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FIELD AND FARM. 1

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FIELD AND FARM. 1 NOVEMBER IN THE COUNTRY. I November is not (remarks Prof. John Wrightson in the "Agricultural Gazette") a bad month in the country. On the contrary, it is one of the most agreeable. Fox-hunting -begins, and covert shooting only becomes possible when the leaves fall. Country houses and hotels fill, and there is much keen interest as to "where they meet to-morrow" and "what they did yes- terday and no one troubles much as to who they are, because it is thoroughly understood that "they" always means the hounds in the country. The interest is not confined to the limit, but spreads to all classes, down to the labourers, who can generally tell you which way they went. The hunt must be friends with the landlords and the farmers, or there would be a deadlock, but when the sport goes on harmoni- ously and popularly with all, it forms a link of friendship between the various classes, end a point of interest far beyond its own intrinsic value totalled up as "varmint" hunting. To many men, farmers included, the country would not be worth living in without the hounds, but with them the town pales in comparison. No- vember is pleasantly soft and moist. The land has long ceased to tread like hot liae, as it does in summer the drops hang on the bushes and the red berries glow on the holly. The faatares are still full of grass and look about their best, full of clover and herbage. Cattle enjoy the mild, humid air, and their coats are brightened with dew and clean from long sojourn in the open air. As to the autumn tints, they go with- out saying, and add to the general mellowness of the scene. Those who are afraid of the damp may not share in the ardent love of the country in November, but, actually, the damp is one of its charms. No burnt-up grass, no intolerable heat, no wiping of the forehead, no rush for the shade. The damp is on the grass, but not on the skin, and this in itself is a comfort. For myself, I had rather see Nature damp than feel damp, and this pleasant relief we experience in November. Besides, November is often bright and sunny in the country. The traveller leaves his little country station in Devon or Dorset on a beauti- ful morning, and enjoys the prospect until he begins to notice a gradual darkening of the mellow sunlight. He is within ten miles of London, and his train is rushing into darkness. At Vauxhall he is startled by fog signals, and his train is held up outside the great terminus waiting for orders. London shops and offices are lighted with gas or electricity, and he sees his fellow-creatures yellow and big through the mist. And yet thsre are people who prefer London with all its fog and smoke, so thoroughly and well mixed, to the pure country with its rising mists, a dream, and its dewdrops hanging from every bush, but brightened to gems by the rosy sunlight. CALF REARING. I The value of store stock exported to Great Britain can (as is pointed out by a leaflet recently issued by the Board of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland) be enormously enhanced by the exercise of increased care and attention in the rearing of calves. Fortunately, calf-rear- ing is not incompatible with Ireland's great but- ter-making industry; but the farmer who sells butter during the calf-rearing season must give infinitely more attention to the rearing of his calves than if he fed them with whole n. ilk- Whole milk is the natural food of the calf, and no improvement on it for this purpose can be hoped for. It forms the standard at which we should aim when seeking for a substitute. Before dealing with milk substitutes it is de- sirable to point out that of the four substances other than water, cf which milk may be said to be composed, one, and one only, can provide the materials for the building up of muscle, blood, skin, hair, hoof and horn, and that substance is not fat but albuminoids. On account of the im- portant functions performed by albuminoids in the animal body they are often spoken of as the flesh-formers of milk. Sugar and fat are mainly concerned in the production of heat and energy, while the minerals supply one of the chief con- stituents of bone. Separated milk, which differs from whole milk in being deficient in fat, is not the poor substance it is often represented to be. The constituents mainly concerned in the produc- tion of flesh, blood, and bone, are not removed by the separator, but remain in the separated milk. Fat is the one substance removed. But fat is by no means the most important food constituent, though it chances to have the highest commercial value as an addition to the human dietary. Fat is fortunately one of the most easily re- placed ingredients of milk. Fortunately, also, it is entirely devoid of manurial properties, and when sold in the form of butter it does not rob the soil of any of these substances which make land fertile- Fat, however, is an essential food for the young calf, or it would not have formed a constituent of milk. No good argument, there- fore, can be adduced for withholding it from calves, and those who follow the disastrous and utterly indefensible practice of giving only separated milk to calves after they are two weeks old are indeed penny wise and pound foolish. Considering the price obtained for milk in Ireland no farmer is studying his own interest who does not feed his calves on their mothers' milk, unskimmed and undiluted, until the animals are at least four weeks old. If a more deplor- able practice can be imagined than that of feed- ing only separated milk to calves two or three weeks old, it is that of suddenly changing young calves from their mothers' milk to separated milk. Untold loss accrues from a desire to save the price of a few gallons of new milk at this critical stage of the calf's existence. The development of the organs of the animal is checked, and calves so treated become a prey to disease which, if contracted, cannot be thrown off, and death toe often is the result. At the best the existence of such calves for the first season is a constant struggle, and their very appearance in the fair as yearlings repels the most desirable customers and gives the stock of the district a bad name. If calves are to escape disease, if they are to develope into good year- lings, if the heifer? are to grow into good milch cows, and if the district is to attract the best class of customers, calves must get their mothers' milk until they are at least four weeks old, and the change from whole milk to separated milk must be a gradual one. When calves are six weeks old. they may safely be fed on separated milk, provided some substitute is supplied to re- place the fat removed in the cream. What substitutes are available for this purpose! It is self-evident that while the calf is young any substitute for cream must be pure, rich in fat, and readily digestible. The substances com- ifionlv used, and which may be recommended un- til the Department's calf-feeding experiments suggest something better, are one of the follow- ing, viz.—(1) pure flax seed (2) a mixture com- posed oi equal parts of flax seed, fine, oatmeal, and fine ground pure maize; (3) pure linseed cake (4) cod-liver oil; (5) one part of whole milk added to five parts of separated milk. The last is, perhaps, the best and cheapest, and it certainly is the safest and most easily prepared. Numbers 1, 2, and 3 should be steeped in boiling water and made into gruel, which may then be fed along with the separated milk, the quantity heing gradually increased so long as the bowels remain normal.' No. 4, viz., codliver oil, is fed by simpl- pouring it into the bucket containing the separated milk and thoroughly stirring imme- diately before feeding. Not more than one ounce per day^ should be given at first, and the amount gradually increased to about two ounces. THE BEST CROP TO SOW WITH TARES. I It is a common and a good practice to mix with seed tares something that will grow upright, and keep the tares as much as possible from hugging the ground, where the crop is to be cut green as food for horses or other stock. Otherwise, there is an immense amount of waste, as the bottom growth, lying prone on the ground and covered with a mass of upper herbage, becomes useless, and even harmful for food. The question is, then, which is the best seed to sow with tares! Rye is too early, as it will develop its ears fully long before the tares are finished, and in that stage it is dangerous food for horses. Winter beans hold tares up remarkably well, but horses do not care to eat green beans when they can get plenty of tares, and they, therefore, wastÆ them. Winter barley is better, but is open, in less degree, to the objection urged against rye, I'I. the ears get too forward before the twee are finished, and the beard, though not as bad as that of rye, is objectionable. To winter oats, however, there is no objection whatever. They stand better than barlCT, and it does not matter how forward they get, 4s they are excellent food for all animals with a greater bulk of tares. This crop, then, may be regarded as the best one to grow with the tare crop.

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