THE HORRORS OF WAR. I The Russo-Japanese war, and the circum- stances in which it was brought to an end, Jhave afforded almost inexhaustible material rdtor reflection, and since the terms of peace -were arranged all sorts and conditions of men have been hastening to represent their -riew of the lesson which the war has taught. And yet, with the exception of the admira- tion which has been evoked by the the :magnanimity of the Mikado—as statesman- like and far-sighted as it was generous- -there is very little that is new in all that iJhas been said. When Count Leo Tolstoy ya that the soldiers neither require nor desire the fighting, that they cannot even •explain why they participate in it, he is only repeating that which was said by Oarlyle. Nearly all that can be said con- cerning the horrors and folly of war has "2>een said by John Bright, who again and .again pointed out that the advantages .which a nation may derive from war do not compensate it for the misery which -the struggle occasions-the loss of life, the Tast expenditure of money, the sufferings of the wounded, and the distress of the bereaved. But, notwithstanding all this, it may at any rate be said of the Russo- Japanese war that it has done more than any previous campaign to cause men to ask themselves whether or not there is a saner method of settling international dis- putes than that of referring them to the arbitrament of the sword, Never before have such prodigious efforts been made to bring a war to a close, and although the glory of their success is mainly President Roosevelt's, yet he could not have succeeded bad he not been supported by the public opinion of the civilised world, and pos- sibly to a larger extent than we are aware of by the influence of some European monarchs and cabinets. And now that it has been found possible to end a war, in the face of almost insuperable difficulties, it will probably be realised that something can be done, by the expansion of public opinion, to prevent wars from beginning.
Kniaz Potemkin Mutineers I at Odessa. Odessa, Friday. Ten mutineers of the Kniaz Potemkin have arrived here from Roumania; they preferred punish- ment to remaining in exile.
A Lady Drowned at Lyme Begls. Mrs. Allen, wife of Mr J. Allen,. J.P., of Lyme Regis, was drowned while bathing at Lyme Regis to*- day. t
Stocks. Stocks dull. — t ■■—~ — — -1 ■■ .T.»- Printed and Published by "THB COUNTY OBSERVER," NEWSPAPER and PRINTING COMPANY, Limited, by JAMES HENRY CLARK, at their Offices, Bridge Street, Usk, in the County of Monmouth, Satarclag, September 9th, 1905.
The High-Class Washing Material Viyeila (Reg'd) Does not shrink. jHm For Shirts, Blouses, Night-Dresses, Dressing Gowns, etc. (See the Label on thl Selvedge.) To be obtained from all leading Drapers, or name of nearest sent on application to *Viyella' (M. H.) Friday St. London, E.C. "Yiyelia" Hosiery Underwear can also be obtained.
THE BERLIN PRESS. By the irony of fate the strained relations between Britain and Germany have, to some extent, been relaxed by the courtesy and tact of the officers of the respective fleets, the very men whose business it would be to fight one against the other, if war were to break out between the two countries. The action of these officers tends to shew that civilisation is making some progress in Europe, and, if other people would follow their example, there would be less danger of such conflicts as that which has been recently brought to a close in the Far East. It is impossible to refer to this incident without acknowledg- ing the graceful compliment which the German Emperor paid to Britain in sus- pending the naval manoeuvres in order that his ships might welcome ours; but seeing that gratitude is said to be a lively sense of favours to come, we may as well remind the Emperor that he is in a position to render a further service to the cause of peace by restraining the Berlin Press from publishing offensive articles concerning this country. We have not yet seen the sugges- tion, which we expected, that Britain exchanged Heligoland with the Germans, because she knew it would be gradually washed away into the sea, but pretty well everything else has been said that could occur to a writer anxioqs to say all the ill that he could of this country. This is one of the points which should be borne in mind by those who are asking at the present moment what can be done to pre- serve the peace of the world, but happily there is some reason to hope that Govern- ments are becoming less and less influenced by the writings of thoughtless scribes on the subject of international difficulties, or j by the clamour of an excited mob. I
IQQLD AND DRUGS" ACTS. I The weakness of the Food and Drugs' Acts have frequently been demonstrated in police courts, where they have been shewn to produce results which could never have been contemplated by the legislature. There is no evidence that the manifold defects of the Acts are likely to be removed in the early future, but meanwhile the Medical Officers of several of the Metro- politan Boroughs are adding their testimony to the need for revision. One of them points out how the law is defeated by vague notices that no guarantee is given as to the purity of the article sold, and adds that not only do these intimations meet the requirements of the statute but they appear to praise the quality of the goods. Another Medical Officer of Health remarks that dishonest traders escape official detec- tion by supplying only a genuine article to a chance buyer, while, at the same time, they reserve their adulterated goods for the regular customer who is known to them as not likely to be in collusion with the inspector. It is further complained that in some courts the penalties inflicted are so small that they afford no deterrent to dishonesty.
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FOR OUR HEALTH'S SAXE. One wonders what the people who are almost dying of starvation think of the sug- gestion of a gentleman at Oswestry who advises us all to fast for the good of our health. For many years this writer has confined himself to two meals a day, and to this regimen he attributes the excellent health which he enjoys at a time when old age is approaching. The majority of people it is to be feared, would refuse entirely to accept this gentleman's diet table, while others would fare but badly if they did adopt it. Probably the case is similar to that of which a well-known Lon- don physician said The people who ought not to abstain altogether are tee- totalers, and those who ought to abstain are not."
Literature. I The September number of the Lady's World gives amongst its photographs the Crown Princess of Roumania, the Countess of Kinnoull, the Countess of Albemarle, Mrs Ian Ginlay, Miss Gertie Millar, now acting in The Spring Chicken," Miss Minnie Terry, Miss Fanny Brough, Miss Jessie Millward, and Mr Rutland Barrington. Some excellent hints on "Dress Rejuvenation" and a variety of styles in blouses, costumes and miUinery, together with designs and instructions for fancy work, and floral table decoration make up a good number.
Monmouthshire Hunt Puppy Show. The annual puppy show in connection with the Monmouthshire Hunt was held on Wednesday at the kennels at Coldbrook, the residence of Colonel Bleiddian Herbert, M. F. H. The judges were Colonel Carre, M.F.H., Chepstow: Mr F. T. Foster, M.F.H., Staffordshire; and Mr Reeves, huntsman Radnor and West Hereford Hunt. The following were the result3 Bitches; 1st, "Frisky," walked by Mrs Padersen, Roy 1 Oafe, Monmouth 2nd, "Frolic," walked by Mr J. Hall, Monmouth. Dogs: lst, "Foreman," walked by Mr Hyam, King's Head, Monmouth; 2nd, Lucifer," walked by Mr Williams, Llanover; 3rd, "Lexicon," walked by Mr Evans, the Crown, Raglan. A challenge cup, given by Mr Arthur Herbert, was won by Frisky." Luncheon was served in the hall at Coldbrook, and amongst the Company were the Marquess of Abergavenny, Colonel Walwyn, and Captain R. Powell Rees.
I The Gleaner. I BRITISH CHAMBERS or COMMERCE.—The annual I meeting of the members of the British Associated I Chambers of Commerce was opened at Liege on I Tuesday. I
Tragedy at Penarth. I Mr E. B. Reece held an inquest at Penarth on Tuesday on the body of Mr George Edward Wilson, son of Mr Thomas Wilson (Messrs Thomas and Wilson), of Hill's Plymouth Colliery Company, Cardiff, who resided at 39, Plymouth-road, Penarth. and was killed the previous day on Penarth cliff. Mr Albert Thomas Wilson, brother of deceased. identified the body. He said his brother was 23 years of age, and a mining engineer. He was fond of geology, and was in the habit of examining the cliffs. He was a very hard worker up to the time of his death. John Buckland, groom. 16, Plassey-street, said he was walking along the cliffs from Penarth to Lavernock about half-past ten on Monday. He saw deceased walking in front of him, about 500 yards away. He did not see him fall. Witness was in the company of another man, who drew his atten- tion to the umbrella hanging on the railing between the field and the path. Witness and his friend looked about, and, not seeing anyone near, they looked over the cliff, and law the body on the beach. Witness ran back to the Esplanade, but could not get to the body owing to the tide. He gave infor- mation to Charles Birch, who went to the spot in a boat. The cliffs were very steep, and there was no fence or hedge between the cliffs and the path. Charles Birch, boatman, said he rowed to the spot indicated, and found that deceased was unconscious and bleeding from the nostrils and ears. The body was taken to the yacht club-house, and a doctor sent for. Mr Wilson died in about half an hour. Dr. Mullholland said there was a fracture of the skull, but no bones were broken, though there were some alight contusions. In his opinion deceased must have fallen head foremost, and struck the beath in that position. It was remarkable that deceased was not killed outright. Death was due to injuries from falling over the cliff. The jury returned a verdict of ''Accidental death," and expressed sympathy with the relatives.
Enquiries on Thursday, at Tredegar Park, show that his lordship ie progressing towards I recovery.
I NUBSBUT RHYMES. fl Would appear that our forefathers Kate so monopolised the field of nursery rhymes that no idea has been left for moderns to work upon. "Sing a Song of Sixpence" is as old as the sixteenth century. Three Blind Mice" is found in a music book dated 1609. "The Frog and the Mouse" was licensed in 1580. Three Children Sliding on the Ice" dates from 1639. London Bridge is Broken Down" is of un- fathomable antiquity. Boys and Girls Come Out to Play" is certainly as old as the reign of Charles II., as is also "Lucy Locket Lost Her Pocket," to the tune of which the American aong of Yankee Doodle" was written. "Pussy Cat, Where Have You Been?" is one of the age of Queen Bess. "Little Jack Horner" is older than the seventeenth century. The Old Woman Tossed in a Blanket" is of the reign of James II., to whom it is said to allude. Many otheit rhymes have interesting historiea, «
Down PIKS. Xneienl temples of Egypt are supposed 10 contain the oldest timber in the world, in the shape of dowel pins, which are incorporated with stone work, known to be not IOBS than 4,000 years old. These dowel pins are thought to have been made from the tamarisk or shittim wood—in ancient times a sacred tree in Egypt, and now occasionally found in the taflgl 9* thp Nile.
I X CvKova COAL STJPPLT. Among the flotsam and jetsam cast up by the restless ocean, there is nothing more remarkable in its way than the vast quantities of coal that are deposited with every spell of rough weather, from the mouth of the Tees to the Hartlepools, a distance of over three miles, these deposits lie ia huge quantities on the foreshore; but there is, perhaps, no < point on the north-east coast more favoured in this respect than the Bay of Hartlepool, where the set of the tide brings in the coal in enormous drifts after a gale of strong easterly wind. No satisfactory solution has been adduced as to the source of thi9 strange harvest of the sea, and while some attribute it to the friction of the waves upon the exposed surface of a supposititious seam of coal lying deep in the ocean bed, the more probable theory is that it is the product of the innumerabl e wrecks which have occurred on this part of the coast in bygone generations. In the days before the advent of eteamers, the coal carrying trade between the Tyne and the Thames was performed by fleets oi wooden ships known as colliers. There waa no flimaoU at that time, the shipowner had a free hand, and it is to be feared that, as hit cargo was invariably over-insured, he cared little whether the vessel reached its destination or not. Be this as it may, it is undeniably true that winter storms took terrible toll of these aranky craft, which were often run ashore and left to break up at the pleasure of the elements, ML* a result of these ever-recurring dimastark thousands upon thousands of tons of coal were deposited at the bottom of the North Sea, and it is from this source, doubtless. that the large Snntities of the mineral come, which' now find eir way on to the (suhozs all along the CQ*li trout Tine to Tees,
I T.8 BUJlU BoDY. I The muscles of the human body exert a force* 5341b. The quantity of pure water which blood contains in ita natural state is very great; it amounts to almost seven-eighths. The blood is a tfth the weight of the body. A man is taller in the morning than at night to the extent of half- an-inch or more, owing to the relaxation of the cartilages. The human brain is the twenty-eighth part of the body, but in the horse the brarn is not taMNre than the 400th. Tn South American negroes have a queer way of decorating the graves of their dead friends. It is the custom down there to make a border round the grave of the medicine bottles used during the dead one's last illness. TLBBT of vessels, is engaged from January to August each year in the capture of sharks near Ioeland. Only the livers are sought, -l^&t of each yields five gallons of oil, which has medi- ainal virtues resembling those of cod liver Oil.
.Fov Printing of all Descriptions I try the County Observer Office. |
Property Sale at Usk. At the Three Salmon's Hotel, this (Friday) afternoon, Messrs Marfell and Poole offered for sale by auction two lots of freehold property. Lot 1 consisted of the freehold dwelling-house, with garden at rear, known as Portland House," situate in Bridge Street, Usk, and now in the- occupation of Mr R. A. Rogers.—Withdrawn. Lot 2 comprised a freehold cottage and garden, with outhouse and pigstye, situate at the King. coed, Llandenny, and in the occupation of Mra. Blake at a rental of 5 4s per annum.—Mr Henrys Morgan, Cardiff, L120. Messrs Gustard and Waddington and Messrs- Watkins and Co were the vendors' solicitors', respectively.
Missionaries in Tokio. New York, Friday. The Mission authorities here feel no anxiety for the Missionaries im Tokio. It is expected that Japan will apologise for stone throwing at Mission Houses. —
The Baku Disorders. St. Petersburg. M. Nobel, of Baku, declares that, the real cause of the Baku dis- orders is the slow progress made with the reform schemes.
I British Fleet at Copenhagen. Copenhagen, Friday. The British Fleet arrived here at ten o'clock this morning. The city and the ships in the harbour- are gaily decorated. The news- papers publish articles heartily ee welcoming the fleet.
Elgin Burghs Election. Polling for the Elgin Burghs opened this morning in fine weather There is much excitement. In the. early hours, an unexpectedly large, number voted and a heavy poll is. certain.
North Belfast Election. Nominations for North: Belfast, are fixed for Tuesday next and polling for Thursday.
The Weather. Changeable, showery weather predicted. -.0 I
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I SECOND AND THIRD CLASSES ON LINERS. Year by year we read fresh announce- ments of the launch of the "largest liner hitherto constructed." and during the past few days the record has once again been broken by the Hamburg-American liner Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, which was launched in the presence of the Emperor and Empress of Germany. This vessel has a capacity of no less than 21,000 tons, and provides accommodation for 5,000 persons including 600 officers and men of the crew. According to the reports which reach us, the owners and builders of the new liner have not exhausted all their efforts upon the provision for the first-class passengers. If that is so, the ahip is not likely to lack passengers. The people who travel second or third class, in the majority of other liners, are firmly convinced that they do not receive their due share of attention, and are not slow to express their dissatisfaction. It is quite possible that some of the griev- ances are imaginary, but, however that may be, the dissatisfaction is very real, and the owners of any ships that made a serious attempt to remove all such causes of com- plaint would probably reap a rich reward.
The Future of Japan. 1 Reuter's correspondent in Tokio tele- graphed that the most striking feature of the reception of the news from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was "the remarkable absence of rejoicing," and it would appear from the details which he communicated that there was among the people of Japan a feeling of dejection at the generosity of the terms. This feeling was reflected in the Japanese Press, it being frankly said that the terms were not such as to satisfy the people of the island Empire. It must have been painful to the Mikado to find himself for once out of sympathy with the subjects who have been accustomed to regard him with almost superstitious veneration; but, looking at the matter impartially, as we are in a position to do, there is good reason to believe that the Mikado had the most en- lightened apprehension of the interests of the Empire. No nation ever stood IN A FIERCER LIGHT I than that which has beaten upon the Japanese during the past two years. In the capitals of Europe the opinion was rife that they were a race of semi-barbarians, and it must be confessed that in the course of the war with China there were one or two events which favoured the view that the Japanese did not altogether respond to the canons of western civilisation. But with or without reason, Continental Europe neither liked nor trusted the Japanese. To the majority it was sufficient that they were Asiatics, and that in modern times it had never been the practice to count Asiatics among the civilised peoples. Of course, one might attempt to answer these objections by reference to the recent history of the Japanese, and to the fact that in the last campaign they showed themselves the equals of European nations, not only in the science of war, but in humanity, and in loyalty to their engagements. Had they been a European people the evidence in that respect would have suffered, but in any event there was still the feeling indefinite, but none the less powerful in its effect, which was described in the familiar lines of Tom Brown:- I do not love thee, Doctor Fell, The reason why I cannot tell But this alone I know full well, 1 do not love thee, Doctor Fell," A prejudice based upon such grounds as these, unreasonable as they appear to us, was not easily removed, and no doubt the people who entertained it would have pre- ferred that Japan should enable them to point to the harshness of the terms offered to Russia, as a confirmation of the dislike and suspicion with which they had regarded the nation, who, I WITH ALMOST METEORIC SUDDENNESS, I had proved itself superior in naval and military science to one of the Great Powers. If the Mikado saw all this, he was superior in discernment to the majority of his subjects, and at one stroke he accelerated the progress of Japan a quarter of a century. Whatever the Japanese Press, or the historians of the present may say, the historians of the future will render justice to the wisdom of the Emperor, and indeed it is tolerably certain that within the next two or three years the people of Japan will perceive that his Majesty was right when he attached a greater importance to the future of his Empire than to the attainment of some present advantages. In the early future, if we mistake not, the Japanese will thank their Emperor for an invention which must secure for them European recognition, as being entitled to a place among the great nations of the world, and at the same tim6 enable them to I CONCENTRATE THEIR ENERGIES I upon the arts of peace. No doubt it was important that Japan should obtain fair terms at the conference, but it was still more important that she should enter as soon as possible upon the task, to which she will be fully equal, of demonstrating to the world that she can be as great in peace as in war. Japan, as Count Okuma has said, is at the dawn of one of those eras which shape the fate of a people," and in that era of progress she is destined to go far.
Carbolic Poisoning. I At Abertillery Police-station, on Wednesday, Mr J. B. Walford, coroner, held an inquest touching the death of William Henry Pearce, 25, collier, who was found staggering in the street on Monday evening, and was taken to the police- station, where he died the aame night from the effects, it was stated, of carbolic acid poisoning. Dr Ritchie, assistant to Dr Rooyn Jones, J.P., stated that on Monday evening, about 7.30, he was called to the police-station, where he found Pearce lying on the floor in the charge-room, with his clothes on, and in an unconsciouii condition. Deceased was drunk. Witness did not notice any- thing else at that time; except that there was a small contused and abrased wound on the head. He gave deceased a powder, which remained on the tongue and made him sick. At about eight o'clock witness returned, and was shown the bottle produced, containing carbolic acid, and by that time there was a distinct odour of carbolic acid coming from deceased's mouth. There were no other signs of poisoning. Dr Jones attended Pearce later, and the stomach-pump was used, but deceased did not recover consciousness, and died about half-past eleven the same night. He and Dr Jones conducted a post-mortem, and found the atomach much distended with fluids, and it was also found to smell very markedly of carbolic acid. Death was not in any way directly due to drunkenness. Edwin Price, chemist, gave evidence as to selling a 6oz. bottle of carbolic acid to the deceased at about 3.45 p.m. on Monday last. Margaret Pearce, wife of the deceased, said they were married a month ago. Before their marriage deceased used to drink a lot, but recently he had been attending the Salvation Army meetings. Witness said she would have starved but for her father, as deceased had only giren her 5a. on the day of their marriage and t2 a fortnight after- wards. A verdict of Suicide while temporarily insane was returned.
I The Unemployed Problem. I The cry of the unemployed is heard most loudly in West Ham, but in other parts of London, and in some of the provincial towns, grave apprehension is felt with regard to the prospects of the approaching winter. That apprehension is not allayed, but rather very much increased, by statistics which have been published in reference to the number of persons in receipt of the roor Law relief at the end of July, which in England and Wales (allowing for in- crease of population) was larger than it has been at any corresponding date since 1898. Taking London by itself, we find that the number of persons in receipt of relief was greater than it has been at the end of any July during the past thirty years. But, deplorable as the figures are, they do not represent the whole truth. For many years it has been the practice in a large number of unions to offer "THE HOUSE TEST" I to applicants for out-relief. In this way, the number of persons in receipt of out- relief has been decreased, and a consequent reduction effected in the total number of persons receiving relief from the rates. This policy is particularly marked in the Metropolis, where there are 24.6 recipients of relief to every thousand of population, 15.4 being in the workhouse, and 9.2 relieved outside. If the old proportion had been maintained, it is evident that the recipients of out-relief would be much more numerous, but it is well known that there are many thousands of persons who will suffer any privation rather than enter the workhouse. There have been, no doubt, an abundance of applicants for out-relief, but because they have refused to go into the house" it does not at all follow that there has been an amelioration in the condition of the poor. In West Ham alone, the register prepared by the Unemployed Committee shows that no fewer than 15,000 persons- breadwinners and their dependents-are in need of help. To this total must be added the clerks and others who do not wish to make their poverty known by entering their names on the register. There is some reason to hope that the case of West Ham is exceptional, because it is to East London that there drift a large proportion of the immigrants from the country, who find before very long that they have MADE THEIR POSITION WORSE by leaving the rural districts for London. There are other parts of the Metropolis where the distress is acute, and in some of the provincial towns coming events have begun to cast their shadows before. It is obvious that if there is not sufficient work, the actual distress must be relieved by doles. In some Metropolitan boroughs the plan is adopted of accelerating work which might have been delayed,, but it is only relieving the present distress by reducing the amount of employment that will be available at some future time. The position is very much the same with regard to schemes for providing work of a similar character to that which is already being done, it being obvious that if the demand is limited, any addition to the ranks of the workers in that particular industry must result in throwing others out of employment. Of course the case would be different if men could be started on some new task such as WIDENING AND DEEPENING THE CANALS, but otherwise the supposed remedy is but the old, unsatisfactory expedient of robbing Peter to pay Paul. While present distress must be dealt with at once, at the same time we require some permanent remedy, and in this connection we find that the only proposals which have received much atten- tion are those for farm colonies and emigration, the one being regarded in some instances as preparatory to the other. Of the two, emigration can scarcely be de- scribed as a remedy for the individual, it is rather a cutting of the Gordian knot. Without doubt there are hundreds of thousands of the poor who would be in- comparably better off in our Colonies than they are in the foul slums of the East End; but they shrink from leaving their native land, and it would be much more satis- factory to all concerned if remunerative work could be found for them on the land in Britain. That is a problem which the country is just now trying to solve, with the assistance of Mr Rider Haggard, and the report of the Committee on the subject will be awaited with extreme interest. But whatever remedy is tried, this, at least, should be remembered, that what we do we should do quickly.
An Old Offender. I At Brecon, William Peel, who was lately com. mitted for trial for a series of burglaries at Griffithstown, was charged with burglariously entering the house of the Rev Cattwg Davies, pastor of the Congregational Chapel, Pennarth, near Brecon, and atealing therefrom one fountain- pen, one pair of celluloid cuffs, one pair of mothei-o'-pearl sleeve links, one pair of solitaires, one pair of socks, and Al Is 6d. The Rev Cattwg Davies stated that on August 11th, he retired to bed about eleven p.m. He fastened the windows, and the doors were locked. When he got up next morning he found. the kitchen window open, and that a small writing- case had been removed from the front room, and was on the kitchen floor. All the papers in the desk were scattered about. In his study all the drawers in a bureau had been taken out and placed on the floor, and the contents turned topsy-turvy. Missing from one of the drawers was d61 Is 6d in gold and silver and some odd coppers. The purse which contained the money was left behind. Prisoner was committed for trial at the next Assizes.
Peace Riots in Japan. I Telegrams from Tokio state that on Tues- day popular discontent with the terms of peace led to a great demonstration in the Hibiya Park, attended by about 100,000 persons. The meeting was preceded by a conflict with the police, and subsequently the mob attacked the offices of the principal semi-official journal, which has supported the Government in making peace, and did a good deal of damage. The worst scene occurred at the official residence of the Minister of the Interior, which was set on fire and the fire brigade's efforts to extinguish the flames were ob- structed by volleys of stones. Several police stations were burnt, and the tram lines were blocked. On Wednesday night further disorders occurred and ten Christian churches and a mission school were destroyed by the mob. Martial law has been proclaimed and the Imperial Guard has been called out to aid the police. Several hundreds of people in- cluding 200 policemen, are stated to have been injured, and the discontent seems to be general all over Japan.
To Safeguard Englishmen at I Baku. The British Ambassador at St.. Petersburg has wired to the Vice- roy of the Caucasus requesting him; to take energetic steps to safe- guard English lives and property at Baku. Additional troops have left for the spot.