe 6id. to 7d., lambs 9d. to 9^d.; calves, 6d. to 7id.; pigs-porkers, 4 2 10s. 6d. to lis. per score. NEWPORT, CHEESE, Wednesday.—Good atten- dance and business brisk, with a supply of eight tons. Quotations :-Caerphillys, 44s. to 52s. per cwt.; fancy dairies, 58s. to 55s. truckles, 65s. to 68s.; and Derbys, 65s. to 66s.
I RIDE The Best ALLDAYS fifi. Oontractorw to the War Cam Buy. Office, Port Offic*, and othll w « m w m m OoTemment Department*. M V | | If Write for torroiuuid Agmtif J| Alldays A Onion* l»n wiimtl* Inglnmrlng 0*. Ltd. ULondom ShpwrmomK— URMIMOHAII. < to. Bucklersbury, Mansion Mousa. B.C. WW
Terrible Earthquake in South America. New York, Friday. The Herald Buenos Ayres cor- respondent telegraphs that a terrible earthquake occurred last evening at Cordellera de Los Andes. The details are not yet known. Communication between Chili and the Argentine is completely interrupted.
Death of an Authoress. Miss Elizabeth Sewell, authoress of a number of devotional books, novels, and tales for the young, died at Bonchurch, Isle of Wight, this morning, aged ninety.
A Solicitor's Danger, The High Constable of Grilling- 9-1 ham, Kent, Mr Smith, J.P., who is a solicitor, while transferring a farm at Stotfold, Beds, yesterday, was furiously attacked by the occupier, who suddenly lost his reason.
Funeral of Mrs Craigie. The remains of Mrs Craigie were interred at Kensal Green to-day, after a memorial service in Farm Street Jesuit Church. The floral tributes were exceedingly beauti- ful.
Cricket. Somerset, out, 107. Lancashire, out, 102. Notts, out, 146. Gloucester, out, 277.
Weather Forecast. Changeable, cool weather pre- dicted. I Printed and Published by "THB COUNTY OBSERVES," IT NEWSPAPER and PRINTING COMPANY, Limited, by JAMBS HBNRY CEABK, at their Offices, Bridge Street, Usk, in the County of Monmouth, Satur day, August 18 th, 1906J
CASSELL'S MAGAZINE ¡ Brightest and Best of the Magazines-Profusely Illustrated Throughout Famous for the Excel- lence of its Short Stories. The Foremost Writers and Artists only. Monthly, Sixpence* IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII Cassell's Magazine DIIIBBIIII Monthly, Sixpence. Amongst the Contributors are: MARIE CORELLL, RIDER HAGGARD, HALLIWELL SUTCLI ROBERT BARR, A BART KENNEDY. PETT RIDGE, TOM GALLON. JOHN OXENHAM, M. E. BRADDON. Cassell & Co., Ltd., London; anct of alt Newsagents and Bookstalls. :> ;;)\f< :}:: :í CASSELL'S MAQAZINE One Penny TR E 0 Musical Hornw AL JOURNAL j Uk Wednesdays Id. Unheard-of value to everyone interested in music. New y4i—yffiQ copyright Songs and Pieces Jj weekly—Sacred Songs, Ballads, Coon Songs, Humorous Songs—Music for the Piano, Represents a value Organ, Harmonium, Violin, st of 8s." Manchester Banjo, etc. etc. Full music Evening News. size J ruu rauslc Its contributors include names of such world-wide renown as H. Trotere, Clifton Bingham, T. Ord Hume, Ezra Read, Milton Wellings, Ed. St. Quentin, Theo Bonheur. Interesting and helpful Articles and Chat on musical matters. A Complete Story Weekly. "Bargaitl Coullter" for the Purchase, Sale and Exchange of Musical Instru- ments, Music, etc. Questions and Answers on Musical Difficulties; Replies Paid For. Prise Competitions with Valuable Prizes Also Monthly, 6d. CASSELL & COMPANY, Ltd., London; and of all Bookstalls and Newsagents. Ho Illustrated Journal for Amateurs. i Every Thursday, ld. An admirable The Gardener abounds in pictures Journal for of choice flowers, illu trated gar- /arden dening hints and diagrams of ines- amateur'and'. t,niable value to both the amateur professional." an^ professional gardener. A —St- James's feaiure of unique interest is Top- Gazette. ical Tables," which tells, the gar- dener what to do now, and how to do it in the most effective way. Other distinctive features are :— Pictorial Practice-Garden Gossip-Vegetables- Current Work in the Garden (an Illustrated Weekly Cal- | endar for all classes)—Illustrated Ideas—Fruit—Roses— j Chrysanthemums—Trials and Troubles (in which the J gardening difficulties of readers are discussed and solved)—Covent Garden Market Report. To the amateur, "The Gardener" makes gar- dening doubly enjoyable; to the professional it makes it doubly profitable. CASSELL & COMPANY, Ltd., London; and of all I Bookstalls and Newsagents. — — I rAWORK^T I THE ILLUSTRATED WEEKLY IF I JOURNAL OF ^HANDICRAFTS j Fridays, Id. "There is not To all of a practical turn of mind' a person < • • • WORK is invaluable. It shows you learn from how to do things about the house 'Work' how and in the garden which you would to make otherwise have to pay to get done. a living." Diagrams and working drawings are Sat"rday given for making all kinds of things Rcvuw. for the home. The" Questions and Answers" Section has proved its practical value to readers in all parts of the world. Readers of WORK add handsomely to their incomes in their spare time. WORK makes your hobby pay. Also Monthly, 6d. CASSELL & CO MPANY, Ltd., London; and of .zJ Boo k stalls and Newsagents.
I POULTRY REARING. I Mr W. J. C. Gladstone reminded an audience at Hawarden that his grandfather had advised a similar assembly that they should take up with greater interest the keeping of poultry. So far as the rearing of poultry and the production of eggs on a small scale is concerned, the advice may be good, but the problem of obtaining an adequate livelihood from poultry farming in this country remains to be solved. Mr Rider Haggard tried his haud at the busi- ness, with all the advantages to be derived from an amply sufficient capital, and other people have devoted to poultry farms as much time, thought, and labour as should have sufficed in a different occupation to procure for them a respectable competency. It is imposvsible to say that those persons were not sufficiently in earnest, yet almost without exception they have found them- selves unable to make a living. Some of them have found that directly they touched the railway their profit was gone, while others discovered that they were working solely for the benefit of the middleman. A society, of which Lord Salisbury is president, is however seeking to overcome some of the poultry farmer's difficulties, by means of co- operation, and, according to the reports, it has attained to some measure of success.
Cost 1/-Save 10/- Wood-Milne Fatigue and Double thm Smarter FIXIOD. 12 mont ordinary wear. Rone lIenuine unle.. stamped 26'on th* -Miin I rWood-Hllne'on th6 face. Sold every- SPECIALQU H ,AOAWHFR!D EVERY* ^K3PECIALQUAUTL^'4K .J8 f KYNOCH 1 I SPORTING I I CARTRIDGES I Season 1906. I 7/6 per 100, neti "JJ 8/9 per 100, net. 10/- per 100, net. 12/- per 100, net. ■ These prices are for cash. I Carriage paid on 1,000 lots. | Sold by I W. BUNNING, I Bridge Street, Usk. I .4
NAVAL PROMOTION.—Sub-Lieutenant Geoffrey Nepean Biggs has been promoted to the rank of Lieutenant in His Majesty's Fleet, with seniority of 15th April, 1906.
THE GUILLOTINB. I The machine employed in French public executions has the reputation of being the in- vention of Dr. Guillotin, but the machine was used long before the doctor had seen one. All he did was to publicly encourage a preference for this means of death as being painless, and in consequence someone, unhappily for the doctor's humanity, named the machine after him. The guillotine was really prepared by a German mechanic named Schmidt, under the direction of Dr. Antonine Louis, and hence at first was called a" louison," or "louisette." And here it may not be out of place to men- tion the cognate error that Guillotin was its first victim. He nearly became a victim of the Revolution, but he escaped, and, after the end- ing of his political career, he resumed his duties as a physician, and became one of the founders of the Academy of Medicine in Paris. He died May 26th, 1814, aged seventy-six, but the French Revolution died twenty years earlier. The first man executed by the guillotine waa a highwayman, who. died in 1792. -.A.
« ■ RA MIRACULOUS DBAUGHT. The largest catch of fish ever taken in a single net was the 5,000 hogsheads, or about 1,100 tons, of pilchards taken off St. Ives, Cornwall, in 1861. The total catch was roughly calculated at 16,500,000 fish. The net was about a mile nd a-half long, and the value of the take was some £ 11,000. A
AN EXCELLENT POTTER. Did you ever think of Nature as a potter? Why, she makes most wonderful pots, as well as bottles, jugs, and vessels of other kinds, out of gourds and calabashes, which are largely em- ployed for such purposes in the Tropics. But perhaps the most remarkable pottery of natural origin is a by-product, so to speak, of a cactus plant. In the region south of the Gila River and west of the Sierra Madre, woodpeckers excavate nests in the trunk of the most gigantic of all cacti, which attains a height of 50ft., and branches, and to protect itself the plant emits a sticky juice, which soon hardens, forming a woody lining to each hole made by a bird. Eventually the cactus dies, and being composed mainly of water shrinks to a mere skeleton; but the bowls remain intact, and are used by the Indians for dishes.