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FIELD AND FARM. Jk- WINTER WORK. Prost (writes Professor John Wrightson in the :IIr Agricultural Gazette") is beneficial as a pul- veriser of clods and a powerful disintegrator of the mitral food of plants. It is a tillage instru- ment of infinitely greater power than ploughs and hariows. It supplements their action, especially when the soil is deeply stirred and roughly laid up to its influence. In many districts frost is looked for as necessary for tillage purposes, although for several years past it has not visited us with anything like its full power. Neither is it entirely beneficial, for keen frost is not good for wheat in its earliest stages of growth. Root crops are also liable to injury in heavy frosts un- accompanied with a protective covering of snow. Cattle req uire to be sheltered, and if still out in the ftelds they ought to have a plentiful supply of hay until the yards are ready to receive them. We have, in fact, passed rather suddenly from the moist and comparative warmth of autumn into the depth of winter, and live stock require attention. Their comfort and warmth is not, as in our case, supplied from without, but must be generated within their bodies by heat-supplying foods, such as hay and cake or corn. There is such an abundance of damaged corn in the country that it is likely to take the place of cake to a great extent this winter. I have been asked to contribute a note upon the best manner of using damp and unmarketable corn. In cases where it is likely to come naturally into condi- tion by simply putting off threshing, the right course is perfectly plain. When corn is rlready threshed, and is too damp for marketing, it may be used for all sorts of stock. The worst of it ean be mixed with water and given to pigs as swill or wash. If passed through a bruiser, it will mix better with the water, which ought to be well stirred up before serving. Work horses and colts will have to put up with damp corn. A boiled mess of mixed corn given twice a week to horses is beneficial at any time. and would at least get rid of a little. Cows in milk always do well upon oats, and the fact that oats are often given in the straw, as sheaves, indicates that cows will not swallow them •••^ule. If damp or damaged corn is mixed together in equal proportions, and passed through a mill, it may be given to cows, fattening cattle and stores, and save cake. Sheep, however, will in many cases be the largest consumers of damaged corn. I have been giving a sack a day for some time of oats from the tops of ricks. The feeding vdue has not suffered materially, and the sheep are doing well on them, with hay, kale, and cake in addition. As to the corn which was out during the whole of October, it is difficult to say v hat it may be worth. One large farmer informed me he was cutting a. good deal into chaff without threshing it, but in some cases it must be absolutely worthless for any purpose except serving direct to cattle in yards as fodder, in many cases it must have been scarcely worth the labour of carting. The manurial value of such a wasted crop must be if we take into account the known effect of its removal. The wreck should be spread on the surface and ploughed in, and the land brought into corn again. It is rather strange that pigs should have gone down in price in spite of so much offal corn to consume. Such, I am told by pig buyers, is the case, all hough pigs are among the best converters of damaged corn into marketable food. Pigs always fluctuate in value, and cheap pigs at the present time and a large quantity of damaged grain on hand point to the advisability of hold- ing pigs and buying more. One might have expected that store pigs would have gone up to famine prices in the face of present circum- stances. HOW TO SELECT A DAIRY COW. An inexperienced man should always (remarks Mr. James Long) leave the selection of a cow to someone else, if he is acquainted with any person of experience whom he can trust. A man who buys a cow knowing nothing either of value 1 cl or points, is like an inexperienced amateur who acts as his own lawyer. The object in buying 1 a cow is naturally that of endeavouring to obtain an animal which will produce a, large quantity of rich milk. There are many who insist that it is impossible to obtain quantity j and quality in the same animal; modern practice, however, has dispelled this illusion. But these points are not all. The practical man requires a cow which has a long life before her, which is healthy and well bred, and which is likely to realise something in case of accident. The richest milk is produced by Jerseys, Guernseys, and Devons, although among all other breeds there are individual cows which produce very rich milk. Among the Shorthorns, Ayrshires, Red Polls, and common cattle, are many which are deep milkers, but which yield poor milk. The question is how to discriminate and to select an economical and consequently profitable anmal. A cow should be well formed, yet perfect form is not an essential point in a deep milker. We should, however, look to smallish horns of fine make, a broad muzzle, depth or thickness through the heart, a fairly large abdomen, fine withers and forequarters, especially a slender neck and a long head, breadth across the hips, and plenty of width between the buttocks, which gives room for the udder. The udder itself should be broad from flank to flank, and long from the base of the abdomen to the extreme rear. It should be rather flat or globular than pendent. The Ayrshire possesses an exceptionally flat udder; the Jersey, a globular one but many common cows possess huge. fleshy, pendent udders, which are as large after milking as they are before milking whereas in the well-bred cow the udder is thin, and shrinks to nothing after the milk has been extracted. The teats should be wide apart, and of fairly good size. There must be vitality and vigour, plenty of appetite—for a cow should be a good feeder—with good digestion, and all this neces- sitates room in the thorax or forequarters for the lungs, he:vt, and liver. Evidence should be given, if necessary, as to when the cow was calved. To ascertain that she is a good milker it is best to visit her at milking time, unexpected by the cowman, that her milk may be measured, and that she may be seen during milking, for many cows are kickers and troublesome. The uddev should be well stripped, and the milk tested if possible. The novice will not be able to manage this, but he had better get the help of some exuert friend, or, failing this, he may fet a sample of the milk after stirring, and for 8. fid. obtain an analysis from an agricultural acaylst, as the mere cream percentage is not a sufficient guide. A big milker yielding rich milk I may be worth £10 more t'hpn an ordinary cow; in other words, she may yield £10 more produce in a venr and cost no more to feed. No money is better spent in stock of this character than ail extra pound or two as between a big milker and a small milker. The average yield of the cows of England is about 440 gallons, but. cows can be purchased which yield from 700 to 1.000 gallons, although, naturally, the owners of the very best are usually unwilling to sell unless at quite high prices. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH. Dr. Somerville's Annual Report on the Distri- bution of Grants for Agricultural Education and Research, for 1902-3, issued by the Board of Agri- culture, is a very interesting one. He notices, in the first instance, steady progress and con- siderable development. While the older and larger institutions have more than maintained their former level of efficiency, five additional institutions of somewhat different type have been considered by the Board deserving of grants, which have been accordingly accorded. These are the Harper-Adams Agricultural College, the Cheshire Agricultural and Horticultural School at Holmes Chapel, the East Sussex Agricultural and Horticultural College at Uckfield, the Harris Institute at Preston, and the Cumberland-West- moreland Farm School. It is strange that some of these have not received practical recognition before. The Homes Chapel School and the East Sussex College have long done useful work, and the latter can hardly be described properly as of different type from that of the ok!?r colleges. The Harper-A-dams College gets £ 300 from tha Board; the Holmes Chapel School, £ 200; the East Sussex College, £ 200 the Harris Inst¡tute, £ 150; and the Cumberland-Westmoreland School, £ 100. Several new grants for experi- ments and research have also been made, in- cluding some in maize-growing, and one on the effects of poisonous spray in orchards where stock are grazed. The grants to institutions now amount to £ 8,900, as compared with £ 7,950 for 1001-2; and those for experiments and research to JE864, against £ 818. Altogether the grants amount to Z9,784, or L996 more than those of 1901-2.


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