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FIELD AND FARM. i IIIIr

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FIELD AND FARM. IIIIr EARLY SPRING NOTES. The wheats have improved rapidly and indi- cate (Prof. John Wrightson points out in his valuable. "Seasonable Notes" in the" Agricul- tural Gazette") the advantages of a dry winter and an early spring. Farming prospects are un- usually bright, but particularly so where the major part of the spring corn was got in before the rains. In some cases this important work was finished. There can be no doubt that close folding with sheep delays sowing, and it is better not to attempt sowing corn wheel, land is still carrying sheep in April. Probably this area- is not large, and if it is ploughed, dressed, and drilled with mangel instead of corn the return will be a good deal better. Such land ought to be clean, and certainly would be well manured and in prime order for producing 30 to 40 tons per acre of mangel without damaging or much tillage. Mangel drilled about the third week in April stands a, very much better chance of pro- ducing & satisfactory crop than oats or barley sown at the same time, and would be of greater value. Neither is it necessary to confine the -cultivation of this root to good land, as anyone imows who has witnessed' the successful growth of mangel on the rolling uplands of the Lincoln- shire wolds. The evils of sowing corn late are palpable. The risk is great from drought, and charlock invades such crops to a serious extent. The system of double-rooting on late folds. is capable of variation, for a good piece of early turnips after late fed turnips is easily obtained and makes an excellent preparation for wheat, to be followed by barley. Mangel cultivation is one of the principal operations now before farmers, and the sooner winter-fallowed land is •cross-ploughed and cleaned for the reception of the seed, the better will be the prospects! of a good crop. Some people object to mangel as an expensive crop, hut if it is expensive it is very valuable and can be converted into money if the supply is beyond the requirements of this farm. One of the. gravest imputations against roots is that they contain 80 per cent, of water, and certainly it is a serious consideration that every 100 tons of roots contains ninety tons of Jmne water. This objection is, however, much ess serious in the case of mangel than of either swedes and turnips, as mangel is most useful from April to July during hot, dry weather. If by its use we save carting water, that alone is j a recommendation, but, in addition to this, cattle and sheep delight in it and greatly miss it when it is finished. Mangel suits every kind of stock. It has saved many a valuable- horse from a fatal attack of colic or inflammation, and ought to be allowed in every cart stable. Sows do well upon mangel where wash is scarce, and a heap should be made near every pig-yard. Cattle do well upon mangel after February, or after swedes have passed their prime, and cows may be fed upon it without any danger of giving a rank flavour to the milk or butter. As for sheep, they always do well on mangel after this season of the year. When swedes become effete, as they are already doing, a few mxucgel scattered over the folds will be greedily eaten, and when the sheep are transferred to grass or winter-sown forage crops mangel is a great advantage. A very experienced ram breeder expressed' his opinion that in summr mangel is as good as cake, not weight for weight, but in the proportions usually given of each. For home consumption in the sprinr and summer, mangel is worth 10s. per ton, and for sale it generally commands about 14s. per iton in place. It is therefore a valuable crop, and as the season for sowing it ;s approaching it is well to draw attention to its I merits. TO OBTAIN WEIGHT OF CATTLE. The following rules (remarks the Rural Word") may be apnlied to estimate the weight of live animals Take a string, put it around the beast, standing square, just behind the shoulder blade. Measure on a foot rule- the feet and inches the animal is in circumference. This is called the girth. Then with the string measure from the bones of the tail, which plumbs the, line with the hinder part of the buttock; direct the Ene along the back to the fore part of the shoulder blade. Take the dimensions on the foot rule as before, which is the length, and work the figures in the following manner Girth of the bullock, 6ft. 4in.; length, 5ft. 3in., which multiplied together, make 31 square superficial feet, that multiplied by 23-the number of pounds allowed to each superficial foot of cattle measuring less than seven and more than five in girth—.makes 7131b. Where the animal measures less than nine aónd more than seven feet in girth. 31 is the number of pounds to each superficial foot. Again, suppose" a. pig or any small beast should measure 2ft. in girth and 2ft. along the back, which multiplied together make four square feet: that multiplied by ll-the number of pounds allowed for each square foot of enttle measuring less than 3ft. in girth- makes* 441b. Again, .suppose, a calf or sheep should measure 4ft. 6in. in girth, and 3ft. 9in. in length, multi- plied together, makes 16V square feet: that multiplied by 16-the number of pounds allowed I to all cattle measuring less than 6 and more than 3ft. in eirtb-makes 2641b. CHEESE-MAKING HERDS. I It is time that clie-dcleiking farmers set tueir houses in order, and one matter not to be over- looked is to see that their herds fare well. Cows heavy with calf need extra feeding in bleak spring weather, and any neglect here may lessen the flow of milk for half the season—milk needed sobady in the cheese-tub. In buying recruits for the herds I would point out that free milkers generally pay best, so leog as there be youth on their sidle, because although cream must rise thick on the butter-maker's milk, a big volume of the latter, even at expense of ibutter-fat is desirable for cheese. Calves from these cows should, be disposed of pretty ipremipitv, even as soon as bulk of the herds ■have calved, for it does not pay to keep vounasters on cows when with tne lacteal fluid there is better fish to fry., Cheese-making well managed is a profitable branch still left to the -farmer-none more. THE SWINE HERD. There is a better time coming for pig farmer's. The end of the slump is nearly come, and beginning of the boom in trade is near at hand. Tb&re is no time of the year much better for farrows to come than now, for they get sa able when dlairy folks, peasantry, and many other folks are in the market looking out for stock to fill their styes, or, at lea,st, to eat up waste food from dairy and garden. Require- ments of these young farrows in April are nutritious, easilv digestible food as soon as they begin to feed on solids, and until then, especial attention ought to be paid to feeding the mothers so as to push the milk flow. Again, a thigh, dry, warm: bed of good wheat or -oaten aw, gpod drainage to the styes, and enough Tentila,ti,o-n axe essentials. No pigs come on properly in la, stuffy stye. It is quite pra,c- tkivble to gllve plenty of fresh air, associated with warmth, during the present month. GRASS LAND. There is thee usual work on grass land, and promise of n. fruitful season is good. Rough srafis should be grazed off by hungry store stock to pastures with even face for fattening stock present to leave the yards. All hedging, ditching, and, draining ought to be hastily concluded, and any moles disfiguring, swards may he caught up. Meadows have to be generally made tidy for the scythe, and all stock must be removed therefrom, else swth will -be all too light.

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