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FIELD AND FARM. j

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FIELD AND FARM. j BREEDING COWS. Now that so much arable land has been laid down to grass the breeding of horned stock natu- rally (remarks Mr. J. T. Bird in the "Agricul- tural Gazette") receives more concentrated at- tention than it did when the corn crop was the main dependence of the farmer, and consequently the breeding-cow looms prominently upon the agricultural horizon, the more particularly ao as she forms a most profitable section of the stock of the present-day paying farm. Upon every farm where the breeding of horned stock is made a feature of the holding, whether the scale upon which it is pursued be a large or a small one, it should be the business of the farmer to make perfectly sure, so far as it possible for him to do so, that the cows that he keeps for breeding pur- poses are as well suited to that purpose as ia- practicable, so far as he can judge. But in the considering of the cow kept for breeding pur- poses it must be remembered that there is a fea- ture present that is absent in other kinds of stock, a feature that much modifies the manage- ment as a rule, and that the farmer having a living to make from off his holding must needs pay attention to. This feature is the yield of milk over and above what is necessary for the rearing of the progeny. Take the brood mare as an instance. If a mare brings up her foal in good style, that is all that is required of her so far as her milking qualities are concerned. Now, the cow kept specially for breeding is required not only to rear her own progeny, in a great measure, at any rate, but she is also expected to provide mitk for sale or use, over and above that required for rearing purposes. Of course, there are exceptions to this rule, but this does not ,alter the fact that the great majority of breeding- cows are expected to do more than simply to breed and rear. The first essential is a breeding- cow is that she possesses a, sound constitution, for an animal that is at all weak, no matter how she may stand as regards other matters, is not the animal for the ordinary farmer to favour. The choice of breed should be subservient to the special requirements of the farmer, ever bearing in mind that he will have to sell his progeny as well as to produce it. Choice of breed settled. look out for animals that whilst not necessarily show animals are nevertheless fairly typical of ,the breed that they are supposed to represent, and not simply a caricature of it. Should money be not plentiful enough to admit of the buying of adults of cood enough quality, go further back and get yearlings, or even newly-dropped calves, rather than shuffle on with stock that is below the mark in any way. And now a word or two as to pedigree stock. If the purpose of breeding is for the butcher, pedigree cows give mo advantage over rightly-bred cows of 'the right type that have not been registered. If, on the. other hand, however, it is desired to breed ani- mals for sale for stock purposes, pedigree cows mean increased profits, particularly when the breeder gets to be well known. It goes' without saying that cows kept primarily for stock pur- poses should be good milkers, judged that is by the standard of the breed they_ belong to, for milk means money in one fashion or another, and in the case of milking breeds milking dams means that the heifers produced will probably develop into milkers of more than ordinary merit. A breeding-cow should be a regular breeder, or if not she should be quitted and one more de- pendable installed in her place. When a cow regularly goes for a length of time between calv- ing-time and mating successfully she is kept to ihe detriment of the breeder, the ordinary breeder that is. Breeding-cows should not be kept too long on hand, but there is no rule in. the matter, for some beasts will breed regularly and produce strong calves when several years old, whilst some will begin to fail at the sixth calf or DO. Of course, many cow keepers quit their cows at about the third calf, this being a good plan where it is the aim of the farmer to sell the cows to the best advantage, but where breeding is the main aim, a cow will pay to keep as a, rule until she has had many more calves than three. Breed- ing cowa need proper housing, and to be well fed and properly looked after. They should tiot be dogged, and they should be neither over-driven nor driven too long distances at once. WINTERING HORSES. On most farms where horses are bred or kept for use, there is almost certain ("F." observes) to be a few of various ages which are not worked, and are consequently left out in th« fields to shift for themselves as much as possible, and, owing to the very forward state fe* which most farmers have got the work on the arable portion: of the farm, the number will probably be higher than usual this winter. With farms having plenty of grass land a winter's run for a lot of horses is easily given, provided the gates and fences are good and they can be kept from join- ing in the chase should fox hounds in full cry cross the farm or the field. But it does not do tc put young and old together indiscriminately, such as foals with two or three-year-olds, or elderly in-foal mares with playful young animals which have never been sobered down by solid work. To do this is to court mishaps from the outset. The warmest paddock with a shed which contains a manger, and near enough the home- stead to be littered frequently, should be given to foals which have only recently come off the teat, and which it is important to give a good start in order that size mav be obtained. Two good baits per day should be given and a little long hay at night, with a lump of rock salt to tick at will and good water within reach. They should have been haltered before leaving the dam, but if not, take an early opportunity of putting one on, and handling them, so that im case of illness, or necessity, they are tractable. Yearlings which have been done as indicated during their first winter get through by another, and are therefore better able to "rough it so that they may be taken further afield and treated to one bait and one foddering of hay. On good land two and three-year-olds will get through with some real good hay, and may be put to- gether, but of course, if the land is poor and the j grass very scanty, or if the early spring shows are aimed at, the ciiaff and corn feeding must be resorted to. Mares which are carrying foal should, H at ail possible, have a field to themselves where they can enjoy life in their own way, which they can- not with restless young stock, but they should not be forgotten and allowed to get below par, ■especially when the country is as full of old ana new hay ricks as it is just now. Ou ploughed farms, where horses are most of all needed, the wintering .business is not quite so easy, but still, possible, if roomy yards and goo-* sheds exist on them. The dividing should take place and is even more necessary, as the weakest go to the wall," or more often, outside the shed" while the strong eat the best of the provender. To the hay and straw chaff crushed oats and beans, a few handfuls of well-cleaned and pulped roots may be added, carrots prefer- XrvriK mJgels. (It might be men- tioned here tfc»t a piece of field carrots is worth a good deal to the horse owner, and sho aid be grown if convenient.) On such farms there 1 usually some good horse-hay mad« from rotation mixtures, and litter also, which «.dd to their comfort, In some districts winter grass keeping is obtained by those who have no facilities for wintering horses at home, but it sometimes hap- pens that animals sent right away to keep come hack in a far worse condition than was antici- pated. and take a lot of time and) fo^oget them strong, which ,s no saving. Whether at home or elsewhere, a thriving condition should be maintained. I

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