VIOLET ROOT-ROT. This disease was recognised and described 4iearly two hundred years ago as the cause of serious injury to the saffron industry in France. In this country the rot (Rhizoctonia) has a spe- cial predilection for lucerne; clover, carrots, beet, mangold, and potatoes sometimes all suffer severely, and most frequently when they follow lucerne, which appears, says a Board of Agriculture leaflet, to attract the stray myce- lium of the fungus present in the soil. The dis- ease is readily recognised by the bright colour of the mycelium of the fungus, which varies from rose, with a tinge of purple, to a deep brownish purple when old. The mycelium at first spreads as a delicate, much-branched net- work over the surface of the root or tuber, and finally forms dense patches, or covers the entire surface with a compact felt. As a rule the fun- gus confines its attacks to underground parts of the plant, but when the weather is continu- ously damp and dull the mycelium sometimes extends up the stem, and even passes on to the leaves and fruit. The first sign of disease is the drooping and yellowing of the foliage the presence of violet mycelium on the surface of a carefully removed root proves the fact.
MANAGEMENT OF COWSHEDS. I Interesting competitions are being carried out I in Belgium, with the object of improvine. the I — jl Vaviaucua, as "well as stables and piggeries. Prizes are offered for the best kept and managed cowsheds in the different districts, and it is claimed that the system has been productive of eminently satis- factory results in inducing farmers to exercise increased care and intelligence in looking to the condition of the buildings in which their dairy herds are kept. The prizes are not offered for the best buildings, which obviously would be unfair to competitors whose homesteads were defective through no fault of their own, but in awarding the honours the inspectors are re- quired to take into exclusive consideration the manner in which the buildings were kept in reasonable repair, combined with attention to cleanliness, drainage, and ventilation. The competitions appear to be meeting with growing popularity, and in some districts as many as 150 to 180 entries have been received, and it is remarked that the trouble and expense entailed have been amply justified by the improvement discernible in the condition of the buildings throughout the country.
GRAZING PASTURES. I In some parts of the country cows must have a good bite of grass to ensure their giving a fre flow of milk of good quality. Yet Cheshire im:, graze their pastures comparatively bare, 8202-" the "Rural World." The old saying is that grass should be three days old for sheep, and three weeks old for cattle. In some of the be.1 v. dairying districts in England the farmers fee the grass off quite young, whether cattle are fu- for producing milk for cheese or for butter. All. however, agree upon one point, viz., that the cows must get a sufficient bite to satisfy, without having to trespass upon the natural hours of rest to browse after food. Some herbage is naturally of a slightly purgative nature, and a remedy for this is to feed it off when in a measure matured. It is where the sward con- sists of herbage of rather an astringent nature that the grass is better grazed off young. Again, many pastures vary at different seasons of the year as regards their purgative or astringent qualities, and should be grazed accordingly.
INSECT PESTS. The fight with the various insect pests must be sharp and incessant. Whatever is desired must be gained by constant vigilance, and in- stant action against the parasites, which now affect everything that the farmer grows. Those minute insects known as plant lice, or aphides, are probably the worst of all the .tribe, on account of their ordinary invisibility. They suck the sap of the plants from the under side of the leaves and along the stems, and thus working out of sight much mischief is done ,before one is aware of it. These are also difficult to reach by means employed for the destruction of the more visible enemies. Fine spray must be thrown up under the leaves to reach these lice, while those that infest the bark of the fruit trees, and which are less visible than those on the leaves must be reached in the ordinary way. For these there is nothing better than the common lime wash, laid on with a brush while it is hot, and which immediately kills them. Doubtless this common fashion was originally due to this necessity, and although it has been greatly ridiculed by those who misunderstood the purpose of it, yet it has valuable uses.
WEEKLY POULTRY." week's or onabIe a" BookstaIIs & Newsagents, 1 <f. CORRAL RTPY FROM "POUI/TRY" OFFICE, 12, MITRE CHAMBERS. FXEET STREET, LONDON. =-
TDe °f costs> was imposed on Mr. James Seddon M.P., at the Widnes Police- court for obstruction on the occasion of open- air demonstrations on July 14 and on his ap- plication the Bench decided to state a case. "Loss of prestige owing to libels upon the company arising out of the War Stores inquiry" was one of the reasons given for the failure of Messrs. E. Underwood and Son, Limited at the meeting of creditors and shareholders at the bankruptcy Court.
A HOLIDAY IN TYROL. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF THE COUNTRY I By ALFRED GIBSON. The Austrian Tyrol is a land of sunshine and of snows. It is a land of climatic paradoxes. In midsummer one can get any temperature in reason. It is only a question of moving up to the mountains or down to the valleys. On the mountain tops one can live as in the Ice Age, but the low temperature is usually modified by delightful sunshine. In the middle distance, say 6,000 feet above the sea level, one can breathe the pure cool air of the temperate zone, and if one desires heat in abundance, it is only necessary to move a few thousand feet lower down. The Austrian Alps form a natural thermometer for the supply of all kinds of tem. peratures. In Meran, the old capital of Austria, one finds the vine tree growing all round the base of the mountains; higher up the cattle will be found feeding on the succulent summer herbage, and at the top one moves in a land of snows and glaciers. This is part of the charm of Tyrol. Climate is only a question of altitude. Even where the sun is hottest one is not op- pressed by the heat. The dry air and cooling breeze from the hills, the constant flow of ice cold waters, all tend to render the fierce sun- shine tolerable. Those who can afford to do so flock to the mountains in the summer, where the season begins early in July and ends at the beginning of October. One can sit out of doors at the Mendel Pass, Cortina, or Trafoi, all the day long enjoying the warm sun and the cool air from the snows above. The highest carriage road in Europe is over the Stelvio Pass. It is a splendid specimen of engineering work. On one side is a solid mass of masonry that would cost £ 20 a yard to build in England. As one passes mile after mile of this great wall one wonders where the money came from. Such an undertaking could only be carried out by the State. It was here on a hot day towards the end of June that I encoun- tered a snowstorm in brilliant sunshine. In these heights seldom a day passes, even in summer, without a fall of snow. In selecting a district for a holiday one can hardly make a mistake. In Meran the season extends from September to the end of May, and one can hardly picture a more charming town. In mid-winter it is possible to sit out- side for hours at a time in brilliant sunshine, while on every side one can gaze at the moun- tains covered with snow. The hotels here are particularly good, and there are amusements to suit every taste. Military and other bands play in the charming public gardens, and a well-managed Sports Club allows one to in- dulge in almost every form of British pastime. There is a racecourse where peasants on moun- tain ponies compete against each other, while officers from Italy, Germany, and the home State ride their own blood stock for honour and glory. Many of the best families in Austria are located in Meran, which attracts over 20,000 visitors every season. To the English tourist Tyrol, as a whole, is as yet only a half-discovered country. If it were known as well as it deserves to be the great rush of travellers that overwhelm Switzerland would be largely diverted to the Eastern Alps. The select parties of English visitors one meets with at Cortina, Seis, Karersee, and the delightful Dolomite country generally, are rather jealous of the invasion of their favourite haunts by the ordinary tourist, but apart from this rather selfish view, there is ample scope for thousands of English people without getting into each other's way. Nor is it necessary to be a climber to enjoy the beauties of this en- chanted land. One may sit on the terrace at afternoon tea at Pragser Wildsee in the midst of fragrant pines, viewing the lake at one's feet, watching the glaciers gleaming white in the evening sun, and the summit of the mountains bathed in the warm iridescent colours that I ua>*5 Ulna, wuo .L.7U1U.l:1.1:"J,-vt.o-1-1-&r of their own. Practically all these health re- sorts are as suitable to invalids as they are to the most daring member of the Alpine Club. If one does not care for climbing, one can play at tennis with the glaciers for a back- ground. If one does not care for either, there are the wonderful wild flowers and the rare Al- pine plants to exploit. The wild flowers are a feature of Tyrol. So plentiful, so beautiful, and so varied are they that a private flower garden is somewhat of a superfluity. All the table and hotel decorations are culled from the valleys and the mountains. In the Cortina district the most beautiful orchids are found in abundance. Higher up the white crocus (snow roses they are called) are to be found as plentifully as buttercups in England. The wild forget-me-not is more dazzling in colour than that grown in British gardens. Alpine roses, resembling the rhododendron, are exquisite plants, while of course, the Eidel- weiss can be had in abundance. Many forms of the cactus, wonderful lilies, anemones, and all the wild flowers commonly found in Eng- land, grow in prodigal profusion. Hardly any flower, other than the rose, is cultivated in this part of Austria. Wild strawberries of a deli- cious flavour are very abundant almost every- where, and in some districts the wild raspberry flourishes. Surely there never was such a land where nature did so much to beautify the earth. But perhaps best of all for the tired brain and the vibrating nerve is the eternal stillness of the mountains, the vast silences that soothe the mind and speak to the heart without the aid of words. There are sanatoriums for the "rest cure, but I am convinced that the best "cure" of all comes from the pure air and the feeling of remoteness from the worry and strife of great cities. ° I have always thought it impossible to give a true word picture or mountain scenery. One might, indeed, give a perfectly true outline with the light and shade such as a photograph might render, but such a picture would never produce the impression of the original. One might reduce a beautiful scene to painting; one might try to convey attitudes by means of figures; one might try to impress the imagination b" trick of phrase and suggestion, but whato the effect produced, one feels that it could c.y be a poor apology for the reality. Many of us have lost the sense of the spiritual side of Pature. We may all utter exclamations of delight when we see the sunset over the Konigspitze, but few of us feel the rapture of a quiet day amongst the mountains. This wonder- ful land is admirably adapted for taking us back not only to nature but to our better Selves. There are various ways of seeing a new country. One may travel through it as one does on "private view day" at the Academy, returning with a headache, a confused sense of many things, and a clear conception of none. Or one may journey through it quietly as one's means and tastes direct, tarrying here a day, there a week, and allowing the witching won- ders of the land to convey a lasting impression on the mind. Tyrol presents a wonderful combination of all the scenic effects that are mostly coveted by travellers. It is as if a great master painter had first made studies for his picture in Scot- land and Ireland. In these beautiful countries we have lightly sketched in miniatures of the great work which the master mind has triumphantly completed in the Alps of Tyrol. Nor is there anything in Switzerland or in Norway which Tyrol does not present in greater volume. One may also study the characteristics of an interesting nation. The peasantry are a hard- working, happy, and contented people. There are few that can be called rich, and fewer still that can be called poor. And there are no beggars. One may travel Tyrol from one end to the other without being asked for alms. The only jarring note that one may feel is the almost total absence of child play. Children are sent to work very young. In one instance I saw a child of less than three years of age assisting its aged grandparent to carry wood. 'The little fellow, in long breeches, was staggering up a path with his arms full of wooden, faggots. It is a common thing to see a mother with several children of various ages loading an ox waggon with grass by the roadside. One day in- walk- ing over the Seiseralpe I met a mannikin oi seven driving a team of oxen up a lonely moun- tain path. There he was alone for hours with those two huge beasts and the awful silence of the mountains around him. He did not respond to my greeting with a smile, as an English boy would have done. He returned my salutation with the solemnity of an old man, and cracked his great whip to show that he was master of his team. Children, seldom smile in these parts. And yet no parents could be fonder of their children. Work for all ages seems to be a tradition that cannot be wiped out. One notes with satisfaction, however, that the youth and the middle-aged are distinctly joyous. It is 808 if they had shaken off the cares of babyhood and meant to eniov the remainder of their lives. It seems to be the ambition of every young man to become a mountain guide. He can often make enough in two months to keep him during the rest of the year. Apart from guides and coachmen, the rest of the peasantry get their living from agriculture and wood cutting. Every cottage has a cow that is usually sepa- rated from the family only by a thin partition. With all their cleanliness indoors, they don't mind the dung heap in front of their window. Sanitation is not one of their hobbies. Almost every village is a Commune so far as the land is concerned, and the Commune is very jealous of its rights. Amidst thousands of acres of little value hotel keepers are made to pay dearly for a site, and the priest has still power enough to forbid the villagers selling ground for the erec- tion of an English church. Religion is much advertised by means of wayside shrines, but it does not dominate their lives. After noon on Sunday they by no means take their pleasures sadly, but they are a wonderfully well-behaved and orderly people. Apart from agriculture, the main industry of Tyrol is hotel keeping. In England, and indeed in nearly all European countries, when a man wishes to engage in public life, he, as a rule, goes into politics. In Tyrol many of the men of light and leading go into the hotel business. Strange as it may seem, a large proportion of the brains and business capacity of Austria is to be found at the head of the great hotels. The type of man who, in England, would engage in law, letters, finance, and politics will be found controlling the hotels of Tyrol. These men are not merely hotel keepers. Some of them possess a social and political influence that many of our Cabinet Ministers would envy. If Mr. Joseph Chamberlain had been an Austrian he would have founded a great hotel in Bir- mingham, and advocated his Fiscal schemes from the Midland centre. In some respects Innsbruck is as politically influential as Vienna. Mr. Carl Landsee, of the Hotel Tyrol, is a gentleman whose education and attainments would fit him for any position in the country. In America he might easily become a political "boss," if, indeed, he did not reach the Presidential chair, but in Austria he finds scope for his energies and abilities in assisting to develop the country. Very few national movements are undertaken in which he has not been consulted, and his advice is frequently sought by the heads of the State Railway. It was mainly on his initiative that the famous Academy of Commerce was estab- lished at Innsbruck. This is one of the most complete technical schools on the Continent. In addition to the teaching of the usual Arts and Sciences, every youth is required to learn four languages other than his own. A speciality of this Academy is a systematic teaching of hotel keeping. The pupil is taught everything, from the dusting of a room to the construction of a hotel. He must learn how to bottle beer, to determine the value of wines, to make beds, and to receive visitors. On stated days the pupils visit the hotels of the town and are instructed in cookery, waiting at table/and all the para- phernalia of modern hotel life. After serving five years at the Academy of Commerce they are set a stiff examination, and if they succeed in passing they are entitled to forego two or three years of military training required by the State. Mr. Joseph Rhiel is another remarkable man. Not only was he the architect and builder of his own magnificent hotel at Fulpness, but he engi- Inoaica and uciert +Ti<j eleotrio railway along the Stubai Valley where his hotel is situated. The railway, winding in and out amongst the mountains, is regarded as a triumph of engineering skill. Many of the hotel keepers are wealthy men, but they are not above sending their sons to England, where they work as ordinary waiters, learning the language and acquiring experience that will assist them in their business career. One naturally wonders where all the material comes from to build huge hotels in places often far removed from highways and railways. As a rule, nearly all the material is found on the spot. They strip the turf from the mountain, and there, without much quarrying, they find plenty of good stone, while the whole of the wood-work is made from the huge pine trees that abound everywhere. Not only are the hotels constructed from the wood and stone found on the spot, but in many instances the furniture, including handsome wardrobes, are made from the splendid pines in the vicinity. In this way the cost of hotel building is greatly diminished. It is rather strange that all the building and engineering work is carried on by Italian work- men. Even the Austrian State railways are built by Italians. The cleverness and adapt- ability of the Italian workman was brought to my notice in a striking manner. A party of 30 of us were about to partake of an al fresco lunch on the top of the Seiseralpe-one of the finest mountain plateaux in the world. Just as wt; were about to begin rain began to fall, and a big storm threatened. A short distance away a mountain hotel was being erected by Italian workmen. They immediately saw our plight, and at once rose to the occasion. Some thirty of them immediately began to carry trestles, fir trees, and closely sawn planks up to our luncheon tables. While we sat in our seats they commenced building all rlound, and inside of fifteen minutes they built a rainproof roof over our heads. In this way we ate our lunch in comfort while-a storm raged around. The average Austrian is more artistic than mechanical. As a rule, they possess the artistic temperament. The hotel decorations are noted for their quiet schemes of colour and their artistic simplicity. I saw bedrooms in moun- tairi hotels inexpensively furnished, which tor artistic delicacy could hardly be improved upon. Some of the symphonies in grey, gold, or pink would have delighted the heart of a Whistler. i rom my slight acquaintance with the Tyro- lese I am inclined to think that the middle- class are more intelligent—or if not more intelli- gent, certainly better educated — than the middle-classes in England. I met two girls of the shop-keeping class-young ladies of about twenty-who knew many masterpieces of Ger- man classical literature. They knew, and could recite, poetry from Goethe's "Faust," Schiller's "Wilhelm Tell," and many of Heine's songs. One would hardly expect an A.B.C. girl in this country to know much about Shake- r'p speare, Shelley, and Wordsworth, yet these Bozen girls knew more about the best literature in their language than many young men in this country who have left college know about the classical literature of England. It is, of course, a mistake to suppose that everyone in Tyrol dresses in the nicturesque costume commonly identified with the country. One might as well expect to see all Scotchmen in kilts. One usually sees the full Tyrolese cos- tume only on holidays or at National festivals. Yet every valley has its own distinctive dress, and a Tyrolean can tell at a glance what part of the country a peasant comes from. In some parts married and single men are denoted by the colour of the cord round their hats. In Meran, for instance, the married man wears green cord, and the unmarried man wears red. Any departure from this custom would meet with severe reprobation. Women have a curious custom of wearing huge aprons oh every occasion. The aprons are so large that one would readily mistake them for a skirt. Even at dinners, balls, and other func- tions, the apron—usually made of fine silk—is the most important part of dress. It goes with- out saying that the Tyroleans are intensely inimical. The peasants are nearly all mem- bers of societies for the preservation of folk- lore and even when untrained their voices are often wonderfully fine. Tyrol is a country that only requires to be known to become one of the great Recreation Grounds of Europe. It may never become popular in the sense that Switzerland is popu- lar, but it will always have a peculiar charm for those who love quiet, rest, and unexampled scenery. Thanks to the turbine steamers ply- :ng between Folkestone and Boulogne, the cross- ing of the Channel J1 ed not be a disturbing factor in the journey to Tyrol. Even in a ahoppy sea the boat moved as steadily as in a take. Excepting in the stormiest weather the Channel has now lost its terror to the tourist.
Digestion Ruined. Tortured by Eyery Atom of Food. 16 Years of Anguish. Sank into a Low, Weak State. A Complete Cure Found in I n Dr. WllllanW Pills. It For 16 years I endured tortures resulting from complications that followed neglected indi- gestion, said Mrs. E. Burgess, of 169, Waterloo- street, Hull. Whenever I took food I was op- pressed by a sense of fulness, and sharp pains cut across my chest; sometimes they were like a severe cramp, which made it difficult for me to breathe. These agonies kept me from taking food except what barely kept me alive. Work in the house became a burden because I had lost all strength, and I moved about in a dull, life- less way the whole day long. In spite of medical attention I obtained no relief; the horribl« nD Wfll I IflMC' gnawing torture racked 11it- IIILLIHIIIO me until I sank into fj such a low, weak state ■ INK health seemed ruined. My complexion Da a ■ q changed to a sickly ■ ILLvl yellow; my tongue was thickly coated, and I had an unpleasant taste in iny mouth. One day my husband urged me to give a fair trial to Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale People, and though I had little hope of cure, I began to take them. Would that I had taken these life- giving pills before. In a short time I felt brighter and easier. I gladly persevered, feeling improvement with every box. My appetite began to pick up, the pains disappeared, I could take regular exercise, and at length I became quite strong again. One Sunday I astonished every- body by sitting down to dine and making a good, hearty meal. My food now does me good, I can digest it without pain, and I am quite well and strong. This is what Dr. Williams' Pink Pills have done for me after sixteen years of perfect martyrdom. Dr. Williams' Pink Pills cure ruined diges- tions by their wonderful action on the blood. They have also cured Anaemia, Eczema, Rheu- matism, Sciatica, St. Vitus' Dance, Paralysis, Locomotor Ataxy, and Ladies' Ailments. Sold at shops (but avoid substitutes, and take care that the full name is on every package, Dr. Wil- liams' Pink Pills for Pale People) or direct from Dr. Williams' Medicine Co., Holborn- viaduct, London, post free for 2s. 9d. a box, or six boxes for 13s. 9d.
KILLED BY A STICK. Mr. William Abraham, who for over 30 years had been manager to Messrs. Knight and Co., publishers of the "Local Government Chro- nicle," met with a tragic death in his garden at Upminster, in Essex. Whilst engaged in putting sticks to chrysan- themum plants, one of the sticks broke off short in his hands, and he fell forward on to another stick, which pierced his right eye, and pene- trated the brain. Mr. Abraham managed to stagger to the kitchen, pulling the stick out on the way, but he died soon afterwards.
I AN TINACOOTTNTABI.'E MISHAP. 1 I An inquest was held at Trehafod, South Wales, on a rivetter, named Simson, who was hurled 360 yards down Lady Lewis Pit. It was stated that the engine, through some cause un- known, reversed, and Simson was swept off the scaffolding and precipitated down the shaft. The engine-man stated that he did not touch the reversing lever, and that the mishap was to him unaccountable. His statement was corrobo- rated by a witness who was in the engine-room at the time. Mr. Hutchinson, the agent, said yiat the engine went back against a pressure of 103 tons of steam. He had never known such a thing. The accident was a mystery. A ver- dictDf "Accidental death" was returned.
NO "ONE MAN ONE DRINK." I The Court of Appeal have decided that Messrs. Till and Godfrey, proprietor and man- ager respectively of a public house at Eynsford, Kent, could not refuse to sell alcoholic drinks on Sunday, or restrict the sale of other days. Mr. Till wished to convert his house into a hotel, and therefore tried to discourage general drinking at the bar by posting a notice that no person would be served more than once in any forenoon, afternoon, or evening. The Dartford Brewery Company, owners of the house, sued for an injunction restraining Messrs. Till and Godfrey from posting the notice. The decision was that the notice was inconsistent with keeping the house open within the terms of the lease, and the injunction was granted accordingly.
DUKES FUNERAL. I The funeral of the late Duke of Rutland took place at Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire. Eight retainers who had grown grey in the late Duke's service bore the coffin, made from oak grown on the estate, to the plainly draped bier, which was drawn by four powerful cart horses. The pall bearers were Colonel the Hon. C. Gathorne- Hardy, Mr. F. Sloane Stanley, the Rev. W. Welby, Sir Gilbert Greenall, Lord Brownlow, Mr. U. Drummond, Mr. W. Hervey, and Mr. v. R. Norman. Lord Denman represented the King, and the principal mourners were the Marquis and Marchioness of Granby, Lord Roos, Mr: G. Manners, Mr. C. Brinsley Marlay, Captain C. Manners, the Earl of Scarborough, the Marquis of Bristol, Mr. A. Drummond, Mr. Maldurn Drummond, Lord Galway, Lord Savile, Lord Charles Bentinck, Sir John Thorold, the Mar- quis of Exeter, the Mayor of Grantham, Lord John Joicey-Cecil, M.P., Major-General Sir Mildmay Wilson, K.C.B., and Sir George Whichcote. The service was conducted by the Rev. F. W. Knox (the late Duke's chaplain), and the Bishop of Peterborough.
I WAR STORES SCANDAL. The report of the Royal Commission which has been investigating war stores scandals was issued by the War Office on Thursday night last. The Commissioners were Lord Justice Farwell (Chairman), Sir George D. Taubman Goldie, Sir George White, Sir Francis Mowatt, and Mr. Samuel Hope Morley. The Commission was appointed to investigate and report on the allegations made in the re- port of Sir William Butler's committee, and also all the circumstances connected with con- tracts, sales, and refunds in South Africa after the conclusion of peace. The keynote of the report is the comment: The country is entitled to expect sufficient in- telligence from its officers to connect the parts of an elementary business transaction." The following are the chief points of the document: The Commissioners estimate the total pre- ventable loss to the home taxpayer involved by the contracts, as lying somewhere between three-quarters of a million and one and a quarter million sterling. No private firm could avoid bankruptcy if it allowed its agents to deal with business matters in the mode in which these three officers (Colonel Hipwell, Captain Limond, and Major Walton) have dealt with the purchase and sale of supplies. No evidence was given voluntarily. Obstruction from certain officials at the War Office. Carelessness and indifference of military authorities in South Africa. Many documents were wilfully destroyed. War Office failure to issue instructions to Financial Adviser. Certain errors which the Commissioners specify are declared to have been due to a de- plorable and complete want of co-ordination and divorce of interest between the different depart- ments of the War Office. As to the general conduct of business in the Supplies Office at Pretoria, the Commissioners make many adverse comments. They, however, state that they have found no evidence of the existence of favoured contractors in the sense in which these words appear to be used in the Butler report. The Quartermaster-General (Sir C. Mansfield Clarke), undertook a serious responsibility when he recalled Colonel Morgan and substituted for him Colonel Hipwell. They hold Sir F. Mar- zials. as Accountant-General at the War Office, responsible for failing to provide some financial supervision over the Director of Supplies. The Commissioners do not attach much blame to General Lyttelton as the General Officer com- manding. but he committed an error in regard- ing Lord Kitchener's scheme of local contracts as a permanent one. Colonel Morgan and Colonel Hipwell, in their dealings with Meyer, Limited, put a premium on default by contractors. Colonel Morgan criticised for introducing his brother to an office at a large salary he has only himself to blame for having placed himself under grave suspicion. Conduct of Colonel Hipwell and Captain Lirpond was recklessly improvident. Wording of contracts was inexcusably care- less. Various dishonest contrivances by which con- tractors and non-commissioned officers suc- ceeded in robbing the army af large sums of money. The Commissioners find Honeyball, Beavan, and Mills all guilty of corruption in the matter or receiving bribes, and say that there remains ample evidence of a widespread system of cor- ruption. Charges of receiving bribes are also proposed against Captain J. Hopkins, Lieut.-Colonel Hamnelt, A.S.C., and the ease of Captain Doug- las Jones calls, they say, for explanation.
In the little Hebridean island of Mingalay the inhabitants have not paid rent or rates for years. The reason assigned for this is that the cost of citing defaulters to Lochmaddy to one of the infrequent courts held there, and of executing judgments is prohibitive. In a case at Willesden it was stated that milk containing 6 per cent. of added water was eold. Defendant said it was just as received from the farm, and was the fault of the cow! He was fined 20s. and costs. The King took third prize for shire mares foaled previous to 1903 at the Tring Agricul- tural show. In the class for shorthorn heifers calved last year his Majesty's Royal Fortune was awarded second prize.
A GRAND OLD REMEDY. H Splendid Car* WORTH writing for to-day. I COLE'S FAMILY OINTMENT. | t- «0 run1 Raputmtion. Bj = WONDERFUL foe ECZEMA, H §§ er^ESSlk Sores, Scrofula, Swellings, Erup- H pS tions, BLOOD POISONING, Bj t- tmffBKrni Sore Throats, and ALL SKIN ■ DISEASES. ■ WRITE TO-DAY and 1 NAMB THIS PAPER. ■ BBy i/ii <5- a/9, t/aU Chemists Or Stores, H Kg jrusx tk7 m. OOLE'3 SYNDICATE, Reading, g ;< feg- II.———- I
At Grimsby, John Hezekiah, a navvy, was fined 11s. for having walked into a house while the inmates were at supper, and, in spite of protest, drawn up a chair and joined in the family meal. At the foot of the Aiguille, in the Alps, the skeleton of Dora Bucheler, a German lady who disappeared thirteen years ago, has been found, together with her jewellery and other belong- ings.
Mf! nv BEN !r B 11 A MELOX acknowledged to be THE FINEST DOG FOOD IN EXISTENCE. ONE LB. OF MELOX IS EQUAL TO TWO LBS. OF BEEF. TRY IT. TO BE HAD OF ALL CORN DEALERS, GROCERS, &c. Or TEST SAMPLES FREE of the Inventors, W. G. CLARKE & SONS. LIMEMOUSE, LONDON, E. Makers by Royal Warrant TO THE KING. fllWEED SUIT LENGTHS from 2/- to 6/6 per yard, also» JL Trouserings and Costume cloths. Patterns free.— Wright and Co., Old Hill, Staffs. DIRECT. DIRECT. DIRECT. lS?rRpf £ I? 0nc o! thc Latest and Best Boots ever pTAREHOUsq made for reliable wear is our noted TO VweW P- p p 10/6 Post Paid, Specially made for Police, Postmen, Porters, and all othere whose work requires a strong, easy boot. Description Made of best possible stout Box Calf, Derby pattern, hand stabbed at tabs, with whole outside counter and calf fittings, extra stout durable soles, toe caps or plain fronts, medium, round, or square toes, thus combining everything possible for wear and comfort. In sizes 6 to 11. Don't delay, but send at once for sample pair. You will never regret it. From Messrs. GARNER & CO.'S POSTAL BOOT DEPOT, 104A, ADNITT RD., NORTHAMPTON. YAB TAB A FOR RHEUMATISM A SAFE AND CERTAIN CURE. 36 DOSES, PRICE 2/9 (Including Postage). APPLY— RHEUMATIO CURE 00., 12, HEMPSTEAD RD., WALTHAMSTOW, LONDON. BEAUTIFUL CHRYSANTHEMUMS obtained by using J3 VOSS'S SPECIAL CHRYSANTHEMUM FERTI- LIZER, 6d., 1/ •> and 4/ carriage paid.—Walter Voss and- Co., Ltd., Millwall, London. IVORY CARVINGS, Netsukis, China, Bronzes, Gongs,. Idols, Implements of Savage Warfare. Shells, and othei Curios.-Albert Edward Jamrach (late Charles Jamrach), 180 St. George-street East, London. FREE ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUES of Fancy Gold- and Silver Jewellery, Electro-plate and Cutlery, Clocks, Bronzes, Optical:and Fancy Goods of every description, will be sent to bona fide Traders upon receipt of application, accompanied by trade card or memo. Established nearlj half a century.—Address, Hird, care of, Messrs. Thompsolt and Co., 3, Bayer-street, London, E.C. CANADA.—Harvesters, 30/- to 55/- week, besides board, lodging, &c. Twelve weeks' certain work secured. Fares 96.-Send stamp, King, Haymarket-ehambers, Norwich. ￼ ￼ 'jf'MtL44'I'w ￼ ￼ ￼ to "John Strange Winter," 14, West Kensington Man- sions, London, W., asking for free particulars of J. S. W. Toilet Preparations, which never fail to beautify the Hair and skin. Write at once. DELAYS ARE DANGEROUS. PLUMS FOR PRESERVING! Pershore Egg Plums make delicious preserve. Quite equal to apricot. Direct from grower. Carriage paid to any station for P.O. 61bs. 2s., 121bs. 3s. 6d., 24lbs. 6s. 6d. Box free.—E. ROBERTS. NORTON, EVESHAM. AS BTA BANISHED FROM CHILDREN'S HA> Ml ■ ■ by three applications of Iwl I "VESEY'S SUNFLOWER POM AD ■ ™ 4d., post free large size, Is. W. H. LIVESEY,> Chemist, Preston. lO/fTSPECIAL OFFER TO LADIES! n/fi LI U YOUR JEWEL CASE PILLED FOR Lf U GREAT TEMPORARY CLEARANCEI E I For 2/i iiii'l Stumps we will send you a Beautiful Gem Ring, Brooc' Bracelet, T<on»r Neck Chain, Dainty Photo Pendant, Laco Pin. Ilnntl-ome Pair of Belt Clasps, and lovely 2-row pea'1 necklet, ariian diamond centre. .f EMPORIUM," THE HAVEN, RILLA MILL, CORNWALL RATS, RATS, RATS.P.!rmmond' Remedy for de- stroj illg KatB and Mice. Used in all the London docks, rail I ways, warehouses, and mills with great success. No sraell I 1/- and 2/- cakes. Estimates gireu far contracts. — H.C I ANDREWS, 8 & 9, Essex-street, Strand, London, W.C. A CHARMING NOVELTY. t„« "FAR" PATENT A_ 1 M (Kegd.) PATCHWORK POSTCARD. Price 2d each. IT IR an artistic card witli a square of satin attached, upon winch 1 lowers, Coats of Arms, Views of the prin- c!fS Cities and Towns in the British Isles, and Photos of Koyalties, Celebrities, Actresses, &c.. are beautifully printed in colours. (They look hand-painted.) The Satin Squares can be easily detached, and »h«n worked into Cushions, Table Centres Duchess COYCPS, Tea Cosies, Toilet Sets, Bed Spreads, &c., with beautiful effect. Ladies should ask their friends to be sur# *nd write them on the Patent "FAB" Patchwork Postcard'. Can lie obtained from Stationers, Fancy Dealers, Drap»rs, &c. If you cannot obtain FAB Postcards in your dis- trict, we will send you 6 cards, post free, for 1/ If less than 6 cards are repuired. Id. stamp must be enclosed for postage. Complete list of subjects of FAB Postcards post free on applieation. Sole Publisher: W. N. SHARPE, Bradford.
FATAL ELECTRIC SHOCK. A colliery oversman, William Walton, was, electrocuted at'the Dean and Chapter Colliery, Ferryhill, near Durham. Two boys were playing, there and got hold of one of the stay wires on. the posts to which the electric wires are con- nected. Walton, seeing the boys fast, ran and pulled them off, himself receiving a shock which proved fatal. The boys were unconscious, but. were gradually brought round by artificial re- spiration. Walton, who was thirty-nine, leaves, a widow and four children.
SOURCES OF INFECTION. So far as at present known the fungus does not form fruit, its only mode of reproduction being vegetative by means of mycelium. The way in which the fungus spreads in the soil and keeps its hold can readily be seen. When a root or tuber has become superficially coated with a felt of mycelium, sclerotia dr concen- trated masses of mycelium of two distinct kinds of structure, and having different uses, are formed. Some sclerotia are of considerable size, varying from that of a pea to a hazel nut; these become free from the root when fully formed, and remain in the soil as centres of future infection. Other sclerotia, rarely ex- ceeding the size of an ordinary pin's head, are usually produced in considerable numbers under the felt of mycelium, and in close contact with the root or tuber, to which they remain firmly attached, and are removed along with it. If such infected roots or tubers are eaten by some animal, the minute, compact sclerotia are not injured by passing through the digestive system, and are in this way often transported to new localities. In like manner new districts are often infected by means of minute sclerotia at- tached to potato tubers, carrots, etc. In some instances beans and peas are attacked while yet in the pod, and minute sclerotia are formed in the skin of the seed.
AMOUNT OF INJURY. v The amount of injury caused by the fungus varies to a great extent on different plants. In the case of beet and carrots, the mycelium soon enters the fleshy root and destroys it. In lucerne and clover the active rootlets are killed, whereas in the case of potatoes the entire sur- face of the tuber may become covered with the fungus without sustaining injury, the mycelium being unable to penetrate the skin except through a wound. When once it is through the skin, however the tuber is soon reduced to a pulp. The fungus can only develop in the pre- sence of an acid, and can therefore be held in check by the free use of lime. Good drainage and the prevention of sourness of the soil are essential features in combating the disease. Weeds should be rigorously suppressed, for they furnish the main supply of food for the fungus when a cereal crop is present. Care must be taken not to introduce the disease by means of small sclerotia adhering to seeds or tubers. Seed obtained from dry, elevated districts should be selected.
I CENTENARIAN ON SIMPLE LIFE. An old lady named Pleasance Rix, living at Sprowston, near Norwich, has just attained her 104th birthday. She has been twice married, and has outlived both her husbands. Several hours of each day she spends sitting by her bedroom window watching the people go by, while she also devotes a portion of the morning to the perusal of the daily papers. Mrs. Rix attributes her longevity to the fact that |?aS always had a contented mind, and lived in the healthy open air of the country. She swears by the simple life," but holds that it is impossible in these days. People are all after money, she says, though a lot of them won't live to get it at all, and those who do won't live to enjoy it. Bicycles she regards as dreadful things, and motor-cars as a tempting of Providence.
KEATING'S POWDER KILLS FLEAS, FLIES, MOTHS, AND BEETLES. Also Bugs, Ants. Mosquitos, and Nits in Children's hair. Harmless to anything but Insects. Sold every- where. None genuine without the signature, Thomas Keating, Chemist, London. In Tins only, 3d., 6d., and Is. Bellows (full) 9d.
TREASURE HUNTERS. The mysterious expedition which left Graves- end on board the steamer Xema, is search of treasure is not as has been declared, bound for the Cocos Islands, but has set sail for an unin- habited island situated off the coast of South- West Africa. It appears that Captain R. Jones, a trader between Cardiff and South Africa, met a Mr. Griffith, then consulting engineer to the De Beers Company, during a visit to Cape Town in 1897. Captain Jones showed his new ac- quaintance a handful of stones worth between X10,000 and X15,000 which he said he had picked up on an island off the African coast. What, however, gave peculiar interest to the find was Mr. Griffith's asesrtion that the stones, though undoubtedly diamonds, had not been taken from any known mine by reason of the difference in crystalisation. Op receiving this information Captain Jones wished immediately to charter a vessel and proceed with Mr. Griffith to the trasure island, but this Mr. Griffith was at the time unable to do, having an engagement to proceed to Tasmania. Not long after this Captain Jones died, and left all his property to a chemist named Wil- liams, bequeathing, however, a chart of the is- land, showing the latitude and longitude, to Mr. Griffith. The latter gentleman subse- quently handed over this document to a Mr. E. Kenyon Collis. These were the main inci- dents preceding the formation of "The Collis Diamond Syndicate." The steamer Xema, which belongs to Earl Fitzwilliam, was chartered to proceed to the mysterious island, her destina- tion, however, being kept a secret, even from the members of her crew. For failure to comply with some of the Cus- toms regulations a Manx-built vessel called the Catherine, fitted out for a voyage to the West Indies in search of bedded treasure, has been detained at Douglas. The evidence of the exist- ence of the treasure is said to rest upon a state- ment made twenty-eight years ago by a dying seaman to an American doctor named Davidson. An unsuccessful effort to discover it was made in 1887 by an American syndicate. The or- ganiser of the present expedition took part in that attempt. He and his present companions purchased the Catherine twelve months ago, im have repaired her and fitted her out in their spare time.
Mr. John Mathieson, ex-general manager ot the Midland Railway, died at Harrogate. "I plead guilty, your worship, but I'm as innocent as the Lord," said a prisoner at the Old-street Court. Whilst Mr. McFivish was away with the volunteers his five-year-old child fell into the river at Colchester, and was drowned. Penalties totalling over Cl35 were inflicted upon 27 bookmakers charged at Stockton-on- Tees with street-betting.