FIELD AND FARM. FOOD FOR THE PIG. The feeding of pigs so that the greatest amount of profit can be got out of the industry is riot thoroughly understood, and any information of » useful and reliable nature must always be wel- come. Hence we quote Professor Henry, who says that when lib. of maize meal is employed with from lib. to 31b. of separated milk, 3271b. of the milk saves 1001b. of meal, or, in other words, by the employment of the mixture in the propor- tion suggested lib. of maize meal becomes equal to 3tlb. of the milk. As the quantity of milk is increased per lb. of maize meal so is its value diminished. For instance, when the quantity of milk is increased from 21b. to 51b. per lib. of maize, Professor Henry found the lib. of meal was worth 4Mb. of milk. When 21b. more milk was added, then lib. of meal became equal to 5flb. of milk and again adding another 21b. the difference was but slight. What Professor Henry has found in the United States Professor Fjord found in ansther direction in Denmark, although, unhappily, Fjord's work has closed, for he is no longer in the land of the living. The result of his experimental feeding was tnat lib. of grain, not maize in this particular case, alone was equal to 61b. of the milk, but it is believed that the average quantity of the milk employed by Fjord was larger than the quantity of milk employed by Henry. In Henry's inves- tigations, taking the average of the whole series, lib. of meal was worth 4flb. of milk, so that, after 4 all, the difference was not amazing. If we take maize as worth £ 4 a ton, and we fix this figure for the purpose of argument, as well as for con- venience in calculation, the American feeder finds that the separator milk is worth 15d. per ten gallons, or, practically speaking, the same price as that which is usually fixed by the English feeder, lÙd, a gallon. Dealing with the whole of the series of experiments conducted by Henry, i.e., from the first in which lib. to 31b. of milk were employed, to the last in which 71b. to 91b. of milk were employed, we get an average price of lid. per 1001b., or a fraction more than Id. a gallon. LAID CROPS AND COSTLY HARVESTING. A large proportion of the corn is too badly laid for the use of reaping machines in cutting it to be feasible, and, where labourers are short high prices will have, in many cases, to be paid for cutting, tying, and shocking wheat or oats by hand. Much injury to the grain, and particu- larly to barley, will also result from the laid con- dition of the crops. FEATHER EATING FOWLS. During all seasons of the year (remarks "E. T. B. but especially at this time, many poultry keepers are greatly troubled with what is termed feather eating, and this may be due to either a disease or merely a bad habit. In both cases it is annoying, and it is frequently difficult to cure. If the culprit can be observed in the act, and it is not a valuable bird, it is better to kill it at once, otherwise there is great liability of it spreading among the other birds. When fowls feather eat it gives them a most unsightly ap- pearance, causing them to look bare and ugly. Sometimes the hens will all attack the male bird, a.nd commence to pull his feathers out, and far from objecting he seems to enjoy it, and cer- tainly allows them to do so as long as they please. More commonly, however, the whole pen begins pecking at one another's feathers, with the speedy result that the appearance of the birds becomes most disagreeable. Apart from this mere fact of appearance, however, it shows that the birds are not in a natural state, and require attention. One of the most frequent causes of feather eat- ing is that the birds are confined in too small an area, and are unable to obtain sufficient exercise. Frequently it will be noticed amongst fowls that are kept in runs in gardens, and it arises from the fact that the birds are idle, and have nothing with which to occupy their tfihe, and as a consequence commence plucking a.t one another's feathers. It is a good plan, when the fowls have to be kept in a very limited space, to hang up a cabbage or half-mangel just out of reach of the birds, so that they have to jump up in order to reach it When a covered shed is attached to the poultry house, it is a wise plan to cover the floor with chaff or straw, especially during the cold weather when the birds cannot get about very much, and amongst this the afternoon corn should be scattered. This will give the bird3 work picking about for it, and unless they work they will have to go hungry. Another cause, and by no means an uncom- mon one, is due to the presence of an insect at the root of the feather, which irritates the bird. and in order to overcome this the feather is pulled out. The remedy for this is a simple one: dust the bird well with some. disinfectant powder, in order to get rid. as far as possible and as quickly as possible, of the cause of the irritation. The bare parts, if any there be, should be bathed with warm water, and if a little sanitised vaseline rubbed on. If the fowls are kept in a thoroughly clean state there will be no trouble in this re- spect, as feather eating, when due to this cause, can only take place upon birds troubled with vermin. DUST SPRAYING. I Dust spraying has come greatly into favour of late in the United States, and many who have tried it prefer it to liquid spraying. The various insecticides used commonly in liquid form are all applied in a cloud of dust, dispersed by a machine constructed for the purpose. The worker, it is said, with the wind in his favour, can envelope a whole fruit plantation in dust with much" less labour than he has to apply when he uses liquid spray, and a similar claim is made for dust-spraying potatoes and other neld crops. There is no carting of water, nor is there any trouble with clogged nozzles, while the mixing of the ingredients of an insecticide is much easier when powder is used. Moreover, it is said that the dust does not burn the foli- age, as liquid often does, and that an excess of the former does not harm. The worst of the plan is that it must be carried out when the foliage is damp with dew or -rain. PERMANENT GRASS. I Among the experiments of which the results are given in the Eleventh Annual Report of the Agri- cultural Department of the Durham College of Science are some for testing various mixtures of seeds for permanent grass. The soil is a strong loam on the Boulder Clay, and it was in good con- dition as to fertility and freedom from weeds when I sown. Eight mixtures were sown in 1896, vary- ing in cost from 13s. 2d. to 43s. 7d. per acre; but some varieties of grasses in some of the most elaborate mixtures failed to establish them- selves. The mixture that has given the best re- sults, taking yield of hay and condition of herbage both into consideration, is one made up as follows: Perennial ryegrass, 9-31b; cocksfoot, 4'91b.; timothy, 3lib.; meadow fescue, 131b.; rough- ptalked meadow-grass, O-Dlb. cowgrass, 2-31b.; alsike clover, 2'llb.; white clover, 5-61b.; yarrow, 031b. The total weight was 411,,Ib. per acre, and it was e-scimated that this quantity contained twenty million germinating seeds, and the cost was 23s. lid. per acre. The average yield of hay in 1897 and 1898 was 45§ewt. per acre. Apparently the pasture has been grazed since 1898. The condition of the herbage was tested in 1902, when patches were fenced off to allow of botanical analysis. The cocksfoot has increased in the new pasture, while rough-stalked meadow-grass is con- sidered not to have proved useful. It is added that the large proportion of meadow fescue and white clover have proved beneficial. It will be understood that the mixture might not be suitable for any but heavy land. —
Bender: "I have made the trip from New } York to Philadelphia on a bicycle, and have orders to write it up for a magazine. Wonder where I can get a good horse?" Friend "What on earth do you want with a horse?" Bender: "I must repeat the trip in a carriage, so as to get an idea of the scenery, you know." Seedsman "You know, ma'am, you don't have to plant your potatoes whole you can cut them up in small pieces." Mrs. Newmarket: "Yes, I know; that might do very well if we always wanted to raise potatoes for Lyonnaise or for mashing; but we should probably desire to uave potatoes served whole, now and then."
GARDEN GOSSIP. Though Malmaison Carnations may (says "The Gardener") be layered with safety outside, it is much better to lay them down in a frame, where, in the case of heavy storms, the light can quickly be placed over them. Many growers make a point of keeping Free- sias on the dry side after repotting. This is a mistake. The bulbs start more freely and strongly when the soil is kept well moistened, and to maintain moisture a mat may be placed over them until growth has commenced. Never plunge Freesias in ashes or similar material unless you are prepared to remove the pots immdiately growth has started. The best of the dwarf Evening Primroses is Enothera marginata, whieh produces pure white flowers of large size. E. macrocarpa (some- times known as Missouriensis) is a beautiful yellow species. Would-be Dahlia prizewinners must not hesi- tate to disbud their plants. They should be- gin early and thin fearlessly if they wish their blooms to catch the judge's eye. Bulb fanciers should not omit to grow some of the Muscaris, which include the Grape, Musk, and Feather Hyacinths. Early Rivers Nectarine has proved once again its great value as a pot tree. Hale's Early Peach makes an excellent com- panion to the above, and there is no easier Peach to grow. Most of the failures arising in the culture of Mignonette in pots may be traced to allowing the plants to grow too thickly. Do not longer delay the operation of layering Carnations the earlier the plants are rooted, the better and stronger they will be for next year's blooming. Madame Eugene Resal is one of the most charming of Roses in the half open stage of blooming, the coppery red of the petals being at times of a most wonderful tint. FLOWER BEDS.—These should now lie in per- fect condition with every bit of space covered with its appropriate vegetation. Not only should no decaying flower be permitted to re- main for a day, to become an eyesore, but any growths that pass beyond due limits should be at once suppressed. MIXED BORDERS.—The same remarks apply to these, but with even more force because, go almost where one likes, there is a regrettable roughness about these that should not exist. Especially should no plant be allowed to straggle across Box or other edging, or one group en- croach on another. The time required, if sys- tematically apportioned, is really very little less in the aggregate than is needed to put the border into a quasi-decent condition when ne- glected, and the pleasure in the first case is so much greater that for that reason alone system should prevail. ZONAL GERANIUMS.—Cuttings of bedding varieties should be propagated as soon now as possible. Much may be effected in the way of saving the beds when taking the cuttings, if those only are cut which are hidden or by thinning the plants judiciously. Leave the cut- tings to dry for one or two days in a shed before placing them in soil. In our climate it is a commendable plan to stand the cutting boxes on raised trellises of wood. FUCHSIAS.—These strike freely if cuttings are inserted now; give the protection of a cold frame. The plants resulting are valuable the following season. SHRUBS.—Many flowering shrubs will repay examination at this time. Any ill-placed or superfluous shoots should be removed. Those which require trimming with shears should be tackled without delay; these include evergreen hedges, topiary subjects, and edgings in planned gardens. YOUNG WALL TREES.—Shoots will now be growing somewhat more rapidly than during the heat of summer. Those intended to furnish the tree should be tacked into position before they become bent out of the straight. At the same time remove all superfluous growths. They are of no value whatever to the tree, and they hinder the free admission of air and sunshine that is so necessary to maturation. MELONS.—Fruit which has arrived at the ripening stage in frames should be elevated on an inverted flower pot, quite clear of the foliage. As a rule, no more water at the roots will be re- quired, dryness at root conducing to quality in the fruits. MELONS IN PITS.—If these are planted in shal- low layers of turf, plenty of water will be re- quired if the weather is hot in the day time, as it frequently is at this period. Apply in the forenoon, however; a slight addition of some good manure being helpful, in preserving healthy, insect free foliage, and also increasing the bulk of fruit. Allow ripening fruit a little extra heat at night, keeping the soil at the same time in a somewhat dry condition. FIGs.-In the earlier districts Figs on walls will be approaching ripeness. In the case of this fruit there is always a tendency to gather before it is quite fit, which does not occur till it is dead ripe, almost rotten ripe indeed. GATHERING OUTDOOR PEACHES.—Where any fruit is to be found on early varieties, it will require to be examined every morning, and that only which yields freely to the touch removed. The fruit is best kept for a day or two in a cool room, that eaten directly it is gathered never being quite so Peachy flavoured and luscious. CAULIFLOWERS.—Seeds are, as a rule, sown at this time to produce plants to stand over winter and yield the earliest cilt-tinga It is one of those old practices superseded for early work by the system of sowing some extra early variety under glass in spring. CELERY.—Plants wanted in October should now be earthed. Choose for the operation a dry day succeeding one on which a fair amount of rain has- fallen, and the hearts will swell up thereafter nicely. Late planted stuff which is growing vigorously should have 1 inch or 2 inches of fresh soil applied all over the surface of the trench. SPINACH.-If not already done, the seed to produce the winter and spring supply should be sown without a day's delay. PARSNIPS.—An older race of gardeners had much faith in trampling down the foliage, more particularly just about where it springs from the crown. They supposed this opprobrious treatment caused the roots to swell much larger. Those who care to imitate should see about operating now. POTATOES.—All the earlier varieties growing in the main quarter should be lifted, seed selected and stored, and the ground put under a crop, such as Lettuces, Turnips, or Endive. TURNIPS.—A larger sowing than ordinary of Snowball will yield nice little roots during the cool of the year. They may be grown more closely than summer* Turnips, as the tops do not make much foliage nor are the bulbs large. ENDIVE.—Get plenty of plants set into vacant ground, which should be made somewhat firm to secure the plants lifting when wanted with nice balls of soil attached. The Batavian, a hardly and good form, requires a space of 15 inches each way to do it justice.
OUR SHORT STORY. "SUN SPOTS." At last the appointment, or I am very much mistaken," said Professor Scott-Worboys, turning over in his hands the letter that had just arrived. This is from the Society for the Observation of Sun Spots, Miss Forsyth," he added. The girl at the typewriter, who was the pro- fessor's private secretary, changed colour as she answered, Indeed ?" answered, Indeed ?" The other was already perusing the note. Suddenly he uttered a shout of surprise. I am to start for West Africa with my scientific instru- ments in four days. Short notice that! I am to take up my station on a little island, where I must remain for three years. The series of observations is a most important one. The honorarium is a big one, and so it need be." Miss Julia Forsyth was now quite pale. She was a nice-looking girl of twenty-seven! the pro- fessor was in his fortieth year. A groan of horror burst abruptly from the scientist. Whatever do you think ?" he con- tinued. I am informed that my observations of solar spots will be of such a delicate character that it is most essential that I should not be bothered with grosser matters. I am therefore earnestly recommended to take with me a—wife If the professor had been instructed to take a whale, he could not have shown greater bewilder- ment. Shade of Herschel!" he cried, what do I know about wives ?" The private secretary laughed. Well," said Scott-Worboys, after a pause, I am not a man to be daunted by obstacles. I will run over the names of my female acquaintances. Let me think now. You are acquainted with all my feminine friends. Do you know one of them who is in love with me ?" The private secretary shook her head, and fanned her face with her handkerchief, remark- ing that it was very warm. The month was November. The only two that occur to me," went on Pro- fessor Scott-Worboys, "are Miss Jessie Hobhouse and her sister, Miranda. They have ever taken the greatest interest in my—er—discoveries. Both are excellent women. The only thing is that they are —er—well, shall we say ancient ? But what does that matter to a man like myself ? I should be taken all the more care of." That does not follow," said the other. The professor was greatly perturbed. Finally he dictated a letter, offering marriage, to Miss Jessie Hobhouse. Then he decided to re-write it to Miranda Hobhouse. He could not make up his mind, but kept vacillating between those two. At last he said, wiping his brow, which was streaming with perspiration, Oh, make it Jessie He dashed from the room, after having affixed his signature to the letter. The private secretary seemed to be unable to get on with her work. The professor had certainly imparted much of his agitation to his pretty assis- tant. For fully twenty minutes did Julia continue to read and re-read the important epistle which she was about to dispatch. Finally she murmured to herself this weighty truth: When a man does not know his own mind, he is certain' to make & mistake; when he cannot manage his own affairs, a woman must manage them for him." She put the letter in an envelope, and began to direct it. Now Miranda was in love with Professor Scott- Worboys, and she knew it. Her younger sister Jessie was also in love with the scientist, and she knew it. More, Miranda knew that Jessie was in love, and Jessie knew that Miranda lived in that happy state. They adored the professor, who appeared to be as remote from them as the solar spots at which he gazed through millions of miles of space. The letter arrived. The two Misses Hobhouse were together when it came. Miranda, to whom it was addressed, looked at the printed words upon the back of the envelope which gave the professor's residence. Her heart beat with painful violence. She said, "This is from that charming Scott- Worboys. Excuse me, my dear; I always prefer to read his letters when alone. He says such nice things. A most interesting man, though a wicked, wicked flatterer!" She hurried away to her private sitting-room, leaving her sister deeply mortified and full of con- jectures as to the contents of the mysterious com- munication. Miranda broke open the envelope, and began to read as follows: "MY DEAR MISS HoBRo-usE,-The Society for the Observation of Sun Spots has requested me to proceed within four days to a certain small island off the west coast of Africa, and they recommend in my best interests that I go out provided with a wife." Dear, dear man!" interposed the reader. The climate is of the most deadly nature. I must remain there for at least three years, during which time I may not set eyes on a civilised being. Hardships and privations: there will be in plenty it is even possible that I might find a grave in that torrid spot. In these circumstances am I jrustified in asking you to accompany me as Mrs. Scott Worboys ?" The dear professor exaggerates," said Miranda, trembling with joy. Of course, of course, I will go with him." She turned the page as she spoke, and perceived that she had not quite finished reading. The remaining few lines ran as follows As the matter is of so urgent and pressing a nature, perhaps you will kindly reply by return of post.—Ever yours, HENRY SCOTT-WORBOYS. Miss Jessie Hobhouse." On reading these last three words, Miranda uttered a piercing scream the letter fell from her fingers, and she dropped back in a half-faint. Immediately afterward the curious Jessie, hear- ing the cry, ran in to ascertain its cause. She perceived her sister's predicament, and guessed instantly that the letter had brought it about. Snatching the note from the carpet, she com- menced to peruse it with lightning swiftness. Suddenly Miranda sat up and seized the letter without ceremony. "How dare you!" she de- manded. Have—have you read it ? I was doing so," was the quiet answer. Where is the envelope ? Here, where you left it." You see this address ? said Miranda, holding up the white square for the other's inspection. Certainly. I do not deny that that is your name." Very well; then this letter belongs to me it is meant for me. That is plain enough. It belongs to me. I say! -r "Presumably so," answered Jessie, with a tremor in her voice. • Miranda drew a breath of relief. Clearly her sister had not read the communication. She was convinced—at least, she assured herself that such was the case-that the professor had made her- Miranda-an offer of marriage, else why should he have directed the envelope to her ? Vecy well, then; she would write accepting that offer. But Jessie had seen every word of that letter. Her own name at the end was a clear proof that the professor had formally proposed to her. No doubt he had made a mistake when directing the envelope. It was a pity, but the matter was plain enough. As for accompanying the scientist to West Africa, to living with him on a lonely island, why. was not that the dream of her life? She went straight away for pen and paper. Without loss of tunc she would vow her readiness to be made Mrs. Scott-Worboys. The professor, tired out with hastily-made ar- rangements, lay back in an armchair in his study, while his thoughts wandered from sun spots to the pretty hair of his private secretary. (The latter was writing busily at a table upon which was an electric light with a red shade.) And as he surveyed those red-brown coils, the following ridiculous comparison occurred to him which is the more beautiful-a woman's hair or the sun ? The private secretary turned in her chair, and the, professor noticed, for the first time, the well- cut profile of his assistant. Suddenly a pang for which lie could not account shot through him, and he said, almost involuntarily, "Do you imagine, Miss Forsyth, that my friend Miss Hobhouse will accept my offer of marriage ?" It is certain," was the emphatic answer. A cloud settled upon the professor's brow. He seemed to be unable to take his eyes trom the figure writing at the table, with the soft light on the soft hair. A servant entered and handed his master a couple of letters. If I am not mistaken," said Scott-Worboys, "these are from our esteemed friends Miranda and Jessie. A little curious, since I wrote to the latter onIJ." The private secretary became suddenly in- tensely absorbed in her work. She heard the rust- ling of paper; then a deep groan rolled through the room. Julia sprang to her feet. The professor had fallen back in her chair. He evinced the symptoms of one who takes a dose of deadly poison and waits in some anxiety for the first pang. He was deadly pale his face twitched. What is the matter, professor ?" was the startled cry of his private secretary. "Heavens! what a ghastly error somewhere! What have I done ? What have you done ? I only know, however, what they have done. They have both accepted me, Miss Forsyth!" "Impossible!" It is true enough. You must have sent two letters—one to each." Never!" Then how do you account for it ? Stay, the letter itself was addressed to Miss Jessie, for I sa.w the name when I signed the note; but the envelope ? Is it possible that you put Miranda's name there ? If they both got hold of the letter, eh ? Are you absolutely clear on that point ?" The private secretary flashed a glance of real admiration at the professor, as if she had never suspected him to be capable of this. A wave of hot colour swept over her face as she answered, No I—I am not quite clear. I addressed so many envelopes, and destroyed so many as you changed your mind, that-that such a mistake may well have occurred." My fault! my fault! Miserable ass, what have I done ? And the worst of it is, Miss Forsyth, that when I come to consider the matter, I find that I would rather marry neither of these estimable creatures. Yet I must wed both of them." The professor buried his face in his hands then he looked up suddenly to add, but I cannot marry them both That is indisputable." Ah, you are laughing at me. Can you suggest no way of escape from this terrible hole ?" "Yes, professor," said the private secretary, there is one way, and only one." "Quick! quick!" It sounds mean, but there is no help for it; you must marry someone else and leave for your African island a day earlier-to avoid complica- tions." Professor Scott-Worboys gasped, as if over- whelmed by the daring and ingenuity of this pro- position. The private secretary walked to the window, where she stood drumming upon the sill as if it were a typewriter. Suddenly a half-scream broke from her. The professor had crept up silently and caught her hands. He said- A truly excellent idea; a masterly piece of strategy. Only—will—will—only will—I say, will- will you help me to-to-to carry it out ?" And the private secretary, who had wilfully mis- directed that envelope with deliberate intentton to bring about a complication promised that she would do her best to assist. And so it came to pass that a certain small island off the west coast of Africa was transformed for three years, into a honeymoon retreat.
I NOVELTIES AT NICE. I In order to be up to date Nice has found it necessary to establish a golf club. There is a suspicion, however, that it has not been started for the benefit of the French residents'. The British Cousul there, who chronicles the fact, is careful to point out that the links are within a fairly accessible distance of the quarters of the town which British and American residents and visitors inhabit. The Consul is sure that the golf club will benefit British commerce, by which, he adds, the needs of English-speaking people in Nice are largely supplied. Nice can now also boast of an ostrich farm, which, we are told, has achieved a distinct success. It is run by an American, and the Consul, mindful of the in- terests of British firms, says they will probably be able to obtain ostrich feathers at cheaper rates in Nice than from middlemen, or from farms in regions more remote. At any rate, ladies bent on visiting sunny Nice in the spring; would do well to follow the advice of Captin Cuttle, and note the fact.
A CAUCASIAN ROMANCE. I In the Northern Caucasus nearly half the death-rate of the inhabitants is caused by ven- detta, and at least three-fourths of the vendetta cases are the result of a curious marriage custom which is now decimating the population. The native of those parts who wishes to take unto himself a wife cannot, remarks a contemporary, arrange the matter in the simple off-hand manner in vogue in Western Europe by "popping the question." He must go home, sell his belong- ings, and buy her fairly and squarely of her 11 parents, the price ranging from £ 35 to £ 200. This is a very costly custom in many ways, for it is not every young man who can afford to invest such a large sum in a wife, however accomplished. What generally happens in such cases is that the indigent candidate for the order of Benedick, in- duces a few stalwart comrades to seize the maiden and carry her off. What too often follows then may be gathered from a case in point which hasi just taken place in Sosslamhek. Bokayeff is the bridegroom's name and Neshkho that of the girl of sweet six- teen who had the misfortune to find favour in his eyes. His pockets being empty he persuaded three comrades to kidnap the maid, whom he then took off to another village as his wife. But her father, on discovering her whereabouts, had her sent back by the police, and then demanded £ 30 for loss of her services as we should say. Bokayeff, to whom the demand was made, would not or could not pay. The girl's father there- upon claimed that sum from the bridegroom's companions, who are equally- liable. They ad- mitted the justice of his claim and called upon Bokayeff to hand over the sum to them. On his refusal they shot him dead, that being the custom of the country, although daggers are also, allowed to take the place of bullets. The three youths were forthwith arrested, and will, of course, be tried and deported in due course. But that, far I from being the end of the matter, is only the very beginning. The kindred of the slain man are now preparing to "wipe out" the relations of the murderers, while the family of the dishonoured girl is bound by the custom of the country to wash the stain on her reputation in the blood of the clans of both the murdered man and his murderers. And Russian law is powerless to in- tervene.
THE KING'S VISIT TO AUSTRIA. I The visit which, it is officially announced, the King will pay to Vienna, will not be his first. The programme of the six months' tour which, as Prince of Wales, he made in 1868-69 included the Austrian capital, which was reached by the circumbendibus of Paris, Copenhagen, and Ber- lin. It was from Vienna that he went to Cairo and the Suez Canal, and so home by "Constant," Sebastopol, and Athens. He was in Vienna again five years later, on May 1, 1873, on the oc- casion of the opening of the exhibition, and was one of the distinguished company that fore- gathered under the colossal dome which Scott Russell had suspended from iron girders, with- out any masonry, and which dwarfed St. Peter's.
The "Giorale d'ltalia" states that a rumour is current that the British Government and the Orient Line do not intend to renew their agree- ment, which lapses in 1904, for landing the Aus- tralian mail at Naples. At Liverpool, of 110 police court cases on one day, 75 per cent. were cases of drunkenness, about two-thirds of which were women, and half the number were under twenty-five years of age. One woman was convicted for the 16,th time. Mr. Ben Tillett declines to give information in connection with the proposed inquiry into the legal status of trade unions, because no direct representative of labour is on the board, although an avowed opponent of trade unionism and an employer has been nominated.
I EPITOME OF NEWS. Te Army manoeuvres will commence on Sep- tember 7, unless a late hai "^cessitates a postponement for a week. The latest official statistics give IOriO number of Roman Catholics in Great Britain at 1,933,000. The death is announced of Lieutenant-Colonel John Murray, of Touchadam and Polmaise, Stirlingshire. Colonel Murray served with the Grenadier Guards in the Crimea. Prince George of Greecii, ?igh Commissioner for Crete, has left Athens for Paris and Copen- hagen. He will return la October, after at- tending the marriage of Prince Andrew at z;' Darmstadt. Mr. John Wilson, M.P. for Falkirk Burghs, who has seceded from the Unionist Party, has been accepted by the local Liberal Associatior as their candidate at the General Election. A larger staff is needed to deal with the Royal telegrams and correspondence at Sandringham, and the Post Office is being extended. 0 According to Belgrade despatches King Peter intends to appoint his brother Arsene to the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Servian Army. Five brothers in Newcastle-on-Tyne named Craig are all possessors of Royal Humane So- ciety's medals for saving life. The famous Charterhouse mulberry trees have borne little or no fruit this year owing to the weather. After thirty-six years a pauper lunatic has died in Hatton Asylum (Warwick), having cost the union IC800. The Mayor of Hythe has announced that no further licenses for passenger motor cars will be granted. The Japanese House of Representatives has passed a proposal to prohibit people below the age of twenty from smoking. Mrs. William Hunter, of Chicago, is dying as the result of wearing high-heeled shoes, which caused a malformation, and led to an unsuccess- ful operation. Dr. G. L. Barritt, medical officer of health to the Spalding Urban District Council, says the deaths from cancer are increasing in the Fens, and he suggests that the number of deaths yearly from this source seemed to point to some liabilty to the disease in the district. The Korean Government has granted to the Russian Lumber Company a lease of land and rights of timber purchase at Yongampho which virtually secures to Russia free access to the Ya-lu valley and the command of the estuary of the river. Mail advices received in Copenhagen from Reykiavik state that the Iceland Althing has definitely accepted the Danish Government's Bill amending the constitution of the island, all the members, with one exception, voting in favour of it. In order to cure a lion of severe toothache, a veterinary surgeon at Sternberg, Moravia, en- tered the den and, with the aid of the keeper, extracted the offending tooth. On the occasion of their coming visit to America the sailors on a German trading ship have received permission to visit the American navy yards. Aberdeen is to spend F.13,000 on enlarging its wharf accommodation for steam drifters en- gaged in the herring fishing. The Dominion Line is said to be arranging for an improved service between Boston and Mediterranean ports by means of five very powerful steamers. There was a touching reunion the other day at Frick's Locks, Pennsylvania. The venerable schoolmaster rang the bell of the old school- house, when there trooped in, not the children of the village, but sixty-two middle-aged men and women, former scholars. All the old les- sons were gone through, and then the class ad- journed to the playground and romped through the old games. Too many Chinese leave home, and the Great Wall of China badly needs mending. Putting the two facts together, a San Francisco journal proposes that the Powers secure a treaty guaranteeing that for every Chinaman who earns his living in Europe or in the States, the Chinese authorities will provide employment on the repair of the Great Wall for white "out o' work," and pay him a white living wage. Now that the oyster season is in full swing, the Fishmongers' Company harve sent out cir- culars inviting all medical officers and sanitary inspectors to report bad drainage in the neigh- bourhood of oyster-beds and oyster stores. They have also caused samples from all the beds that supply the London market to be analysed by an eminent bacteriologist, and all found con- taminated have been closed. A pike weighing some 221b., and measuring 3ft. 4in. in length, has been lately caught at Loch Fad which had protruding from its mouth an eel 3ft. long. The voracious pike had con- trived to accommodate in its interior not only the eel nearly as lengthy as itself, but to gulp down the artificial minnow, hook and all, where- with it was caught. His Majesty's head chef at Windsor receives £ 800 per annum. This important person has under him quite an imposing array of domestics, which includes two confectioners, who receive Y,500 each per annum. In the Royal kitchen there are altogether about twenty-five other offi- cials, who are liberally paid, the kitchen and scullery maids each receiving from E25 to £35 per annum. Princess Ferdinand of Roumania plays the violin remarkably well, and no doubt has in- herited this talent from her father, the late Duke of Ce"- "r>- with whom love of music amounted to -a pa jon. Princess Ferdinand's pet hobby is a curious one, being the collecting of perfumery bottles. The same predilection was shared by the late Empress of Russia, who left at her decease a collection valued at no less than £ 5,000. The famous Sevres dessert service, which is kept in cabinets in the green drSwing-room at Windsor, and in which President Loubet was most interested, is probably worth about £ 80,000. The service was purchased by George IV., when Prince of Wales, for quite a small sum. It passed on his death in accordance with his will to William IV., who generously made it over to the Crown instead of keeping it as his own private property, which he could have done if so disposed. Authorities on forestry say that seventy-five years are required for the oak to reach ma- turity and about the same length of time for the ash, larch, and elm; for the spruce and fir, about eighty years. After this time their growth remains stationary for some years, and then decay begins. There are, however, excep- tions, for oaks are still living which are known to be over a thousand years old. The General Election which must come sooner or later may see some startling developments in the way of elctioneering. A scheme which has been prohibited in Amsterdam may be tried here. A political club proposed to send up a balloon laden with hand-bills laudatory of their candidate. To this balloon a time-fuse was to be attached and exploded above the city, and down would flutter the batches of circulars. The smallest pension extant is believed to be that paid to an old sailor in the Portsmouth Workhouse. It comes to fourpence a year, paid quarterly. Each quarter, therefore, he duly re- ceives a penny stamp, wherewith is enclosed a stamped envelope for the receipt. He is then granted leave of absence to convert his little Eldorado into cash. A Berlin doctor says that the learning of the piano has great risks. Out of 1,000 young girls under the age of fourteen who began to learn 600, the doctor has discovered, were affected by some kind of nervous disease. The doctor re- commends an age limit of sixteen, before which age no girl should be allowed to learn the instru- ment. The son of a rich brewer near Cologne recently showed signs of mental derangement. A doctor was sent for, but, as he entered with the father, the son shot the latter dead and then killed him- self. He was afraid of being sent to an asylum. O-Ume Hanai, a Japanese woman who has just served a 16-year sentence for murder, has gone on the stage at Osaka for the purpose of giving her earnings to a fund for the construction of a temple. A working man of Pfersee, Bavaria, recently went with his bride to the registrar to get mar- ried. Both the registrar and his deputy having gone for their holiday, the wedding had to postponed indefinitely. To eat fruit fresh from the trees at a banquet- ing table is one of the latest luxuries of English epicures. Certain fruiterers in the West-end. of London are now making preparations for an abundant supply of dwarf fruit trees laden with cherries, peaches, pears-, and apples for ornament and dessert at the dinners of the coming season. The tiny fruit trees, which, although four or five years old, are only some 3ft. high, not only make a delightful table decoration, but produce deli- cious dessert. Many tempting offers to return to the stage have been made to Madame de Navarro, better known as Miss Mary Anderson, but all have been steadily refused. She retired, on her marriage in 1890, after a career of only fifteen years before. the footlights, and, with her two children, is per- fectly content with life in a quiet farmhouse at Broadway, near Worcester. In the place there is nothing to shov that Madame de Navarro was once an actress, and she docs not possess one of the many charming portraits that have been taken of her. During an equestrian performance a number of ladies in the front stood up, thus obstructing the view of those present who were seated. In vain were they collectively requested to sit down, till at last a happy thought "curred to one of the sufferers. He called out, in measured tones, "Will the pretty lady in front kindlv sit down?" whereupon about fifty old women briskly seated themselves. The report by the statistical officer of the Lon- don County Council upon the Registrar-General's Preliminary Report on the Census of 1901 has just been issued. Some of the facts are inter- esting. The females in London exceeded the males by 252,371, there being 1,118 females to every 1,000 males, as against 1,116 for every 1,000 at the census of 1891. In considering the excess of females over males, account must be taken of the large number of fem-ale, domestic servants who are brought into London from the country. Recently a United States newspaper compiled a list of American young ladies who had acquired titles by marriage. In England it was stated that thirty holders of title were of American birth, including three duchesses and one dowager duchess. In Germany there were: twenty-six, five being princessesi; in France, fourteen, one princess in Italy, seventeen, six princesses and in Russia, six, all princesses but one. Their dowries' were represented as amounting to 181,000,000 dlols. The profession of "courier-maid" is becoming quite popular among well-educated young women. College girls and daughters of good families, whose knowledge of languages has come through study, and who have a liking for change and ad- venture, now often take this means of acquaint- ing themselves with the world's doings. One girl from a north-western university has piloted several parties over Europe. After the amateur haymaker the amateur hop- picker. A novel country outing has been arranged for a number of lads connected with the clubs, etc., associated with a well-known church in the East-end by the curate. Under his per- sonal supervision they will be employed on a Kentish hop farm and be paid the usual hop- pickers' wages, living the while in a well-arranged re camp where everything will be done to secure their health and comfort, and where neither their spiritual nor physical needs will be forgotten, as a large central tent will serve as chapel, dining, and recreation room respectively. It is to be hoped the scheme will meet with the success which it deserves. A cycling statistician has (says a correspondent of "Cycling") drawn up a table of comparative costs of touring in various countries. The home tour works out considerably more expensive than the. Continental tour, and of the home countries- Scotland is dearer than England. France, Italy, and Germany are all much on a level,, from 30 to 40 per cent. cheaper than Great Britain and lowest of all in the list comes Belgium, a land much favoured of the tourist by reason of the beauties of the Ardennes country. King Edward and the Queen show their affec- tion for their horses in a curious way. When a favourite dies its hoofs are cut off and polished, and the horse's name is inscribed on each hoof. These are placed in a row in one of the harness- rooms at Sandringham. On the wall above are photographs or prints of the owners of the hoofs. Their Majesties have favourite dogs as well as favourite horses. Against a wall at the back of their residence at Sandringham may be seen a stone, "To the memory of dear old Rover." Large families are so much the rule in Lincoln- shire that the Agricultural Society of that county has for many years offered four prizes, ranging from £ 4 to kl, to "labourers in husbandry who have brought up and placed out the greatest number of children without having received paro- chial relief or occupied more than half an acre of land." This year the ten labourers who entered the competition aggregated 141 children. The first prize-winner, Thomas Hought, of Telby, Market Rasen, has had nineteen, seventeen of whom he brought up, and twelve of whom are "placed out." Prince Khilkoff, the Czar's Minister of Rail- roads, is perhaps the least Russian-looking man in Russia. He is the greatest railway builder in the world, and during the eight years he has held his present position almost 13,000 miles have been constructed-more than one-third of the railway mileage of the Russian Empire. To him is due the Siberian Railway construction and the fact that Russia is far more formidable in the Far East than ever before. A Privy Councillor, a member of the Ministry, and a strong man, Prince Khilkoff has great weight in the councils at St. Petersburg. Sir Evelyn Wood is offering a cup for competi- tion by officers in a long-distance compass-bear- ing ride. The idea is a novel one so far as England is concerned, but similar rides, known as chart-and-compass races, were carried out under Lord Roberts in India. The distance to be run is twenty-five miles, and competitors are for- bidden to use whips or sticks, whilst spur-marks on a horse will mean disqualiifcation. The idea of the compettion is to train the officers in the proper management of horses, the importance of which was demonstrated in South Africa. It is not generally known that Germany has intact the idemnity which was paid by France after the great war of 1870. In the Juliustrum of Spandau this enormous sum in gold, amounting to z26,000,000 in value, lies hidden in great boxes. The little town, fifteen miles outside Berlin, is most heavily garrisoned, and there are several giant arsenals and ammunition stores, so that any scheme to lay hold of the sum of money would be doomed to defeat at the outset. The idea in hoarding up this vast sum is original. It is that there may be money ready at any moment to provide for one week's operations in the way of mobilisation. Between six o'clock in the morning and three o'clock in the afternoon a bridge 130ft. long, which spans the Seine at Passy, was moved a distance of nearly 80ft. The preparatory work for this difficult operation took about ten weeks, and when everything was ready the huge mass was moved over wooden rollers by a windlass worked by hand for safety. The operation was completely successful. An Englishman—Mr. Denison, of London- when disembarking at Boulogne-sur-Mer, ob- served that a little bag containing £ 3,000 worth of jewellery was missing. Soon afterwards a man named Britton, carrying the jewels, was ar- rested. He is believed to be a member of an international gang of thieves who have been working Boulogne for some time.