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""''''..., ! POPULAR SCIENCE.…


POPULAR SCIENCE. 1 NEW HORSK SHOE. Owing to the injury done by the nails to the hoOif of a horse, a naiflesB horse-shoe has Cor long been the aim of the inventor. A home. Bttroe carrier fitting the hoof, and to which the shoe proper can be affixed, is one of the latest attempts to solve the problem. It is out out of a single piece of mild sheet steel, J-ineh thick, and then bent into shape. The carrier consists of a toe-piece and two side bands, joined by a bolt in front. At the rear end are i cup-like depressions to receive the heels of the hoof. This keeps the carrier in pltace and obvi- ates the necessity of binding the rear ends to- gether with a cross-bar. The shoe is attached to the carrier by screws or countersunk rivets, and can be easily removed and replaced. India- rubber or leather shoes can also be attached to the carriers if desired. A HOOD FOR FIREMEN. A respiratory apparatus for firemen, invented by Mr. Charles E. Chajpin, a draughtsman who lives in Berkeley, California, consists of a hood lined with oiled eilk to coverthe head, and an air cylinder which is strapped on the back. The cylinder is divided into three chambers, carry- ing enough air under a pressure that can be re- gulated to last an hour. The air is conducted by a ruibber tube to the headpiece, the exhaled air passing out through a valve before the mouth. The fireman can get enough air to fill his lungs comfortably, but cannot expend the supply in a short time, as he might be tempted fco do if he became frightened. The main supply of air comas from the outer cylinders, the middle one being smaller and to be drawn upon only after the two others are exhausted. The ap- paratus can be adjusted on the back in half a minute, and, as it weighs only 231b., it does not impede the fireman in his work. THE HIGHEST BRIDGE. Burma possesses the highest railway bridge in the world. It is known as the Gokteik Via- duct, and is made entirely of steel. Its weight is considerably more than 4,000 tons, and it has a length of 2,260 feet, in spans of from 120 to 40 feet in length. SOUNDS UNDER WATER. The principle of the submarine telephone is the fact that sound vibrations travel at more than four times the rate of speed in the water that they do in the air, or 4,712 feet a second, as compared with 1,100 feet a, second. Every ship's hull becomes a sort of drum, on which the sound waves of the water beat their steady tattoo. Without any apparatus whatever the sailors) working on the floor of a schooner may detect the sound made by the screws of a liner two or three miles away. All that the sub- marine telephone does, therefore, is to collect the sound waves as they strike the ship's hull and then convey them to the officer on the bridge. The electric transmitters which do this are attached to the hull by being placed in a email tank filled with a chemical solution denser CTJNARDER PASSING LIGHTSHIP EQUIPPED WITH SUBMARINE SIGNAL. than water, which is fastened to the ship's inner side. The submarine bell by which the warn- ings are given is sometimes hung in the water from a lightship and operated at will by ma- chinery, or it may be suspended from a buoy and rung automatically or connected by an electric cable to a lighthouse or other station on shore. In sending signals from a ship in motion the bell is on the inside of the hull of the vessel, and is operated either by machinery or by band. A peculiarity of sound vibrations under water is that they will not travel around a corner, but move in straight lines, so the receiver in the pilot house of the steamer through which the sound of the bell comes will indicate- on which side of the vessel is the point of danger. PHOTOGRAPHY IN COLOUR. Pihotogiiaiphy in colour is not altogether new, ibult a new development of it by M. Lippmann, a professor of the Paris Sorbonne, is causing a good deal of interest in Paris. Starting from tthe theory that colours are only different vibra- tions of light, the Professor disposes his sub- jects in such a way as only to reflect vibrations of' a certain order, which are reproduced on a transparent photographic plate, a mercury reflect, to reflect a second time the image on the sensitised plate, being placed at the bottom of -the dark chamber. This Sensitised- plate is grey, and Otherwise colourless, but being set aslant in the reflector, throws on to the screen the colours of nature'. A SELF-ACTING TELEPHONE DIRECTORY. The newest idea for telephone users is based lupon the automatic annunciation- idea. It con- aWa of a circular plate on the desk, which baa upon its outer circumference spaces for from fif- teen to fifty names and telephone numibeirs. To notify the operator to call a desired number it is not necessary to shout the name through the desfc telephone and then wait while the number is loolwdup. The indicator on the dial is moved to the desired number, a bell is rung, and the office central cperaitor finds the name and num- ber indicated upon a duplicate dial. Another and similar device- for keeping telephone number ,where they are handy is intended where but a Single instrument is in use. The transmitter is surrounded by a collar formed of flanges which are lettered alphabetic-ally. On each flange there de room for a dozen names and the numbers aire always handy to the 'phone. Not Less curious iø the method adopted by the Parish Clerks' Company for distributing the toast-wines after dinner. The members and their friends dine in the quaint old hall in Silver-street at one long table, with the Master at one end and the Clerk at the other. Each of these office-bearers has before him a sort of table-waggon—two silver trays- joined and bal- anced on fouir wheels, which are pivoted in such a way as to run like a railway porter's trolley, their movements being controlled by a handle. The accompanying picture of one of them gives A TABLE WAGGON OF THE PARISH CLERKS' COMPANY. a fair idea of both, for they are as like as two peas in a pod. Each waggon carries two de- canters, on,e filled with point, and the other with sherry. When a toast is about to be drunk the Master starts a waggon on a journey down one side of the table and the Clerk puts the other waggon in motion on the opposite side of the taible. By the time all glasses are filled the Mialste-r has got the Cleric's waggon and vice versa, and each waggon in turn performs ail < £ urr>" and a "down" service, as regularly as any train—more regularly, perhaps, than some tralins. For the gift of thase vehicles! of loyalty, patriotism and friendliness the guild iis indeiMed to a famous City toa-St-master, :be latlo Daniel R. Harker, who was Master of the Parish Clerks' Company in 1849, and gave tbsio as a souvenir of his year off office. J



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j ' i 1 | SCENE IN A CHUIiCH.




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