P f P A 11 Bit IN OUR SEXT ISSUE, OF THE DistriMon of County Medals, &c., At Monmoutla, M COX.NI.CNOX Wrrff THE Agricultural department OF THE Monoioullishire Education Com- mittee. I tit
| Cost 1/—Save 10/^1 Wood-Milne Fatigue and Double them Revolving MAntCCreatar ￼ !.m!!)!!))-m ￼ ￼ Comfort ￼ = ￼ ￼ M' Smarter AppearanoL Ap, IBILABILY FIXED. ^f^^ordinary ordinary wear. RO"8 Cenutne S n ■j faoa^SoUl ovary- ^PECl ALQUALIllCr f*
I THE UNEMPLOYED. In view of the depression from which London and many of the provincial towns are suffering, it is interesting to glance at the German method of relieving the un- employed, as detailed in the report of Mr D. F. Schloss. which has been published by the Board of Trade. The inquiries of Mr Schloss have embraced other European States, but Germany, the most highly or- y e, ganised country in Europe, was a pioneer in systematic efforts to ameliorate the con- dition of the unemployed, and the measures taken in other countries have followed largely upon the lines which she has adopt- ed. As in great Britain, so in Germany, we find the Trade Unions extending help to their unemployed members, but this pro- vision, of course, leaves untouched a great number of non-unionistw, and un-organised labourers. For these some sporadic at- tempts have been made to provide by a systen of insurance against non-employ- ment, which is not by any means self- supporting, and depends for such success as it has obtained upon the subsidies of the municipal authority. Labour colonies which are advocated in this country by many people who speak with authority, have been tried very largely in Germany. Mr Schloss, having gone into the subject for the second I time, is still of opinion that they are in that country not so much colonies of the un- employed as receptacles for the social wreckage There is, however, some room for believing that the cases of Britain and Germany are not in this respect analogous, because the suggestion of the majority of those who advocate such institutions at home is that they should be made the means of qualifying men for agricultural labour, whether in this country or in those of our colonies abroad, where agriculture is by far the leading industry. That that which is applicable to the one country is inapplicable to the other is confirmed by the usefulness in Germany of Labour Regis- tars, which have never been a very marked success in Britain.
I THE AMERICAN ELECTION. I There were, no doubt, several reasons why the Presidential election in the United States did not evoke quite so much excite- ment as usual. For one thing the party issues were not particularly marked, the tariff question being for the time in abeyance, and the only question con- cerning which any controversy could be raised being the comparative worth of the candidates. With such a personal issue, the advantage was all on the side of Mr Roosevelt. He has stood since 1901 in the fierce light that beats upon the White House, and has conported himself in such a manner as to afford little scope for the criticisms of the forces arrayed against him. He is, undoubtedly, a very able man, he believes thoroughly in the United States, and he cannot be charged with participation in any sordid or selfish schemes of self- aggrandisement. Judge Parker, on the 1 Z5 other hand, was little known to fame. He may conceivably be an able and even a better man than Mr Roosevelt, but he has had no opportunity of demonstrating his capacity in great affairs, and the fourteen millions of voters in the United States wisely gave a handsome majority to the man they knew, as having discharged the duties of the presidency with conspicuous success. The election of Mr Roosevelt is a popular one on this side of the Atlantic, and all the more so because it was followed immediately by an invitation to Britain to join the United States in a treaty similar to those which have been completed with France and other European countries.
CHILDREN FED ON VIROL I have firm flesh, good colour, I strong bones and CHILDREN FED ON VIROL have firm flesh, good colour, strong bones and teeth. For infants give Virol with milk in the feeding- bottle. 4/6 JARS for 2/11. i I
WASHDNG AT HOME. MtRADPaRDIS "VOWEL XLS" Washing, WringliA Mangling Mnohlnae SAVE TTMB, SAVE LABOUR, and SAVE THE CLOTHBS. Write/or Catalagut, post /re* on application. THOMAS BRADFORD & CO., 141, and '1, HIGH HOLIIORN, LONDON; VICTORIA AVENUK. DKANSGATK, MANCHESTER; 130, BOLI*-STJ(KJ> LIVBIFOOL: CRKSCKNT litON WORKS. SAUOKD. 'I 1
I Birth of an Heir. I On Wednesday a son and heir was born to the Duke and Duchess of Westminister. and he will probably be, one day, the richest man iu England. His potential 0 1 income is stated to be something like a 0 sovereign per minute.
JANTJABT was termed the Wolf month by the Saxons, as during this month (usually the coldest of the year) the wolves grew especially daring and ferocious. ] SNOW CRTSTALS. I Nature's infinite variety is well illustrated in the collection of photographs of snow crystals made during the past twenty years by an enthusiast. He has now more than 1,000 photographs of individual crystals, and among them no two alike.
STBANQB SIBERIAN CUSTOMS. I Surrounded by a scenery different from any other in the world-bleak, desolate, depressing-the Siberian is an odd mixture of filth, hospitality, dishonesty, and friendliness, declares a well-known American traveller. The upper classes are much like well-fed tame animals, lacking all the savagery and picturesqueness of the peasant, and, therefore, very unsatisfactory to the curiosity seeker. The alien finds them interesting-and annoying- because of their systemless system of doing busi- ness. They have absolutely no idea of time. On entering a shop a man must remove his hat; an office meets with the courtesy of doffing overcoat, hat, and overshoes. When calling upon the Governor, even for business, one must wear approved after- noon dress. Only an aristocrat is permitted to don a hat and kid boots; a middle-class woman wears a scarf or face mantilla and calfskin shoes; the Kundkerchiefs on their heads and coarse, heavy boots. i uf ijumes of the wealthy and middle classes are pretty and attractive in the front but filthy in the rear. Their habits are irregular and disorderly in the extreme. From eight to ten is the time to rise and partake of tea and bread twelve o'clock sees the real breakfast served. Any time from seven to midnight is the proper hour for a heavy repast of soup, meats, vegetables, wine, and "vodka," the national beverage distilled from wheat. A meal always ends with glasses of tea, brewed in the samovar, instead of the black coffee of more con- ventional countries. The hour for social calls is from ten to eleven in the morning. Friends meeting in the street shake hands continually until parting, no matter how many times a day they may see each other. Men always bow to the women first, and on the more important holidays-Easter, Christmas, and New Year-they are permitted to exchange kisses. Of sanitary laws they have never heard; a bath is an unnecessary trouble. The peasants, or "mujiks," are the most ignorant, the dirtiest, and laziest people on earth.
THE DAHLIA. The dahlia first became really at home in England in the year 1815. But France had it as early as 1800; and in Germany and Holland the date of its naturalisation must be fixed somewhere in the first decade of the century. At the outset our neigh- bours regarded the flower in almost any other light than that of a garden ornament. The tubers appear to have crossed the Pyrenees with the reputation of being an esculent preferable to the potato, which at that date had not quite worked its way into favour with the countrypeople. Their acrid flavour did not, however, recommend them to either man or beast.
Usfes Of PÀTI I Credit For the discovery of the possibilities of peat beloflgS chiefly to a Vienp. gentleman, Herr Zscborner. His investigatioha into its nature began with a study by means of the microscope of what is called in Austria "torfstrou." This is the layer of moss which covers the surface of most peat bogs. Examination shewed that the plant remains which make up this layer abound in hollow, spiral cells. These absorb water and other fluids with great avidity. While ordinary straw cannot absorb over four times its weight of fluids, this peat straw will absorb ten times its weight. The peat straw, moreover, possesses the antiseptic and disinfectant qualities of peat, qualities which have long been known, but of which little use has been made. Herr Zschorner accordingly hit upon the idea ot drying the straw and using it as an absorbent in stables, breweries, and various manufactories. For such purposes it proved most admirably adapted, and the demand for the product soon grew large. Having greater absorptive power than ordinary straw, the peat straw can be used much longer in any given place, and yet will have proportionally greater manurial value. It gives a healthy, resilient footing also for animals. For packing of both perishable and breakable articles it is also better than ordinary s~ raw, since it is more elastic and less easily penetrated by heat and cold. A further study of the peat itself shewed that it was very largely made up of fibres. These fibres come from the remains of reeds and grasses which, growing and dying in successive generations, form the peat, and prove weavable. The fabric woven from them is declared to possess unique properties. To the toughness of linen it adds the warmth of wool, an absorbent power greater than that of cotton, and the indestructibility of asbestos. There is now scarcely any textile article which cannot be made from peat. Coats, hats, carpets, rugs, ropes, matting, and pillows are some of the articles which have been made, and have been found useful. Paper of almost every variety of weight and quality can be made, while the toughness and durability of each is equal to that of paper from any kind of vegetable pulp.
THE ENGLISH POSTAL SYSTEM. The origin of the English postal system is in- volved in much obscurity; but the first fixed stations or posts where horses were kept for hire were established by Edward I., and improved by Edward IV. The system can be traced to the Office of Master of the Posts instituted by Henry VIII., and to the appointment of the first Chief Postmaster of England by Queen Elizabeth. The "Outland" or Foreign Post was established in the reign of the first James, and the Inland Post commenced in the reign of Charles I., and was successfully improved by Cromwell and his Parliament and by Charles II. It was reconstructed and consolidated in 1710, reformed in 1784 by the adoption of Palmer's mail- coach system, and triumphantly crowned in 1840 by the introduction of the penny-postage system.
CHASED BY HUNGRY WOLVES. Always a hungry animal, the wolf of Canada, when the prairies are frost-bound and prey scarce, becomes positively maddened by famine, says the writer of an article in Chums. He will retreat into the big forests, and, whenever there is the least chance of a possible quarry, break forth with a whole horde of companions to the slaughter and the feast. He is not particular. Soldier or civilian, trapper or traveller, comes alike to his maw. Stories of narrow escapes from these scavengers of the forests and the plains are numerous. Here is one of them: A cavalryman in a Canadian regiment, despatched on a mission to Fort H-, found his way ran by a dense wood of firs and pines. Evening was falling and the place looked sinister enough. As he scudded along the frozen road a band of wolves rushed out from the snow-laden trees. The horse neighed with fear, the rider used his spurs with effect, and they flew by like the wind. But wolves rendered desperate with hunger make little account of speed. He could see them closing in, their eyes flaming and their teeth bared. A terrible race ensued. Three miles lay between the soldier and Fort H-. Could he get there in time ? The rider confessed afterwards that the final stages of that nerve-trying chase were scarcely noticed by him. Ho remembers seeing a gaunt, grey wolf shoot by, turn, and gnash its teeth. At the same instant another leaped up at him, to receive the blade of a five-inch knife in its throat. The animal fell, but its place was speedily taken by another, who seized the man's arm and dragged him from the saddle. For two minutes there raged a battle which could have ended only in a terrible death for the cavalryman had not a sudden volley from half- a-dozen rifles been poured into his enemies. The rider had approached near enough to the forts for his shouts to be heard. He was saved from death, though covered with scratches and bruised by his fall. As for the wolves, they made off, howling with rage and disapDointment.
inomliltilloyi of Sheriffs. The ceremony of nominating sheriffs took place in London, on Saturday. Mr Auaten Chamberlain (Chancellor of the Exchequer), presided, and was accompanied by the Lord Chief Justice and five circuit judges. Mr Clifford John Cory, of Llantarnam Abbey, Newport, is Monmouthshire, next High Sheriff.
Visit of the Sing and Queen of Portugal. n On Wednesday, King Carlos, the Prince of Wales, Prince Christian, Prince Arthur of Conuaugbt, and the Duke of Argyll, shot in Windsor Great Park. King Edward, Queen Alexandra, Queen Amelia, the Duke of Connaught, and Princess Victoria joined the sportsmen for luncheon at Cranbourne Tower. A State banquet was given in the evening in St. George's Hall, where covers were laid for 170. In proposing the health of their Royal Highnesses, King Edward made the important announcement that a Treaty of Arbitration with Portugal had been sigued that day. On Thursday, the Royal visitors lunched I with the Lord "Mayor of London, at the Guildhall, and in response to the toast of his health his Majesty re-called ancient acts of friendliness between Great Britain and Portugal, and spoke with gratification of the relationship between the two Powers at present. The route to the City was gaily decorated, but the effect was considerably spoilt by the fog. At Windsor Castle in the evening, Mr Tree's company gave a command per- formance of A Man's Shadow."
A Japanese Attack Repulsed. 1 i St. Petersburg, I Friday. General Sakharoff telegraphs that the Japanese last night attacked Lone Tree Hill. The attack was repulsed.
I The Russian Outrage. At Hull inquiry to-day, it was, announced that the report on the- facts of the case would be made first, and the report on compensa-- tion would be made afterwards. -0.
Tragic Death of a Bachelor of Laws. Mr Alexander Henry, Recorder of Carlisle, was. seized with apoplexy in the Lord Chief Justice's Court to-day, and died shortly afterwards.
COMPULSORY SILENCB. I The reproach of a long tongue cannot be brought with truth against the Korean wives. They are almost absolutely silent. A bride dare not utter a word, or make even a sign, however much her husband may tease or tauat her; for to break silence would mean total loss of caste. Among the higher classes it may be weeks or months before a husband hears his wife's voice for the first time while the wife does not speak or even look at her KTJ years after her marriage. Lovely of abode, that Hermit Kingdom!
Important Action by the Monmouthshire Education Committee. A police court caee which has attracted a great amount of attention was heard at Tredetrar, on Tuesday, before Mr E. Jones Williams (in the chair), and Dr W. Evans. Mr C. Dauncey, secretary to this authority, appeared to prosecute a number of parents from Rhymney for neglecting to send their children to school, this being the first batch of prosecutions taken out since the Education Committee was formed. Mr Dauncey said he regretted that even with free education, and beautiful schools brought to the doors of the people, county scholarships and exhibitions enabling children to go from the elementary schools to the universities, the county committee had to spend £ 100 a month to enforce che attendance of children at the schools. In addition every unit of average attendance which a child might omit involved the committee in a loss of 32s in the case of a boy or girl of seven years of age, and of 27s if under seven and over five years. All the schools were now upon the county rate, and the education committee thought that with the co-operation of the magistrates they would be able to remove the reproach upon Monmouthshire of being the worst county in Wales as regarded the peicentage of attendance. The percentage should go up from 77 to 87 in twelve months, and the county would then be in a very proud position. The Chairman said that as far as Bedwellty Division was concerned the magistrates, he thought had done very well. Mr Dauncey agreed, and explained that his appeal that day was to the whole of the magistrates of the county. In the cases then heard, numbering between 20 and 30. fn,, were imposed varying from 5s to 20s, according to the number of previous convic- tions. Medical certificates were produced in several instances, some of which bcie no dates, and were, therefore, useless, and the Chairman referred to the ease with which parents were able to procure these certificates. Mr Danncey agreed, and said it was not confined to the Bedwellty Division, but was common throughout South Wales. Judge Gwilym Williams had expressed decided views upon this matter, and considered it nothing less than a scandal. He wished to point out to parents that if the fines were not paid committals would take place forth- with. The Clerk said if the committals were enforced it would save them a lot of trouble. Mr Dauncey observed that the old order of things bad come to an end, and the compulsory powers they had would be absolutely enforced.
Fnglnnd and Russia. The Central News correspondent at Chifu j.el«graphing on Thursday, isays:- 0 M uch ill-feeling has been caused here by the deception practised by the commander of the Russian destroyer Rastoropny in blowing up his ship. As a measure of precaution, the Chinese warship Haiyung 1:3 taken up a position whence she can liff,.)r(I protection to the Russian Consulate ? casetof need. Later information tends to show that the local Chinese authorities were parties to the deception. It is beyond deubt, at any rate, that the Japanese Consul was assured, in the name of the Chinese Government, that the Rastoropny had been dismantled and placed under Chinese protection with the consent of the Russian commander and Consul. As a matter of fact. the dismantling operations were postponed until after dark on the pretext that the weather was too rough for the work to be carried on, and in the meantime the destroyer's crew were smuggled ashore, all the small arms and ammunition and valuables of various descriptions being housed at the Russian Consulate. The Japanese Consul protested warmly against these proceedings, with the result that the arms and ammunition have since been transferred to the warship Haiyung. 0 Rear-Admiral Folger, commanding the United States squadron, has notified the Chinese authorities that if trouble arises he will land a force of marines.
I Another Arbitration Treaty. j A treaty between England and Switzer- A treaty between England and Switzer- land similar to the Anglo-French agreement, has been effected.
The Far East. On the Shaho. I Paris, Friday. A St. Petersburg telegram says; that the Trans-Siberian Railway is bringing three thousand men a,, day to the Shaho. v
Everything Quiet at the Front. St. Petersburg, n Friday. With the exception of spasmodic firing, everything is quiet at the front. The frost has made the roads like asphalt.
A Disastrous fire at Boston. Boston, Friday; A fire in the shipping quarter last night caused over one milJion; pounds damage. Several liners had narrow escapes. R NI.
I Barcelona Bomb Outrage., Barcelonav- Fridayc- A dynamite bomb outrage waJ;2 perpetrated in acrowded thorough- fare here last evening. One man was killed, and twenty- one seriously injured. No arrest has been made. The bomb was left in a basket: on a doorstep.
I kiiig Carlos Shooting. King Carlos is shooting iU2 Windsor Great Park again to- day.
Attempted Double Murder and. Suicide. At Whitchurch) near Cardiff, this morning, an old soldier named Harris, attacked his wife and daughter with a flat iron. The women are not expected to live. Harris afterwards jumped into the Canal, but was rescued.
I Stocks. Stocks quiet, cheerful. Printed and Published by TirB COUKTT OBSBBVBB," NXWSTAFBB and PRINTING COMPANY, Limited, by JAMBS HBNBY CLARK, at their Offices, Bridge Street, Usk, in the County of Monmouth, Saturday Novembor 19th, 1904.
ling Edward, the Peacemaker. An address has been sent to the King by the Trades Union Congress, numbering 2,000,000 organised workers, expressing their sincere gratification at the tenour of his Majesty's speech relating to the treaty with Portugal, "and the hope that his Majesty may lonv. be spared to help on the good cause of international peace and the good of humanity."
The Gleaner. THE MAKQCRSS OP Bt:TS'S WILL.-In the Court of Session, Ediuburgh, on Wednesday, the tribunal disposed of an appeal in the action brought to settle a dispute under the will of the late Marquess of Bute. The testator bequeathed £ 40,«00 to two Roman Catholic dioceses for the erection of churches, with the proviso that certain Aervices should be held. Th* Court now held that, as the legatees were unable to carry out the proviso, the legacy mu-t pa<s to the residue of the; estate. SERign OF "ACCIDBKTS AT BLAKNAYON.—On Wedneeday, three accidents aie rcorded at Blaenavon. The five year old daughter of Frank Sfttnbell, Staffordshire Row, fell from a bedroom window, and was severely injured, fracturing her thigh. She WHf removed to the hospital. Later, a young girl, who was carrying a bottle of beer, «li, breaking th« bottle aad severing an important ▼ein in the hand. In the evening an elderly woman, named Parry, in Shepherd's-square, was putting coal on the fl., e when a sudden outburst of flame asverely burned her face. It seems that a packet of crnpreus^d p' wder was left in an old boiler by a former tenant, and by some means pot inixel with the small coal. When placed on thi are there was an explosion.
ECLIPSES OF THE MooN. Some South American tribes think that during telipses the moon is devoured by a gigantic dog. the Guaranis think that the animal is a jaguar, and the ichthyophagous Makahs of the Strait of Fuca think it is a shark that does it. On such occasions many tribes shoot arrows into the air in order to drive away the pretended enemies of the sun and moon. This recalls an exploit of Alphonse VI., King of Portugal (1664), who, learning that a comet, the precursor of the death of a sovereign, had been observed in the heavens, ran out to look at it, and. after insulting it, shot at it with a sistol several times!
I THE FALL OF PORT ARTHUR- There is much wisdom in the American maxim Never cross a bridge before you come to it. We need not therefore vex ourselves unduly concerning the reports which reach us of what is likely to happen at the fall of Port Arthur, but at the same time it is impossible to ignore altogether the expectation which seems to be enter- tained in some directions, that the Japanese will give no quarter to the conquered defenders. Thus we find such a dependable authority as Reuter stating that it may possibly be difficult to avoid a massacre in the final combat," although we know that something of the kind occurred in the Chino- Japanese war, yet it is almost incredible that the Japanese, now that they are allied to a Western State, and clearly seeking to secure the status of a first-class Power, would permit such a thing to happen. The massacre of the inhabitants, or even the soldiers, of Port Arthur would immediately bring upon us the reproach that we are allied to barbarians, who cannot even be controlled by their own officers, and the worst of it would be that we could not say anything in reply, So far as the present campaign has proceeded, the Japanese have revealed all the qualities essential to one of the family of great nations, and until they have done something to forfeit our confi- dence we cannot believe that they would by one fatal error throw away results which they have sacrificed so much to obtain.
MERRYWEATHER ON WATER SUPPLY AND FIRE PROTECTION of COUNTRY MANSIONS. EXPERTS SENT TO ALL PARTS TO Report on EXISTING Arrangements. WRITE FOR PAMPHLETS: MERRYWEATHER & SONS, 13, LONG ACRE, LONDON, V.C. .1
RUSSIAN REWARDS OFFERED, The action of the Russian Government in offering rewards to witnesses who can testify to the existence of the torpedo boats, which are said to have attacked the Baltic fleet, shows very clearly the desperate straits to which they are reduced in order to produce evidence in support of their story. It is clear that the Russian officers were so excited that they saw torpedo boats in much the same way that one of Caesar's officers in Gaul reported quite honestly to the General that he had seen things which b'e could not have seen. But, none the less, it seems certain that the Russian officers will persist in the statement, however incredible and even ludicrous it must appear to any reasonable person.
5 Ask for 5c I WALDRON'S^^S | I "PALACE" SAUCE § PRAQRANT AND DELICIOU8. | • ■ Ooapoo with •rery bottU. for (ample bvttl* and full 5 » apply firing nun* of Grueer to 3r PRAQRANT AND DELICIOUS. | • ■ Ooapoo with •rery bottU. for (ample bvttl* and full 5 » apply firing nun* of Grueer to 3r is Manufactory: SOUTH QUAY, WORCESTER.$
I DISEASES SPREAD BY VAGRANTS. I At a conference of public authorities held in London, attention was drawn to the ve important subject of the spread of infectious disease by vagrauts. When the persons visit a casual ward they receive a bath. and their clothes are placed in a disinfecting chamber, and, by the operation of Mr Hazell's Cleansing of Persons' Act, the same facilities are extended to tramps and others who seek them without compulsion to do a task of work. That is very much to the good, but there are many people who have no repugnance to dirt, and do not visit a casual ward if they can possibly help it. In the summer they sleep in the open air, and in the winter they resort to the cheap doss houses." It is obvious that such persons are a public danger seeing that they spread smallpox or other infectious disease in all directions. Perhaps to a less extent, but still very appreciably, a like danger is presented by the men and women who go with their families to the hop fields. After living in conditions which are not always of the most sanitary description, they return home in ordinary railway trains. When they alight, other people get into the same carriage, with the result that infec- tious disease is often communicated to pas- sengers, who are quite unable to understand how it can have been contracted- The public authorities will have some difficulty in discovering satisfactory remedies for these evils, but there are certainly some precautions which it is practicable to en- force. and it is well that attention should have been drawn thus publicly to the subject.
I David Shepherd's Affairs. I The statement of affairs in the bank- ruptcy of David Shepherd has been de- posited at the office of the Official Receiver at Cardiff by Mr Forsdike, the debtor's solicitor. The deficiency is stated to be over £14,000, which includes the funds alleged to have been misappropriated. The assets are £1,004. The public examination will not take place until after the assizes at Swansea, next week, when Shepherd will be tried. There is reason to believe that the debtor his been in financial difficulties for twenty- years.