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I THE WRECKED SUBMARINE. I LORD SELBORNE EXPLAINS THE DISASTER.— THREE SECONDS TOO LATE. On Saturday the Earl of Selborne unveiled a tablet which has just been placed on the front of No. 2, Pierrepont-street, Bath, to commemorate the fact that Lord Nelson lived in that house during his visits to the town in search of health and re- laxation. In the course of an address, Lord Sel- borne referred to the spirit of self-sacrifice shown in both navy and army, and continued: "Now a case of self-sacrifice- of true naval self-sacrifice-is fresh in our minds. I mean the case of the officers and men who have been lost in the submarine AI. Not that their case differs in the ltiast degree from the case of any other officers and men who perish by shipwreck or any other form of accident in the performnnce of their duty. Their case differs in no respect from the case of those gallant American officers and seamen who since the accident to the submarine have perished by a terrible gun accident in the battleship Missouri, of the United States Navy. But I think we are able to say we know exactly how the accident to our submarine boat occurred. It is just one of those accidents which never can be eliminated from the chances of a naval career. The gallant young officer in charge of the boat had a perfect machine at his disposal, and machinery which enabled him very rapidly to scan the whole horizon but you will see, if you think of it, that when a boat is submerged, however perfect the machinery for scanning the horizon may be, only a portion of the horizon can be seen at a given moment. Now, of course, it is obvious that what an officer in a case like that ought to do is at fre- quently recurring intervals to scan the whole horizon, and no one knew that better than the young officer in charge of the boat. But he had his orders to look out for a cruiser called Juno and torpedo her if he could, and I think that in his extreme anxiety to get a sight of this cruiser on the section of the horizon from which he knew she must come he forgot too long to scan the rest of the horizon. Then what followed ? That, I think, we can tell you also exactly, because we have recovered from the wreck the remains of the optical tube and a part of the coning tower, and the marks on it are such that I think we can exactly reconstitute the accident. This young officer, with his glass fixed on that section of the horizon to which I have alluded, suddenly saw looming in the field of vision the bows of a great ship. He rapidly turned his tube in the direction, and saw that the ship was right on top of him. Then instantly, without a moment's hesitation, he did the only thing open to him—he made his submarine dive. And to show you the tragedy of the thing, how long do you think we calculate that there was between the crew and safety ? We believe that three seconds more would have cleared the submarine, three seconds more would have taken her under the ship and she would have been saved. That three seconds was just missing, and so the sub- marine was run down and perished. The moral I want you to draw from that is that this is simply one of the realities of naval life. It is simply one of those chances that arise from the fact that the navy must always be thinking of one thing only, and that is their own preparation fof war. They must ever be practising in peace what they will have to do in war, and they must practise in the same waters in which they will have to operate in war; and in this work of naval life remember that there is no such thing as a sham fight with the sea, no such thing as a sham fight with science. It is because the naval life is a life of constant reality, of eonstant struggle with real forces, that the naval character of Nelson was developed and the naval character of the officer of to day has been formed." HOW THE DOOMED VESSEL WAS RAISED.— 1 REMOVAL OF THE BODIES. I Submarine A 1, which was lost on March 18, was successfully raised on Monday. The leaks in the hull, which have delayed the operations for some time, were. finally stopped on Saturday, and on the evening of that day the work of pumping air into the submarine was renewed. It was, however, found impossible to clear the hull of water entirely, and in consequence the submarine was slung to the bottom of a dockyard lighter and in this manner conveyed to Spithead. There an extra lift was given to raise lier sufficiently to pass over the bar in time to save the tide, but a stop had to be made off Southsea Beach, as the water had fallen too much, the progress having been slow owing to the difficulty of towing. Later in the evening the submarine was again moved from the position off Southsea Beach, and, though the progress up the harbour was necessarily slow, at 8 p.m. she was successfully placed in the deep dock in the dockyard. As soon as the water had been pumped out of the dock the work of removing the bodies of the crew began, with the view of their being conveyed to Haslar Hospital. In order to do this a. plate in the side of the submarine was removed. Arrange- ments were made for the formal inquest to be held at Haslar at 9 a.m. on Tues- day, and the funeral was fixed to take place at 5 o'clock the same afternoon at the Naval Cemetery attached to Haslar Hospital, with full naval honours. For many days after the loss of the submarine it was impossible for a diver to go down to work on the damaged conning tower, which had to be effectively sealed before compressed air could be pumped in with any effect, and when at last on Monday of last week this was reported accom- plished it was found that the pressure of air forced another aperture in the fore hateh. This in turn had to be hermetically sealed, which took the greater part of the week. At length on Saturday it was reported that everything was in readiness for a further effort.. A dockyard tug and lighter were, sent out to join the salvage steamers Belos and Eol, and, the flexible pipe having been securely attached, the Belos began pumping air, and hawsers were held in readiness to sling under the submerged vessel and haul her from the bottom. The object of pumping in the air was to eject the water that had found its way into the vessel through the damaged conning tower, and a hole was made in her side, through which the water was forced out as the air was driven in. By the watchers in the vessels that made their way to the spot all that could be seen was a seething and, bubbling on the surface as escaping air made its way to the top. At daybreak on Monday the divers Karlssen and Andersen went down and reported all going well, but it was also ascertained that the process of exhausting the water from the, hull must be limited, for the escape hole was some distance from the keel of the submarine, and 5ft. of water would remain in her. After the return of the divers preparations were made to lift the sub- marine. The doOckyard tug Dromedary, the lighter, and the salvage steamers took up their positions. Captain R. H. S. Bacon, of the Thames, arrived at the scene of the operations in the Fervent, torpedo boat destroyer, as, the steel hawsers which were to facilitate the work of lifting, were being got ready to lay over. The sun shone brightly on an unruffled sea as with one hawser swung under the bow of the sub- marine and another under her stern, the Belos and the Dromedary prepared to take the strain. They had scarcely begun to do so, however, when a delay of over an hour was caused. by one of the hawsers showing signs of "fraying," and another strong cable had to be requisitioned. This was secured, but a breeze which sprang up made the work increasingly difficult. The hawsers were gradually stretched tauter and tauter, the Dromedary slowly steaming away from the Belos, and the strain on the steel ropes was watched with the keenest anxiety. The weight of the submarine was estimated at 200 tons, and the all-important question waa whether the hawsers would withstand the suction of the sandy bottom, and lift the vessel out of its bed intact. The pumping of air proceeded per- sistentlv, and at last the sudden slackening of the cables and a slight jerking motion of the steamers intimated that the work had been suc- cessful. The steam winches were next set to work to haul in the hawsers and keep the submarine from the bottom. As soon as she was raised about 3ft. it was resolved to begin the voyage to Portsmouth. The submarine was slung on a sort of cradle formed by the hawsers stretched from the Belos to the lighter, and the Drome- dary led the way. Progress was very slow, owing to the extreme caution which had tto be exercised to avoid shallows, in consequenci of the depth at which the A 1 still remained below the surface7-so far, indeed, that not a vestige of her could be seen, It was proposed at first to take her into the sheltered water of St. Helen's Roads near Ryde and there raise her further, but after meeting Admiral Sir John Fisher, who put out in his yacht, it was decided not to run the risk of getting too near the shore, and the course through Spithead was resumed until Spit Buoy was reached after two hours' exceedingly slow steaming. Here a temporary halt was called, and the winches were again set to work, with the result that the submarine, which was being brought in stern first, was, raised another 24ft., but still remained quite out of sight. It was thought this would raise the submarine sufficiently from the bottom to (naMel her to enter the harbour safely, but this was not the case, for opposite the Clarence Pier, shortly after 3 o'clock, the hawsers slackened, and the procession came to a halt. Hundreds of persons put off in small boats to endeavour to obtain a view as she lay opposite the pier, but a cordon was formed of police picket boats to keep the spot clear. About 6 o'clock the Belos and the lighter to which the, submarine was attached once more began slowly to move, and headed in the direction of the harbour. Great excitement had prevailed throughout the whole period of delay; but, though thousands thronged the shore and' occupied every coin of vantage, nothing of the A 1 could be seen. At almost snail's pace the procession entered the harbour and made its way past the Victory and the submarines of the flotilla moored close by, every ship in commission lowering her ensign to half-mast as a mark of respect to the dead. The dockyard had by this time, been closed for the day, but a special work- ing party bad been told off to receive the sub- marine at the deep dock, which is situated at the north end of the establishment, and to open her for the removal of the, bodies of the crew. Every precaution was taken to secure privacy for the docking and landing. The dockyard was closed to all not having actual business there, and screens and an awning were spread a-round and over the dock to guard it from prying eyes. 9 Twenty minutes later she was dropped on to the cradle prepared for her. Admiral Fisher, Rear-Admiral R. F. H. Henderson, Admiral- Superintendent, and other prominent dockyard officials being present. As soon as possible the caisson was ctosed and the work of pumping out the dock began, an operation which lasted for a considerable time. But at length it was com- pleted and workmen at once began to open the hull, pneumatic tools being used to remove the rivets and force a way through the side-plates and obtain access to the bodies, which were removed to Haslar after 11 o'clock at night, by the staff specially detailed for the purpose. THE INQUEST. I When the bodies of the unfortunate crew 01 the submarine A 1 were taken from that vessel they were not disfigured, and were quite recog- nisable. Four of them were found in the com- partment into which the fore-hatchway opens, and the remainder in the other compartment. Lieut. Mansergh was found in the conning tower. Each body was laid in a coffin, covered with the Union Jack, and then hauled up to the top of the dock and placed in a steam pinnace, in which all were conveyed to the Royal Naval Hospital at Haslar. Admiral Churchill himself super- intended the removal of the remains of his son, Sub-Lieut. Churchill. Tiie South Hants coroner, Mr. E. Goble, opened the inquest at Haslar Hospital on Tuesday, and the principal witness was Captain R. H. S. Bacon, R.N., commanding H.M.S. Thames, and inspecting-captain of the submarine flotilla. He explained that there were some manoeuvres between Admiral Sir John Fisher, commander-in-chief at Portsmouth, and Admiral Sir Charles Wilson, commanding the Home Fleet. He was in charge of the sub- marine operations, and had under his orders 100 men and 24 officers, who were all engaged in sub- marine torpedo-boats. After describing the construction of A 1, Capt. Bacon said the submarine had been ordered to attack a cruiser four miles south of the Nab Lightship, and he saw her dive in that direction. The injuries were confined to the top of the conning tower. The optical tube was bent flat down. The starboard ventilator had been broken, the top of the conning tower slightly bent down, and the starboard side bent in. The only leakage of water would occur between the water-tight lid of the tower bent down, round the hole through which the optical tube fitted. It was a very small leak. Captain Bacon gave his theory of the acci- dent, which was similar to that set forth by Lord Selborne at Bath, viz., that the captain of the submarine, while intently engaged in watching for the cruiser Juno, did not notice the approach of the Berwick Castle until she was about 150 yards off. The submarine had then the alterna- tive of either blowing her ballast tanks, star- boarding her helm, and risking a grazing colli- sion on the surface, or of diving underneath the bottom of the Berwick Castle. Lieutenant Mansergh undoubtedly chose the latter course. If the Berwick Castle was only 150 yards off at the time, and was steaming nine knots, she would have struck the submarine in the position indi- cated. Had the submarine been about three more seconds quicker she would have cleared under the bottom of the liner. Captain Bacon added that he had every confidence in Lieutenant Mansergh. He had been 18 months on submarine work, and was a most capaole officer. Sub-Lieut. Churchill was a good officer, and he was selected on account of his promise. In answer to further questions Captain Bacon said the conning tower would be about three feet under water. When the vessel was sub- merged she could be easily brought up by the inclination of the horizontal rudders, and these could be worked automatically or by hand. The vessel was kept at a regular depth by mean? of the horizontal rudders. The vessel had two main ballast tanks and an auxiliary ballast tank. Captain Bacon gave further evidence, which agreed with the medical testimony that death was due to drowning. All the men in the sub- marine must have been rendered unconscious by the force of the collision. They were all found in the places where they should be at duty. The flesh was well preserved. There was no explosion of gasoline. Salt water with gasoline did not make an explosive mixture, and the greatest care was taken to close up the Caroline exits before the vessel dived. The inquest was adjourned shortly after Captain Bacon's evidence had been given. LAID TO REST. I At the funeral thousands of people crossed over to Gosport and lined the route, about two miles long, from the water tower gate of Haslar Hospital to the naval cemetery. The coffins were placed on the gun-carriages by seamen from H.M.S. Excellent. The nine members of the crew were borne on three gun- carriages from the Excellent, followed by Sub- Lieutenant Churchill and Lieutenant Mansergh, each coffin resting on separate gun-carriages supplied by H.M.S. Colossus. The coffins were all draped with Union Jacks and covered with wreaths of white flowers. By orders of Sir John Fisher, detachments of seamen and stokers, bearing splendid wreaths from the Admiralty, followed in rear of each gun-carriage. Eight subalterns acted as pall-bearers to Sub- Lieutenant. Churchill, and eight lieutenants per- formed the. same sad offices for Lieutenant ^At the word of command the band commenced Chopin's funeral march, and the procession started at a slow pace for the cemetery. All the officers wore full-dress uniform. The rela- tives followed immediately in the rear of the carriages. The ta-11, white-haired old Adniiial Churcliill, with his features quivering with sup- pressed emotion, was the most pathetic figure in the procession through the lanes and in the cemetery. The widows of the men sobbed out their grief audibly, but with him it was different. That relief was denied to the Admiral. In the bright sunlight it was noticed that his eyes were dim with tears, but the veteran sailor bent his head, and not a sound escaped from him to show how his heart was with the gallant son who had so early in life found a sailor's grave. Admiral Fisher with his staff walked at the rear, and behind him came the firing party of 100 seamen from the Excellent. The sad cere- mony was most impressive.

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