1 — FIELD AND FARM. I THE AGRICULTURAL LABOURER. That the labourer is, for his position, better off 'than either the landlord or the farmer, and that he is very much better off than he was fifty years ago, are, argues Prof. John Wrightson, in the" Agri- cultural Gazette," both undeniable facts. That he, if the expression is allowable, has been reduced numerically almost by one half is regrettable from many points of view: but it is some consolation that he is better paid, while at the same time the per acre cost of his maintenance has been reduced, The question as how far a rise in the price of corn would benefit the labourer is scarcely worth dis- cussing, because no responsible person has ventured to propose a tax which could have any effect on the price of bread. If I were Mr. Chamberlain (continues Prof. John Wrightson) I should simply impress upon the minds of the agricultural labourers that a 2s. duty on wheat would or could have no effect on the price of bre&d, while at the same time it would be a source of revenue which might be used for the purpose of reducing other taxes. Even 2s. a quarter might be some encouragement to growing wheat and extending arable cultivation, but 5s. would be very much better. The agricultural interest is of such vast importance that it ought to be protected from the present tremendous facilities of transport. We are told by the Cobden Club that Free Trade I is not answerable for the cheapness of wheat, and this is probably true, because the drop in prices did not at once follow the abolition of duties on imported corn. Still, there is no reason at all why a toll should not be levied on imported wiieat and flour, if merely as a moderator or regulator of prices, and a protection to growers of a prime necessary of life. The question is too wide for I discussion here. It is a simple fact that wheat- growing in this country is being slowly stifled by foreign growers, and that we are in danger of see- j ing it relinquished altogether. This would be a bad thing for everyone, and I do not say that a tax I would be a complete remedy. It would, however, j be a double-acting palliative, for it would at least tend to encourage wheat cultivation, and could be made a great source of revenues Agriculture, on I account of its comparatively fixed and unalterable methods, its dependence upon seasons, and its national importance, is especially marked out as the industry above all others which ought to be protected against wheat sent in as ballast for returned-empty ships. It has been proved during the last sixty years that no scientific appliances can do much towards raising the average yield of wheat, and that we are therefore dependent upon a fair price-without which we must simply abandon the struggle. THE DAIRY COW. I j There are several points (observes "■ S. W." in the Agricultural Gazette ") that go to making ideal dairy cows. Different judges consider different points as indicative of the flow of milk, but perhaps the udder is the most reliable indica- tion of milking qualities, as well as the value of the cow. True, some put stress on the colour of the inside of the ear, length of the tail, shape of the head, neck, or of the body, but the rule seems to hold that poor producers have rarely well- developed mammary glands. The greater develop- ment of that organ the greater will be its product. Of late years breeders of dairy cattle have been led to give more heed to this point of importance in the selection and elimination of dairy cows. As udder rich in flesh is not productive, and is recog- nised by the fact that the superfluous flesh it con- tains usually seems to drop, more or less, to the bottom, not making it pendulous. Such an udder is unsightly, and is likely passed on by the cow to ¡ her offspring. A productive udder depends on the number of secretive cells it contains and not necessarily on its size. Its shape should be almost square and well balanced and free from much flesh. The front quarters of the udder are not infre- quently very imperfectly developed, and is a common failing even in whole breeds of dairy cows. The milk got from the fore and rear udder differs in quality and quantity according to the type of udder. It has been calculated that in ordinary. shaped udders their is a difference of 16 per cent of the quantity of milk taken from these sources. To show the difference actually existing in differenttypes of udders, let, say, a dozen cows be taken with their front udders noticeably un- developed, and let the milk from the front and hind udders be separately weighed. It will be found that the rear udder produces 57 per cent. more milk than the front udder. Again, take a well- balanced udder, the variation quantity of milk got from the hind and front udders is quite insignifi- cant. These facts show conclusively that a well- balanced udder is of more value than merely to admire in the sale-ring or showyard. The average cow of whatever breed, has an imperfectly developed udder, especially in its fore part. Better development would certainly produce more milk, and consequently;our cows would be of more intrinsic value in the dairy, for it is the last Sound of milk that yields the greatest profit, [uch has been said about milk and udder veins of dairy cows and their relation and activity to the udder. As far as we know, the mammary secretion is entirely dependent on the amount of healthy blood passing through the glands. Changes in the condition or pressure of the blood influence the amount of milk secreted. Hence the necessity for restricting, limiting, and studying the quantity and Suality of food given to the dairy cow. If, then, bis be the relation of the milk veins to the udder, it will be readily seen that the development of the veins cannot be overlooked in our estimation of the value of the cow as a milk producer. SEASONABLE POULTRY NOTES. I Among the signs of progress of late years in poultry keeping is the recognition that fowls need plenty of air in summer time. When I think how my birds used to be semi-suffocated twelve and fifteen years ago during hot weather, I feel some- what guilty, but then forty-nine out of fifty poultry keepers acted in a similar manner. A small window and a few ventilations at top were thought quite sufficient ventila tion for fowls, and the only difference made between winter and summer was opening the window. Now, open-fronted houses are recognised as the most sensible type. Those poultry keepers who have poultry houses- with four wooden sides should either make a large extra window by cut- ting out some of the woodwork on one side and substituting a wire screen, or fix open the door at night and fit a wire frame, in its place. They should also let the fowls out as nearly as possible in the morning. The sooner after daybreak poultry are insect hunting, the better for them and the better for their owner. The virtue of white- washing the sleeping house thoroughly, perches and all, and especially the corners of the house and the rests the perches fit on, has been so often emphasised that I will not dwell on this point, but come to the matter of drinking water. The importance of a supply of pure cold water for fowls in hot weather is not so mueh recognised as it should be. Sun-heated water does them a great deal of harm, and deprived of drinking water they fret and sometimes turn egg'eaters. Many Sussex chicken rearers give their birds nettle tea, that is the fluid nettles have been boiled in, in hot weather, the herb rendering the water more cool- ing, converting it also into a tonic; while others, to prevent'their chickens drinking too much water, add some ground oats to it, serving it in the form of very thin porridge. Water should be given first thing in the morning, what remains in the trough or pan being first emptied out. The vessel must be set in a place where the sun's rays will not reach it. At mid-day, or a little later, fresh water should again be given. Water for fowls, by the way, should be so placed that the ducks and geese, if there are any, cannot get at it. They foul the water they drink, and fowls do not eare to drink after them. Feeding in summer is a very simple matter. The fowls want no stimulat- ing food, just plain meal and corn, or corn only. And there will be no harm in adding a little maize to the oats or wheat or barley, provided the birds have their full liberty. Oats need to be bold cheap thin oats have very little feedIng value for fowls, they are nearly all husk, and that has no nutriment. The same remark applies to buck- wheat. Heavy grain of good quality is excellent for feediug fowls; cheap buckwheat is always poor in quality, and does them no good. Wheat is really the best summer grain, in spite of the fact that it is a little heating. In summer, fowls at liberty find so much natural animal food that they require less grain than in winter. There is often difficulty in deciding if fowls have enough to eat, or if they are over-fed. One cannot put them on a weighed or measured allowance of grain without seeing them and taking all details of management into consideration. Try and feed in quantities of not more than 50, let them have one satisfying meal a day, giving grain as long as two fowls run for one grain, in other words, as long as they ai j keen for more. Any tendency of the birds to scratch over their food or to leave any of the grain is a sure sign they have had a Jittle too much, and the quantity next day can be slightly reduced-
GARDEN GOSSIP, o* (Fro,nz "-The Gardener.") looses on Walls.-Roses on walls seldom get anything like a sufficiency of moisture. Where possible a thorough soaking of the soil for several yards around the roots should (says a writer in "The Gardener") in dry weather be given, and a layer of long dung or, failing this, lawn mowings, cocoanut fibre refuse, or even tea leaves, should be spread on before the moisture has a chance to evaporate. Every evening, un- less rain has visited the trees, a good syringing with clean water alternated with soot water should be given. If red spider has become es- tablished on the foliage, turn the hose on it for a few nights, of course using one of the many spraying contrivances now on the market. Something for the Window Gardener.—When pot plants are employed for outdoor window decoration in summer, a layer of moss placed over the surface soil will do much to lessen labour with the water can. A layer over the window boxes will do no harm in the majority of cases, but it should be freed from slugs before using. Plants that have filled their pots with roots will take no harm from standing in saucers of water on a window sill in summer. Lady Plymouth and Chalk.—Everybody loves the sweet scented, variegated leaved Geranium called Lady Plymouth, that is, everybody who knows it. Many people, however, fail to grow it in anything like a satisfactory manner, either in pots or out of doors. Most of these failures may be ascribed to unsuitable soil, for one of the largest growers of Geraniums in the king- dom recently told me that Lady Plymouth de- tests chalk or lime in any form, and positively refuses to thrive in its presence. Asparagus Sprengeri.—This is a grand sub- ject for growing in baskets; when once estab- lished few plants give less trouble to the grower. The branches depend gracefully all around the basket and grow to a great length, some of them quite 5 feet long. But after re- maining for several seasons in a basket the leaves become very pale in colour, which de- tracts somewhat from the good appearance of the plant as an ornament. Top-dressing is a matter of great importance to most kinds of plants, but with the subject of this note it is an impossibility, as the basket gets quite full of roots, very stiff and strong ones, too. Feed- ing with weak soot water and several small doses of nitrate of soda will quickly improve the colour of the leaves. When filling new baskets use some fibrous loam, removing all the small soil from it by passing it through a f-inch mesh 2 sieve. Loam of a lasting nature is necessary, because the plants have to remain in the same baskets for a number of years. When estab- lished Asparagus Sprengeri will thrive in a plant stove, greenhouse, conservatory, or en- trance hall. A somewhat shaded position suits it well. The foliage should be kept moist at all times to guard against red spider. w Campanula Latiflora.-Altheugh there are some who depreciate the value of this effective hardy border flower on account of its short period of bloom, it is no worse in this respect than some other Bellflowers. For example, it remains longer in flower than C. macrantha; while its tall habit and its number of good flowers make it very suitable for a large border or the wild garden. Unless in poor soil, which checks its height, it is unsuitable for a narrow border. Only a few days before writing these notes I saw several plants nearly 6 feet high. These were in a large and broad border, and were very effective indeed. It varies from 2 to 6 feet high, and has many flowers arranged in a somewhat pyramidal manner, and generally of a milky white. There is, however, a con- siderable amount of variation among the plants, and some have flowers of a deep purple, while there are also intermediate shades. This Cam- panula is easily cultivated in any soil, and can stand a considerable amount of shade, as well as full sun when necessary. If seeds freely, and can also be increased by division in spring or autumn. < < Gardens in Japan.—Evergreens (remarks M. Hawthorne) play an important part in Japanese gardens; they appear almost everywhere, though in spring and summer so embowered in flowers that they are scarcely distinguishable. It is when winter reigns—which does happen even in this sunny land-that the glossy leaves and quaint shapes of shrubs and trees are chiefly appreciated. Then, too, are the dwarfed trees most admired; they are usually planted all in one part of the garden, among rocks, up and down hill, with tiny lakes flashing in the valleys, or miniature rivers flowing between flower gemmed banks, and under the daintiest of bridges. Somewhere near is sure to be a tea- house, so that the drinking of the popular beverage may be enjoyed in as fair a spot as possible. These trees-Oaks, Elms, Beeches, Walnuts, and Chestnuts, as well as numerous others-will none of them be 1 yard high in all probability; they are trained, with marvellous patience, by having their roots pinched and their branches similarly pruned back at least every week, and one gardener hands down his work to his son, who perhaps may have to leave it to be brought to perfection by a grandson While the forest trees are quaintest, the minia- ture Thujas and flowering Plums and Cherries are most beautiful. A garden in Japan is al- ways planned to carry out the features of the surrounding country—hills will be copied, forests repeated in lesser degree, and no fences are to be seen dividing the natural from the artificial scene fences there may be, or hedges, but, from the chief points of view at least, the effect will be one of boundless environs. The loveliest vistas are arranged so that they are visible from the house; lesser beauties may be hidden away among the waJks, but the summer- house or seat will be placed in the best point of observation, and the visitor wall be requested to note its features. A spring splendour is given to all Japanese gardens by a:.he blossoming fruit trees an autumn glory by the scarlet and gold tinted Maples; behind Almond trees dark Firs will show a perfect background, deep green leaved Camelias are sure to be beneath the Maples, and it is recognised as advisable that a lake or small pool should be near to reflect the gorgeous hues and receive the shed leaves upon its placid surface. Any large piece of water is certain to have a Maple grove about it. Lotus Flowers will be there too, of red as well as white; crimson and pink tree-Peonies, golden and orange Lilies, Roses, and Irises will bend over the edges; life will be represented by shoals of darting fishes, and a wee boat will be moored against some grass batnk. The na- tional flower, the Chrysanthemum, is to be found everywhere; it grows in the streets in places, towers up beside the doors of the smaller dwellings, makes the chief loveliness of the Mikad,o's palace grounds, fringes the walls, and Sives colour in the walks of the Rice fields. apanese Chrysanthemum shows are most popu- lar, and the clever gardeners prepare the plants with utmost earnestness.; they will tend them with the zeal a mother would bestow on minis- tering to her children they sing, praises of the royal flower as they wield their tiny hoe or fork, and the gardening profession is regarded as a most honourable one.
Consuelo Duchess of Manchester, to whom (says "Vanity Fair") Sir Edward and Lady Cole- brooke have lent their Deeside residence during their tour in Switzerland, was one of the-first of that numerous band of American women who, during the last thirty years, have married- English husbands.
lOUR SHORT STORY. I t HIS WARD AND HIS WOOING. I j A STRANGE STORY. I Frank Graham, strolling along the streets of Brussels in melancholy mood, groaned aloud. It was ridiculous to break into a well-earned holiday and go back to smoky London, in order to take upon himself an altogether undesirable burden. The more he thought of it, the worse the situation appeared. Is anything the matter ?" said a voice at his elbow. "Certainly not. What should be, the matter?" he said sharply, turning to confront his questioner. His annoyance gave way to surprise. A young girl stood looking at him with such evident sym- pathy that he laughed aloud. I was thinking of a grievance," he said simply. "I did not mean to make my sorrows public. People who groan don't deserve sympathy. Good afternoon." He raised his hat and turned away. Please don't go. I am in such trouble." He stopped. Then the sympathy was not all for me ?" He smiled again; the situation had its comic side. "N o. I saw you were English, and I was going to ask your help. Then I heard your groan, and thought you must be ill or in trouble." It is very good of you. What's wrong P" His own perplexities seemed trifling compared with the distress in her eyes. "Oh, it's most absurd," sbc said desperately. You will laugh at me. I came here to-day with a party—' personally conducted'—you know the sort of thing ?" "I know. Very good plan, too, if you don't know your way about and are not good at languages." "I ean't put two words together-never could learn the nasty slippery stuff. Now, if it were a question of mathematics "—the memory of her powers restored her self-respect—" I should be quite at home." He looked at her inquiringly. Mathematics seemed a little wide of the point. I got separated from my party, and couldn't find my way back to the station. I expect our train's gone by this time The red lips quivered a little. Whew! This is a pretty prospect. What was the shepherd doing to let you wander like this ?" It was my own fault. I crossed the street to look at some lace in a window. When I turned round, the rest were gone. I tried to find my way to the meeting place, but didn't know how to ask for it. Then I saw you." A very good thing you did. It's no joke to be stranded in a place like this." I was horribly frightened," she confessed. Well, the first thing to be done is to look after that train of yours. Where did you come from ?" "Ostend. We go back to London to-morrow- that is if I ever get away from here," she added despairingly. "Oh, I'll see to that. Don't you worry. We're not five minutes from the station. It's round the corner, in the big square. You must have been close to it all the time. What will the others do ?" "They'll go on, I expect. It wouldn't make matters better for them all to get lost, would it ?" I suppose not. Seems a bit heartless though, not to have had a look for you. Any friends with you ?" "No; only travelling acquaintances." He looked at her curiously. It was plucky of you, but a bit rash." Yes." She volunteered no further explanation, but meekly followed as he led the way. I'll go and find out about things. Don't move away to look at anything—not even lace," he said with a smile, as they entered the station. He returned in a few minutes with a perturbed expression. four train went ten minutes ago; the next does not get in till one in the morning. You must stay the night here-there is no help for it. Give me the address. I will telegraph to your party that you are safe and will follow in the morning." She obeyed meekly, and he disappeared once more. There was comfort in the masterly way in which he disposed of difficulties. That's done," he said, with an air of triumph. Now come and have some coffee. That may throw a light on the situation. There are still rocks ahead." You are very good." And you are tired to death." He looked at her compassionately. It was an awkwark position for one so young-and fair. Her weary sigh did not contradict him. As they rose from the table, rested and refreshed, he glanced at her again. "How on earth-" He chequed himself hastily. Did I get into such a scrape ?" The coffee had restored a momentary colour to her cheeks, her eyes sparkled. Please do not ask. It was to escape for a little longer a dreaded future. Th e past has been all happiness until-" She touched her black dress with an expressive gesture. Your mother ?" he asked sympathetically. My father—my dear, dear father. My mother died when I was quite young. I do not remember her." Poor child!" They passed silently into the street. Graham spoko again. I will take you to some decent people I know till the morning. You can pass as my ward for the time being." The remembrance of his own worries pressed upon him again. By the way, I really have a ward somewhere in mid- ocean—I suppose she's nearly home, though, by now.. A lanky schoolgirl from the colonies-with red hair." His componion looked amused. Why are you so positive about the colour ? You don't seem to know much about her." I know nothing. Didn't even know of her existence till a week ago-those are my convictions. Perhaps you can tell me how to bring up a school- girl ? Fancy saddling a man of my age with a task like that! Poor old Dick He might well have chosen a more suitable guardian." You could refuse, I suppose ?" She spoke a little sharply. Was there any condition attached ?" There was." Graham had the grace to blush before the clear glance lifted to his. There is a big legacy bequeathed in prospective gratitude. I shall be well paid. I can't deny that the money would be useful just now—uncommonly useful, to extend my business. Anyhow, I must take it up. Fancy the poor girl arriving alone from the other side of the world to be politely told that she's too much of a bother." It would sound rude." Well, she can wait. Your affairs are the most pressing just now. I will take you back to-morrow to London; I must be there to receive this burden. Fancy the chaos she'll make of my orderly estab- lishment My poor old housekeeper will have a fit. That's why I groaned when you met me just now." You are to be pitied. But I don't want to give you all that trouble. If you would be good enough to put me into the train here, I think I could get on." She spoke doubtfully. "No." He shook his head with decision. If I take a thing in hand I see it through. When you are safely in the hands of your people, I will say good-bye." I have no people." But you are going to somebody in London ?" "Yes, somebody—a guardian, or trustee, or something; but I know nothing about him, not even the colour of his hair." And is this poor something' anxiously expect- ing you while you are enjoying yourself on the Continent!" "Enjoying! I only did it to keep out of his way a little longer. I sailed earlier than he ex- pected." Wanted to see something on your own account ? Talk about enterprise, after that!" He paused before a substantial-looking house. "I've for- gotten the name you gave me. I can't introduce a ward without knowing her name." She hesitated a moment. Joan Moncrieff." "Moncrieff," he repeated. He rang the bell, and in prompt response to his summons an elderly Flemish woman opened the door and admitted them. In a few words Graham gave his version of the story, then turned to Joan with a smile. w Good- night. I leave you in good hands. Expect me early in the morning." 1 ■» 1.- 'M !■ — True to his promise, Graham, appeared, the next day, and after an uneventful journey the travellers reached Ostend. "Not out of the wood yet 1" Graham returned to his charge after a vain search for the London packet. The Alert went out at twelve." Joan Moncrieff looked at him miserably. The Fates were evidently against her. Cheer up ? There is still the Dover boat. We can just do it. I'll get you into London to-night, if I die in the attempt. Imagine the feelings of that something if you didn't turn up." He smiled gaily. She looked at him gratefully. Difficulties vanished into thin air before his resource. They just did it." Five minutes after Graham had settled his breathless companion in a comfort- able seat on deck, the departure bell rang, and the boat steamed out into the North Sea. "I suppose it must be good-bye!" Graham spoke regretfully, his hand resting on the cab door. The pleasant hours had passed all too quickly. Good-bye How can I ever thank you enough ?" Don't try. We shall-we must meet again." Graham spoke with his usual decision. "Here is my address. Let me know when you have settled down, and what the old curmudgeon is like. I should like to hear how you get on. He may not be as bad as you expect." He will be bald and had tempered-I also have convictions." She laughed, and gave him her hand. I will tell you exactly what I think of him— when we meet again." Glad to see you back, sir. Miss Underhay has just come," said Mrs. Banks. Graham looked at her in amazement. For the moment he had forgotten the existence of his ward, although his business instincts had led him to acquaint his housekeeper of the expected arrival. Ah, yes, I remember." Graham recalled him- self with an effort. "Must I see her to-night? I'm awfully tired." He wanted to be alone to think over the last two days with Joan. Joan! How the pretty name suited her. He must see her again soon. Surely, he need not be worried to-night, with this obtrusive colonial waif. Dinner will be ready at eight, sir. You will just have time to dress." Mrs. Banks' tone con- veyed keen reproof. If she could be civil to an nterloper who would probably take the bread out iof her mouth, surely her master could. Graham as lie struggled into his dress things, anathematised equally convention, wards, and Mrs. Banks. That worthy woman seemed already under the influence destined to disturb his domestic peace. Still, common civility demanded a little attention from him. He went slovvly down the stairs and into the drawing-room. A tall, slight figure turned from the cheerful fire to greet him. Joan!" Mr. Graham!" Mischief danced in the dark eyes regarding him. Why are you here ?" Didn't you expect me?" Why are you here ?" Graham demanded. I don't think you are very polite for a guardian I am here because I am your ward-my hair is not red." She stood before him with meekly folded hands, and expression of demure innocence upon her face. Good heavens!" Graham sank into a chair. You told me your name was Moncrieff." So it is-Monerieft Underhay. You don't seem very pleased." And you went to Belgium to escape me ? What do you mean by such abominable conduct ?" His bewilderment took the form of anger. "Ah! I was right about the temper." She looked at him critically. You see, I didn't know you were you, any more than you knew that I was —I." Sounds complicated." Graham recovered him- self with an effort. When did you find out that I was—I." When you gave me your card, though I had my suspicions before. Our stories fitted so well." I hadn't," he said shortly. No, a mere man wouldn't. The calm assur- ancg of her manner exasperated him. You silly child What do you know of men ?" That their tempers are variable." She came nearer and looked at him wistfully. Aren't you ever going to forgive me ? You are all I have in the wide, wide world." Come to dinner," said Graham abruptly. To Graham the next few weeks were full of joy, indecision, and unrest. In the silence of the night he decided that it was out of the question for a girl of nineteen to have any feeling but that of tolerant kindness for a man of his age; every morning he arose with the conviction that a man, like a woman, is only as old as he feels, and that his thirty-four years counted as a score. And Joan ? One day her inconsequent, merry sallies bewitched him; another,possessed by a gentle sadness, she seemed the embodiment of womanly geace and feeling. I want your signature to this." Graham put his head out of the library door and spoke to her as she passed up the stairs." Come in. I will read it first and explain." I understand." She was in one of her gentlest moods. My name in full ?" Yes, please." She signed the paper, and handed it back to him in silence. That's not much of a signature." He looked at it critically, but his thoughts were on the all- absorbing problem. I think it is good." "We don't agree on many points." He spoke sadly. We were better friends in Brussels, Joan." "You didn't realise your responsibilities then, and were not always finding fault." Her tone was reproachful. She lingered on the threshold. Do I find fault ?" Yes-dreadfully. I like to contradict yoa sometimes it's my perverse nature. We do agree really." He rose and stood beside her," Don't go. You really think so ? Dear, I love you, and you are breaking my heart." That would be a poor return for healing mine," she said softly. I've loved you since the first moment I saw you. You trusted me then, Joan. Will you do it again—for ever ?' Do you really want me—Frank ?" Come and see." He held out entreating arms. She went to them without a word. -——————= (
AT THE PRISON GATES, I The following letter has been addressed by the Secretary of the Local Government Board to Boards of Guardians throughout the country: I am directed by the Local Government Board to state that their attention has been drawn (* the fact that in certain Poor Law Unions where the wives and children of prisoners have become chargeable to the poor rate the practice has been adopted of sending the wives and children to the prison gates to meet the prisoners on their discharge. The Board direct me to point out that such a practice is not only very objectionable on general grounds, entailing in many cases considerable hardship on the children, but that it is actually illegal where the prison is situated outside the union to which the prisoner's family is chargeable. The Board consider it desirable, therefore, that the practice referred to should cease, and they will be glad if in any Poor Law Union where it is in force the Guardians will give directions to their officers for its discontinuance."
Dr. Fugate says that in 1854, after all means for the relief of a child moribund with diphtheria had been tried, he placed about a teaspoonful of pulverised sulphur in, a small plate, and water in another; then, with a small swab, swabbed the fauces until a large portion of the sulphur had Been taken up. The child, after several efforts, swallowed and continued to do so for about ten minutes. He then gave about three grains of sulphur and a spoonful of strong toddy. The child screamed; it was placed to its mother's breast, and immediately commenced nursing, and in ten minutes more was asleep, breathing easily and naturally. Since then he has used it in oyer six hundred cases, and never lost a patient.
AN AL FRESCO STATE GAOL. I The open-air State gaol of Cettinje, Montenegro, is unique in Europe (says the "New York Tribune"). This primitive place of confinement is situated in the principal public square of the Montenegrin capital. The prisoners, guilty of minor offences, are allowed to roam about the square at will, the mere fact that they have been deprived of their weapons being considered ap- propriate punishment. At night the prisoners are removed to a room in the town hall, where they have far more comfortable quarters than they would have at home. The thought of escaping seldom occurs to them, and vj, it did there is no place where they could find reïrlh". The Montene- grins are, above all, men of honour, and were a prisoner to escape, the population of Cettinje would soon be at the heels of the fugitive guilty of having broken his promise not to attempt to escape.
AN INTERESTING GOTHIC STRUCTURE. Chetham's Hospital, in Manchester, contains one of the finest bits of mediaeval Gothic in the king- dom, in what was formerly the warden's room, and is now used as a reading room. In the recess in the Oriel window is the early 16th century table at which Sir Walter Raleigh sat. Close by hangs an autograph letter of Raleigh's in a frame made from the wood of Admiral Drake's flagship. This table and its associations delighted Mr. Bayard, the American Minister, and his wife, when they visited Manchester, and there has been a suc- cession of Yankee admirers at the college ever since to see the spot where Raleigh sat. Chet- ham's is full of the antique, and yet thousands pass by it daily without the slightest idea of the gems it contains. ■"
MELODRAMA IN SUICIDE. I The dramatic suicide of Whitaker Wright, in January last, has just had its counterpart in a trial at Naples, under circumstances even more sensational. A man, named Domenico Bifero, was being tried for fraud, and the public prose- cutor had called upon the court to pass sentence of three years' solitary confinement. Scarcely had the words been uttered when Bifero was seen swiftly to pass his hands from his pocket to his lips, and, though rapidly removed to the cells, he collapsed in a short time, confessing that he had swallowed two pills containing sublimate.
THE LOST TRIBES. I A JAPANESE THEORY. The southernmost island of Japan proper is connected with Formosa, the latest acquisition to the Empire, by a long and straggling chain of small islands known as the Loo Choo group. These islands, says Mr. A. M. Hyamson, writing in the "Jewish Chronicle," are inhabited by two races, the Japanese in the Northern portion of the group, and the Loo Chooans proper, the Aborigines, in all the islands. Of these latter, as of most other races, an Israelitish descent has been given, but the proofs" on this occasion differ widely from, and are far more worthy of consideration than, the fantastic legends, in which rafts and fugitive kings and prophets take a leading part, that have been attached to the history of the Japanese nation in order to connect it with the Israelitish fugitives from the Holy Land. The imagination that evolved the Japan Lost Tribes theory must have been closely related to that which in an earlier generation located the descendants of the exiles in Ireland. An Israeli- tish Princess, Jeremiah, Baruch, a Dante fleet, Jacob's pillow and the cornerstone of the Temple were all involved in the romance that traced the Royal House of Israel from Canaan to Cork, via Egypt and Spain. JAPANESE RESEMBLANCE TO THE JEWS. I Half a century ago a European Jew lived in one of the little-known centres of the Loo Choo group of islands. Apparently he combined the profes- sions of merchant and physician, for he used to complain that the natives, when ill, refused to ac- cept alleviation of their suffering at his hands, but preferred to remain in pain since their own medi- cine men were unable to give them relief. Of the country itsell he had a very unappreciative opinion. From hie description, in an early number of the "Jewish Chronicle." it seemed most unattractive and extremely poor in vegetation, in fauna, and in every other detail. Passing rapidly from the country, this Jewish settler in a little known land turned to its inhabitants. Their appearance struck him as being essentially Jewish. The convexity of the noses of the natives and their partiality for long beards have been noticed by all students of the Loo Chooans. These features the write? empha- sised in his account. In another direction the natives showed a remarkable resemblance to the Jews. The Loo Chooan Calendar included many strict fasts that resemble in most details those of the writer's own race, and he at the same time hinted at considerable agreement between the dates on which the two sets of holy days fell. The Loo Chooan bethrothal rights constituted a strong link in the chain of proof that this Jewish settler in the Farthest East was spinning. The transaction takes place chiefly among the parents of the parties intended to be united in matrimony." The quota- tion is taken from a description written more than half a century ago. Since that period Jewish customs have undergone changes in many direc- tions. Similarities were pointed out between Hebrew and the native tongue. Of course, in accordance with the precedents invariably followed when Lost Tribes theories are being evolved, resemblances were found between the nomen- clature of the population and that of Biblical personages. Among the native feasts were those of the in-gathering and spring. The latter coin- cided with, and was equivalent to, the Passover. SUPPORT IN HOLY WRIT. I The theory, however, found its strongest supports in Holy writ. "Iwill send those that escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tabul and Javan, to the isles afar off, that have not heard my fame, neither have seen my glory and they shall declare my glory among ,the Gentiles. And they shall bring all your brethren for an offering unto the Lord out of all nations upon horses and in chariots, and in litters, and upon mules, and upon swift beasts, to my holy mountain Jerusalem, saithtlie Lord." So spoke Isaiah in his last chapter. "Javan, the isles afar off," has generally been understood to be Greece, although its reading as the British Isles is the basis of Anglo-Israelism. An entirely new interpretation is, however, placed before us. By an unimportant literal alteration, with or without the assistance of Grimm's Law, Javau becomes Japan and by a further interpretation of swift beasts" as steamers, the argument is rendered impregnable If swift beasts do not mean steamers, how otherwise were the scattered to be brought back from the islands ? inquires the theorist. A repetition of the miracle of the Red Sea appears to be beyond the possible in this instance, although those who locate the descen- dants of the Ten Tribes on the American Conti- nent never hesitated to part the waters in order that their prot6g6s might cross the Behring Straits. One further proof of the Israelitish ancestry of the natives of the Loo Choo Archi- pelago was produced, and this was certainly ex- pected to convince the most hardened sceptic, xhe natives suffered from exactly the diseases and plagues foretold for the Israelites in Deu- teronomy. The sceptic read the statement and hit scepticism survived.
A party of fortune hunters on the way to Klondike were warned by a missionary who accompanied them that, in spite of that region's dhilly atmosphere, Satan would still be present among them. At this a prospective miner ex- claimed: "That's the partner for me; he can thaw out the ground, and I'll do the digging." "My husband is so nice about explaining these war terms to me. I know I aggravate him awfully, too, sometimes. Why, only think, I had to ask him this morning what the seat of war was for." "Yes?" "Wasn't it foolish? But he is so patient. The idea that I didn't have sense enough to see that it is for the standing army to use when it gets tired!" Bashful Little Man: "Do men usually fall on their knees when they propose?" Up-to-date Young Woman: "Some of them do; but I should advise you to stand on a stool."
—===s I EPITOME OF NEWS: Mr. James Round, M.P., has gone to the Tslo of Skye for part of the Parliamentary Recess. A society for the prevention of dust on roadii has been formed in Germany. Mr. M. H. Woodifield, Civil Commissioner, and Resident Magistrate of Van Rhynsdorp,, Cape Colony, has been transferred to StockeJjJ. strom in a similar capacity. Princess Henry of Bnttenberg, as the widow of a notable sailor, is an extremely keen yachts- woman. She has just purchased a new steam; yacht, Gloaming, which is much larger and more commodious than the Sheila, which, although B. pretty little boat, was somewhat too crampedl for comfort. The late Prince Henry of Batten- berg was very fond of yachting, and used annu- ally to make long cruises in the Sheila off the west coast of Scotland. The Princess's children are growing up with the same inherent love for the sea which characterised their father. The scenic tunnel, under the Horseshoe Falls of Niagara, which has just been completed, was undertaken for the Niagara. Falls Queen Victoria Park Commission in order to provide a perfectly safe view of the cataract from below. A shaft was sunk 127ft,. and from this a tunnel was con- structed curving out under the Horseshoe Falls S i this laterals were run into the gorge, w—ere large observation-rooms vyill constructed of glass where tourists can sit in. easy chairs and look out- A large electric ele- vator has been put into. the shaft, and from the bottom a large board walk has been constructed to the mouths of the various tunnels. The Yankee faddists seem to be perpetually, trving to make themselves ridiculous in the eyes of the world at large. In some of the most fas- hionable quarters of Boston, U.S.A., one may observe boxes high up on the topmost window- sills, in which repose sleeping infants. It is the latest society fad, and is intended to secure for the child fresh air and protection from the dust of the citv. The cradle consists of a well-secured! box, over which is erected an awning, to protect the little sleeper from rain and sun. It is sur- prising what a lot of us live, considering we spend most of our lives on a level with the pavement. His Majesty has no time for the cultivation of the statelier style of letter writing which; characterised the early decades of the last cen- tury. But he never finishes a word with an unintelligible syllable, and does not observe the practice of referring to people and places by their initial letters. There are, however, some little time-saving idiosyncrasies which were; adopted long ago, and have been perpetuated., Thus a favourite form of subscription consists or the syncopated words, "Yrs. v. sincerely." Dr. R. A. Harris, of the Coast and Geodetic Survev, thinks that a tract of land, shaped like a trapezoid, may extend from near the north pole toward Alaska and eastern Siberia. One corner^ he thinks, lies nearly north of Bennett Island* another a little west of north from Point Bar- row, a third a short distance northwest of Banks Land, and the fourth north of Lincoln Sea. Doc- tor Harris bases his theory on a study of the direction and velocity of surface currents in the Arctic Ocean, and of the range of the tides at different known points round and in that ocean. A remarkable change in the time of the tides om the northern coast of Alaska, near the easterim boundarv, indicates, he thinks, that an island, or perhaps several islands, probably lie not very far north of that locality. The bamboo, so important a source of wealth in Japan and China, exists in many varietieSyj and not only supplies the Orientials with build- ing material, but is used for ropes, mats, kitchen, utensils, and a host of other articles. One kind, is even cultivated as a vegetable, the young shoots being eaten like asparagus. The plant is not confined to the tropics, as is often supposed, but is found in Japan, where there are heavy falls of snow in winter. A remarkable charac- teristic of the bamboo is its rapid growth, and there are records of a gain of three feet in a. single day, or an average of an inch and a half in an hour. Since the experiments of Professor Elishss Gray, three years ago, the system of submarine sound telegraphy has been considerably im- proved, and it is now in practical use on steam- ships plying between New York and Boston, ihe wounds transmitted are those of a-bell let down into the water about 25ft. below the hull of the Pollock Rip lightship. These sounds are easily heard in foggy or stormy weather on ships as mucn as seven miles distant. The sound-re- ceivers consist of two metal cylinders filled with, ceiver* consist of two metal cylinders filled with, water and clamped to the inner side of tlje iron hull of the ship below the sea-level, one oa each side. A telephonic apparatus connected with the, cylinders transmits the sounds received by them to the pilot house. The two cylinders may Lo, likened to a pair of ears, and by listening alter- natelv with them the pilot can tell the Jr c- tion from which the sounds come through sea. Professor Simon Newcomb, the American as- tronomer, took a situation as doctors boy to a, man who turned out afterwards to be a quack. In his spare time the boy studied Latin and Greek, and borrowed a work on chemistry from,- a teacher in the neighbourhood. He ran away, from his employer, and tramped back to his father's home, and then turned his attention to teaching. Professor Newcomb once led an expedition, to see an eclipse in the neighbourhood of Lake Winnipeg. A naturalist who accompanied the expedition wanted examples of all the fish inl the lake, and hired people in the neighbourhood to procure them. The fish were captured and brought to him, but, to his horror, the natives, bad cooked them all, thinking that he wanted them for food. Mr. Justice Bray, the new Judge, was edu.4 cated at Harrow, and in 1861 was second boy in the school. Viscount Ridley, who has filled the office of Home Secretary, was first boy, Sir Francis Jeune third, and Mr. Justice Ridley fifth. Thus three out of the first five boys in this distinguished form have become judges. Another judge, air. Justice Channell, was also at Harrow. Lady Ampthill's chief hobby is travel, and she has had ample opportunities of indulging in it lately. Once at an up-country railway station in India she met her half-brother on the plat- form and bestowed on him a dutiful sisterly, kiss.' The onlookers did not know whom ther favoured one might be, and the result was rich harvest of scandal for the Madras gossips. It is said that there are no fewer than 8,000,000 gods worshipped by the Japanese. Praying is made very eadY. In the streets are tall posts, with prayars printed on them and with a small wheel attached. Anyone passing can give the wheel a turn, and that counts as a prayer. The people in the second largest of the 3,580 islands of which the empire is com- posed worship 1,he beir and reverence thesuDJIj moon, fire, wind, and water. Several torpedo-boats of. the latest design,; having all the improvements and stability, ar- mament, find coal accommodation, combined with speed, have been constructed for the Ad- miralty by Messrs. J. S. White and Co. at Cowes, and have been delivered to the Ports- mouth Fleet Reserve. These boats on their trials as to consumption of coal per indicated! horse-power showed that their coal accommoda- tion would enable them to travel nearly two thousand miles without again taking coal on board. The recent Germau South Polar Expedition added much to our knowledge of the antarctic continent. It showed that the westerly shore of that myserious land descends steeply into a deep sea, and that it is occupied by a volcanic forma- tion. The inland ice covering the continent is regarded as without doubt the most extensive glacial area now in existence on the earth. It presents a picture of the ice age which once pre- vailed in northern America and Europe. Evi- dence was found that in former times the Ant- arctic ice extended even farther than it does to- day. Large marine mammals and flocks of rare birds were found frequenting the coasts, and German scientific enthusiasm found gratification in the study even of the microscopic bacteria dwelling in that far cold land.