FIELD AND FARM. 1 FEEDING HOME-GROWN CORN. Our fathers considered it good management (remarks Professor John Wrightson, in the "Agricultural Gazette") to consume produce upon the holding as much as possible, oats for the horses and Fheep, and barley meal for the cows and pigs. Maize and cotton-cake were but little known at that time, and it did not seem desirable to sell corn in order to buy expensive linseed cake at L- 12 and 914 per ton. As to prices, they were not very different for barley and oats from what they are now. Turning to Stephen's "Book of the Farm," published in 1844, I see that oats were currently valued at 20s. 6d., and barley at 28s. per quarter; while Bayldon, in "Rents and Tillages" (Morton's edition, 1864), puts oats at 20s. and barley at 32s. Oats are about the same price to-day, but it takes .a good sample of barley to make more than 32s. The average price of barley has fluctuated between 25s. 6d. and 29s. 6d. during the last seven years, and a fair price might be 27s. 6d. Wheat has gone down fully 50 per cent., that is from 50s. to 25s. per quarter. Beef and mutton, in spite of foreign competition, are at much the same price as we have always remembered them. The two factors in the problem as to feeding corn at home are the market price of corn and of cattle and they have not materially altered except as regards wheat. Oats are at present dear, as old oats are worth as much as wheat. New oats range from 19s. to 20s. per quarter, and will no doubt pay well for keeping. At present prices oats pay for selling better than wheat. The question affects those who have a quantity of damaged corn in hand. Growers who have been fortunate in securing their crops in good order will find good samples in demand at higher prices than are usually quoted, and will do best by selling them. On the other hand, there is a large amount of damaged grain which may be more profitably used at home. The solution will be found in substituting weathered corn for cake. Those who are accustomed to cake bills know what they are, and that they easily rise to amounts considerably larger than the receipts for corn. A review of present circumstances will show that cake and purchased foods need only be employed in very moderate quantities this winter. There is a great supply of hay, much of which is more fitted for home consumption than for sale. The hay-making season was interfered with by a heavy rainfall in June. This hay should be given to all descriptions of stock. Roots are abundant, and there can be no object in saving them. They are better con- sumed by cattle than ploughed in in the spring. Hay and roots ought to suffice for dairy cows in milk, and all descriptions of young stock. Sheep certainly require nothing better, for it is a badly bred teg that will not grow fat on such a diet. Plenty of hay and a few roots, with open grazing, suit ewes exactly. Where concentrated food is needed, as in the case of fatting cattle, or, pos- sibly, cows in milk, the more or less unsaleable barley will furnish a good fattening meal. With such resources there seems to be little room for cake, neither does it appear likely that a large -quantity even of meal will be necessary. Hay is not likely to be a dear food this winter, and will possibly be cheaper than wheat straw. SALTING BUTTER. Mr. William Peol writes:—Not so very long ago, at a local show, prizes were offered for butter in two classes-namely, for unsalted butter and salted butter. The prizes were sufficient to attract competition, besides which local honours counted high in local estimation. Makers were, therefore, inclined to exhibit in both classes as accomplishing this by one churn- ing, with the difference in salting only. On the occasion referred to, the first prize sample in the unsalted class was one of outstanding merit-well made, granular, dry, and good in every way. A corresponding exhibit from the same churning, entered in the class for salted butter, was pos- sessed of similar merits in all points, save that of the salting. With this sample broken, the butter throughout appeared streaked and bleached with a sort of network ramification through its substance. The first prize in the salted class was obtained by an exhibit which, however deficient in other points, had the merit of its dry salt having been amalgamated with the butter during working, so as to leave its com- bination satisfactory. Another instance of salting butter which came under notice was that of dry salting on the worker. One lot was salted, worked, completed, and set aside. In working a second lot, this, when nearly dried, was tasted by someone who suggested that it required more salt, which was accordingly sprinkled on, and after a little more working, made up as usual. The following day when a pound of butter was broken into, this, while otherwise satisfactory, was found badly streaked. Upon examination, the butter which was made up from the first working showed no such signs. It was only when the incident of addi- tional salt during an advanced stage of working of the second lot was remembered, that an explanation was forthcoming. Butter-fat, like other fats, does not appear to absorb or combine with salt in appreciable quantity. Hence, in the process of salting butter, a solution of salt must be effected, which remains or is left in amalgamation with the butter-fat. In practice, it is found advisable in dry-salting, as it is termed, to sprinkle the salt on the butter, when on the worker, before the roller is used to expel any moisture. If the butter is firm, in granular form, and has drained for some time, the addition of water during work- ing the salt in may be necessary to an effective solution throughout. Makers of excellent butter, on approved lines, as it would appear in the first instance noted above, may unwittingly fall astray in the matter of adding salt. The aim to produce dryness and compactness in the butter, as essential, being carried rather too far in the first stages before the salt is incorporated in solution. In the second instance quoted, the incidental rather than intended departure of adding salt to butter approacning the dried stage, gave unmistakable results in comparison with the first lot as ordinarily treated. Probably these are only but very common examples of what takes place almost daily in practice, giving rise to unsatis- factory results as mottled butter, in spite of all other Careful observance of modern teaching. The matter is that of getting the salt fairly mixed with the mass of butter while the latter retains sufficient moisture to admit of ready solution. Afterwards excess of moisture becomes expelled by working, and as this carries away some of the salt solution, there must be allowance, by the use of sufficient quantity in the first instance. FEATHER-EATING FOWLS. I In reference to this subject, "H. F." points out that there is no question but that in a great many cases of feather-eating, this iiabit is caused by parasites, not, it is true, by lice, but by the depluming mite, scientifically termed Sarcoptes laevis, which produces the parasitic disease known as "Depluming Scabies" in fowls. These mites are exceedingly minute and microscopical in size, and are closely allied to the species known as Sarcoptes mutans, which is the source of "scaly leg" in poultry, but the former are smaller in size than the latter. The depluming mites live at the bases of the feathers in various parts of the ^ody, and in the surface layer of the skin, setting up violent irritation and itching, and causing the feathers to fall out very fre- quently. As a result of the irritation to the skin, the hens pull out their feathers in the affected areas. If the end of the quills of feather which have been plucked out be examined, it will be found that they are filled with a whitish powder, which consists of epidermal products produced by the depluming mites. On examining some of this powder under a good microscope, the mites at the various stages of their life may be observed. This parasitic affection is readily transmitted from an affected bird to another if they come into actual contact with one another. There are various remedies that may be applied to the infected areas with a view to effecting a cure and killing the parasites, all of them more or less effectual. Carbolised vaseline, flowers of sulphur ointment, creosote ointment (consist- ing of 1 part creosote to 20 parts vaseline), or an ointment prepared as follows i oz. vaseline, 20 grains carbonate of potash and 1 drachm flowers of sulphur are good remedies. Instead or using an ointment for dressing the invaded parte liquid remedies may be used. The two following are American remedies:—(1) 2 oz. glycerine, t oz. alcohol, 1 drachm creolin, and t oz. water; (2) 3 oz. alcohol and 1 oz. Peruvian balsam.
I GARDENING GOSSIP. It is wise (says "The Gardener") to give little or no manure to the soil in which Wallflowers are to be planted. In moderately poor soil they flower much more freely than in that made rich with successive applications of manure. Give Libonias a little extra heat at this season. There is nothing prettier for winter blooming than these neglected but charming plants. A little weak liquid manure twice a week will help to develop the flowers. Palms, ficuses, and similar plants in rooms will need increased attention at this season in keeping the foliage clean, owing to the dust aris- ing from the more frequent use of fires. Give liquid manure without stint to Chrys- anthemums which are swelling their buds. See that ample ventilation is provided for the plants. Open the sashes and doors to their fullest extent in mild, quiet weather. Beet, Carrots, Scorzonera, and Salsify should be taken up and stored in frost-proof sheds. Parsnips may be left in the ground all the win- ter, but it will soon be time to take up a portion of the crop for immediate use. Violets often do badly through being kept too much confined in the autumn and wintry months. Give air on fine days, and only exclude fogs and frost. Zonal Geraniums often damp off whole- sale in foggy weather. Every decayed leaf must be removed without delay. Cuttings which are growing in boxes must be closely examined and treated in the same way. Watering is not a great business in winter time, but more damage to plant life occurs through bad watering then than in summer. There is less evaporation of moisture in winter, and also less growth, so that fewer waterings are required to keep the plants in good health. Dry plants do not receive injury from frosts as much as moist ones do. This is a point to remember. When once a plant requires water, always give a sufficient quantity to thoroughly percolate the whole of the soil in which it is growing, and do not get into the habit of giving driblets, which do harm sometimes and never much good. Seedlings growing in pans and boxes must be carefully watched, as many may die off through damp. A small quantity of protecting material will keep out many degrees of frost, if it is judiciously placed on and around the frame. Frost will penetrate further through damp material than through dry therefore keep the mats and sacks, straw hurdles and litter, dry when not on the frame. Michaelmas Daisies are most unsatisfactory for cutting purposes when they are allowed to grow in too large clumps, and their roots are squeezed. The first flowers die off long before the others on the same stems are ready to open; in some cases the seeding of those first flowers so takes strength from the plant that the other buds never open. Really, only the best Michael- mas Daisies are worth growing, and by that I mean the best plants as well as the best varieties. If old-fashioned sorts are in the herbaceous bor- der, they should be taken up this autumn, divided and banished to the wild garden, the summit of rough banks, nooks in the shrubberies, or any waste ground, and their places filled up by ex- cellent hardy Asters, supplied by famous florists. The Michaelmas Daisy is symbolical of "after- thought." Digging Flower Beds.—After the bedding plants have been removed thoroughly dig the soil. Should the ground be poor, the present is the best time to add manure, which should be well decomposed. Feeding and Disbudding Chrysanthemums.- Careful feeding now with weak, but sustaining, liquid manure will assist in building up good buds. See that the soil is moist when stimulants are applied. Continue to reduce the number of terminal buds. Arranging Chrysanthemums.—Specimen plants must have plenty of room. Groups should be arranged so that the tallest plants are to the rear, and the dwarfest to the front. Cinerarias.—As plants in pits and frames ad- vance in growth they require more room. A low pit, with means of keeping out frost, is suit- able for them after this period. Stand the pota on a moist base, and afford plenty of ventilation during all favourable periods. Planting Bulbs.—Larpe groups of Narcissi in herbaceous borders, when in flower in spring, form a pleasing feature. The bulbs should be planted now, one sort in each group. Bulbs in Pots.—A good supply of Hyacinths, Tulips, and the choicer varieties of Narcissi should be potted up for indoor display in spring. Plunge the pots under ashes for severil weeks until growth begins. The first double Hyacinth is reported to have been raised by one Peter Voerhelm, a florist of Haarlem, but he really did not deserve his good fortune, which seems to have pursued him, rather than he it. For some time he had been in the habit of throwing away all the plants that showed double blooms, regarding them as mon- strosities, freaks, examples of the imperfect. Presently he fell ill (a retribution, perhaps), and when able to revisit his bulbous plants he was surprised to find one double Hyacinth advanced to the stage of full bloom. Amazed, he recog- nised its beauty, and no doubt wept for the others that he had disturbed in their first budding, and so destroyed. That Hyacinth he named Mary, The world of Haarlem went wild over it; yet by mischance it, together with the next two doubles, was destroyed or lost. Then he raised a bulb which he sold for £ 100. This variety, called The King of Great Britain, was probably the first ancestor of all our double Hyacinths of to-day. Carrots.—The roots will not do any good in the ground after this, and should be lifted. Cut the tops off to within a few inches of the crown, and thoroughly dry the roots. Store them in layers in a cool, dry place, between dry wood ashes, sand, or soil. Beans.—The season for Kidney Beans is prac- tically over, even if frost has not destroyed them. Gather all the ripened pods to preserve for seed, if required. Cut down the haulm, and wind out the stakes, selecting the best for another season. Celery.—Continue the earthing up of the late rows, choosing the most favourable weather for the operation. Beet.—Beetroots may be lifted now, at a dry period. Avoid bruising them in any way, or breaking the tap root in its thickest parts. Place them in a dry, airy structure to induce quick evaporation of moisture, after which store in dry sand or soil. Lettuces.—If frames are available, a number of Lettuces may be planted therein, as well as under walls and sheltered places. Snails are troublesome when the surface of the ground is constantly damp. Scatter a little soot or quick- lime about the plants. Cabbages.—The stock of autumn planted cab- bages should be augmented by inserting further plants if necessary, thinning out the seed bed, or obtaining them from the stock previously pricked out. Hoeing between the rows will assist growth, and prevent weeds becoming firmly established. Pansy is the English name of several species of Viola. What have been known as "Bedding Violas," but are now more frequently spoken of as "Tufted Pansies," have arisen through cross- ling Viola cornuta with forms of the common Pansy, V. tricolor. The Tufted Pansies are recognised by their close, tufted habit, and self- coloured or unblotched flowers; if two colours are present they are not in blotches or bands, but delicately blended together. The show Pansies, on the qther hand, are either self- coloured, with a decided dark blotch under the eye, or banded, with strips of bronze, red, purple, crimson, or some oth,er colour on a white or yellow ground. Fancy Pansies differ by having the ground work of one colour, and a heavy blotch on each petal of some other quit* distinct colour.
OUR SHORT STORY. DARLING LITTLE LULU. I It stood just round the corner from the main road, so snugly screened by a wealth of foliage that I almost passed unnoticed the old and mutilated board that said it was to be let or sold; and it's name was Geraldine Villa. Fred and I were going to be married that day fortnight, and the house to suit us was still to be found, and, as dear Fred was so busy in the City, mamma and I were scouring the neighborhood all day long. And here was the very house, though mamma, apparently, did not think so, for after staring at it through her glasses for several minutes she said, decisively- That is no house for you, Connie." But, mamma, what have you to say against it?" I cried, very disappointedly. Isn't the ex- terior charming enough to please you ?" Oh, yes," admitted mamma. The exterior is pretty enough." And you haven't seen the interior, yet you de- cide against it." li I have not seen the interior, Connie, and I don't wish to see it, either. I have a strong pre- sentiment that the house is an unlucky one. Oh, you may smile some houses are proverbially un- lucky and I believe in presentiments." But, mamma, dear, you haven't to live in the house, and I don't believe in presentiments. We might at least look over the place-it says, 'Apply within to the caretaker'—before we give judgment against it." Saying which I clinched further argument by knocking at the door. An aged woman responded to my summons, and as I walked right in mamma, of course, followed me. In a few minutes I had looked into every room, examined the garden and cellar, and arrived at the conclusion that when the windows had been opened, the floors scrubbed, and the house gener- ally sweetened with Nature's disinfectants, fresh air and water, Geraldine Villa would be the house for which Fred and I had been searching for past months. Then I returned to the naIl, where mamma was still cross-examining the old caretaker. If the drains are all right, then it must be haunted," mamma was declaring. "It's no use your trying to persuade me to the contrary, my good woman. The house is an unlucky one. I have a presentiment to that effect, and all your protestations won't convince me. Of course, your interests coincide with the landlord's, and there- fore, like him, you would tell any fable to serve your end; but you won't convince me, I repeat, that the house is not an unlucky one, and my daughter shall never, with my consent, come here ] to live. And that's my last word! Now let me look at the kitchen." In the kitchen, mamma, with her skirts held high from the floor, scented mice in the larder rats in the china cupboard, and disease in the scullery sink. In the drawing-room she found a damp spot, and discoursed upon it for five minutes without pause. Tired of the monotonous dissertations, I went upstairs again. Here and there, littered upon the floor, lay scraps of dirty paper, wisps of straw used in the last removal, and sundry suchlike marks of a past habitation. I fell to weaving a pleasant picture of the late tenants of Geraldine Villa. The wife, I decided was a tall blonde, thirty years of age, pretty, carelessly pretty, and certainly unmethodical in habit-for here was the lower part of what pur- ported to be a dressmaker's bill, and an extrava- gant one, to boot-and her name was The bill heading was torn away, but as I turned the paper over I saw there was writing on the back. The ink was faded and smeared with dust, and the writing was small and cramped, but I shook and brushed it carefully, and then with some difficulty, I read: "My Darling Little Lulu,—Is this the bill in connection with which your economically-minded mother has so upbraided you ? Nay, then, do not be downcast; for what is a woman who loves not to array herself beyond the dreams of her neigh- bours ? Surely not a woman. Most surely not a pretty woman, and that, above all, my Lulu, art thou. Nay, do not blush little one. Sweet it is to write the truth, when the truth is so sweet; but sweeter still, my own true love, to whisper the truth irto a little pink ear. pink as a coral twig. So meet me to-night as usual, little sweetheart, where the wild roses are dreaming in the moon- light, and until that blissful moment, believe me, your love from childhood's day to now, from now to evermore, FREDERICK MARRIOTT DANEBY." It was a torturing ten minutes I spent pacing to and fro in that little upstairs room, while below, like the distant roar of the storm that raged within my poor, aching brain, could be heard my mother's voice in its never changing monotony of com- plaint. And as 1 pacea tne room, witn the torn dress- maker's bill crushed in my palm, stunned by the shock that seemed to have penetrated to my inner- most consciousness, I saw why Fred Daneby—who had lived in that locality from boyhood, and knew every house and half the occupants by name-had failed to discover Geraldine Villa, though, by the caretaker's admission, it had been long unlet. I saw why Fred had tried to persuade mother and me to leave the locality before he and I were married, and why-it flashed so clearly upon my shock-awakened memory-whenever in our rambles we had approached the road where Geraldine Villa was situated, he would make some excuse for altering the direction of our walk. Despite his voluntary protests that he had never had a sweetheart before, had never loved or cared for a woman until he met me, Fred Daneby had once been engaged to this woman called Lulu, and feared that I might learn of the engagement did I frequent the neighbourhood where she used to reside, where, possibly, she still resided. Mamma," I said, as mother and the caretaker appeared upstairs, "don't pursue your investiga- tions further. It is an unlucky house, I am sure. You were right. I, too, have a presentiment that it is unlucky. Let us go out of it. There is something about it that makes me shiver. Come, mother, dear, there is sunshine and sweet air out- side in here it is dark and poisonous." And false and deceitful," I might have added; but that was for Fred to hear. Fred came home earlier than usual, and, finding I had a headache, proposed a stroll. I acquiesced, and, following the plan I had conceived, led off in the direction of Geraldine Villa. Fred objected, as usual, so soon as he saw whither we were bent, but I clung obstinately to my purpose. I don't like the neighbourhood. It's not healthy, being low and-" At that moment we rounded the corner and stood in front of Geraldine Villa. "But you don't mean that this is the house you've brought me to see!" he added, quickly. A glance at his doleful face banished the last hope that had continued to flicker in my hapless brain, and I hardened my heart. As I had suffered through that day, so should he suffer now. Boldly I knocked upon the door, and walked in to the caretaker's opening. Up the stairs, without a word, I went, and into the upper room where I had happened upon the incriminating dressmaker's bill, while the walls swam around me, and a pain at my side proved how keenly the ordeal was afflicting me. Fred followed me. What do you think of this room?" I asked; and the tremor in my voice frightened me. "Musty," replied Fred. "Stale and close, as indeed it must be, seeing that the house has been unlet since-since I lived here, four years ago." Since you-! I did not know-! You have never told me that you once lived here!" It was long before you came to the nei ghbour hood." is-is that, why you never mentioned it f* Well—no—of course not." Then there was some other reason ?" He must have traced a note of sarcasm in my voice, for he regarded me in a myMified way for some time before he admitted- Yes, Connie, there was another reason." "Possibly," I retorted, producirg the ctress. maker's bill, not unconnected with this. He took the paper from my trembling fingers, and read it slowly, over and over again, apparently, eo long was he before he raised his eyes. All the time I watched him, but his face was im- passive, awesomely impassive, it seemed to me. Then, still without speaking, he walked to the window, and stood there, his back turned upon me. Shivering with cold, despite the warmth of the evening, I watched him, a prey to a thousand emo- tions, mentally stamping upon the desire to run and clasp him in my arms and end his obvious auguish in a word of loving forgiveness. At last he turned round. Connie, I will explain why I had never thought to mention that this was once my home." At sound of his broken voice a dumb cry leapt to my parched lips. Don't! I believe you unheard. I have been cruel, it is I who need forgiveness. Forgive me, Fred—forgive and forget!" But his eyes were upon me and I could not Speak. One does not like to dwell upon melancholy episodes," he added slowly, and his memorie of this house are of the saddest. My mother and only sister died here in the same week-of fever. They left me alone-absolutely alone." Aione!" A sudden revulsion of feeling seized me. Alone!" But what of Lulu-your darling Lulu ?" The words were on my lips but I did not say them yet he must have read them, for he took me gently by the arm and led me down the stairS and out into the unweeded garden at the back. I., At the bottom of the garden he liberated me, and, swishing among the weeds with his stick, found the object of his search. Uprooting a handful of the flowering weed, he exposed to view a wooden cross, soiled and time- eaten, wrenched it from the ground, rubbed it vigorously with his coat sleeve. Read it, dearest," he said. My hands were shaking, I could scarcely hold the piece of wood that, before my helpless eyes, seemed to swim in perplexed circles; but with a great effort I studdied the cross and made out, one by one, the rude, weather-blotted letters deeply cut thereon: To the memory of Lulu. Faithful Tabby and Life-long Playmate." .Elie truth came to me, but I could Hot speak. The torrent of shame gripped my throat. She was the finest cat I ever saw," Fred was saying. My sister-whose pet name was Lulu- and I had played with the old tabby from baby- hood and we could not forget our childishness when we, and the cat, grew older. We used to dress up the old pussy in all sorts of fantastic garbs—hence the dressmaker's bill which my sister made out in proof of the cat's extravagance, and the affectionate note I wrote on the back of the bill to soothe Lulu's wounded feelings. It was an infantile recreation, but it pleased our little minds. "Poor old Lulu!" reminiscently added Fred. Her two mistresses did not long survive her. It's a wretched house this. A house of ill-luck. Let us go away from it, Connie." We went—willingly we went-and, yes, I must add this, when I blamed myself for suspecting him, Fred vowed that it was but natural of me, and that he should not have loved me half so well if I had not, in the circumstances, been a little jealous.
CYCLING IN WINTER. The countryman having his pure air and hi? green fields always at hand (says The Cyclist "i has no incentive to ride, and consequently we believe if a census could be taken we should find that there are more winter riders in large towns than in the country. It is better to cease bicycling in the winter than become tired of it, and the enjoyment of winter riding is undoubtedly largely, if not entirely, a question of personal tempera- ment. Physical strength has not' very much to do with it, as many of the strongest and hardest riders are the leasi inclined to turn out in winter. In fact, « man must be a very weakling if with a low gear, good bicycle, and good tyres he cannot ride to his enjoy- ment and benefit in wintertime. Others relinquish the cycle for the winter months because they think it beneficial for them to have a rest. We can only say that if this be the case it is proof that during the summer months they have ridden too hard. If bicycling is to do its votaries its utmost amount of good it should never be indulged in to excess, and the need for a winter's rest is a proof that it has been overdone; not, we may be perfectly certain, in 999 cases out of 1000 in distance, but in speed, or attempts at speed.
A CURIOUS CUSTOM. I Of the many curious customs existing in Turkey is one by which Turkish women cannot come into their fortunes until after marriage. Then they can dispose of one-third of the money without the consent of the husband. As is generally known, however, everything is plentiful in Turkey but money, and the woman who gets what is due to her in this respect is more than lucky.
I AN ARTIST'S VICISSITUDES. A sad reverse of fortune has overtaken one who, in her day, was perhaps the most brilliant vocalist in all the German countries. Frau Materna was Wagner's ideal of the lyric tragedienne, and her embodiment of the passions and emotions in the "Waikyrie," "The Twilight of the Gods," and "Parsifal," are (says the Vienna" Tagblatt") spoken of as reaching the highest point of which dramatic expression is capable. She lived in retiremant in a country house in Styria, full of treasures, relics, and associations of the great legends, amid which she had lived so long. Sud- denly a great financial disaster, at present unex, plained, has swept away everything. All h et belongings are being compulsorily sold, and Mdme. Materna is destitute.
Although the diameter of the earth has been roughly known for many years, it has only been accurately ascertained after thirty years' labour, and at a cost of £ 100,000. It is 7,926 miles at tho Equator and 7,899 from Pole to Pole. Berkley, a "delightful flower-bedecked town" in California of 20,000 inhabitants, does not possess a solitary policeman, and has, no need of one. No alcoholic drinks whatever may be sold within a mile of the outside limits of the town. Sir A. de Rutzen has ordered the Commis- sioner of Police to restore to Mr. E. F. Weber, of Hamburg, a collection of stamps and coins valued at EIO,000, which was stolen by a private secretary and sold in London for £382. A Chinaman has been sentenced to six months' hard labour at Bangkok for stealing clothes. He confessed that he stole them from the house by standing outside the window and fishing for them with a bamboo rod and a hook. The new method of masking a battery by paint- ing guns rainbow fashion, with streaks of red, yellow, and blue, rendering them indistinguish- able against any background, has stood a very remarkable test at Aldershot. A section of Horse Artillery sent to engage them did not locate them until within a distance of 1,000 yards. This method'is the invention of a military officer. Devonport was not a lucky constituency for Mr. Brassey to fight. As long ago as 1865 his father, the present Lord Brassey, fought the seat and was returned unopposed. Hardly had he entered the House, however, when Earl Russell's Government resigned, and Mr. Brassey, as he then was, this time had to fight. He lost the seat by eleven votes. To add to this ominous precedent Mr. T. A. Brassey had fought and lost three elections prior to Wednesday. He was defeated at Christchurch in 1900 by three votes. Astral Pliotography.The large new telescope for the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford, has been erected in the tower built specially for its recep- tion. One of the object glasses, measuring 18in., cost L- 1,000. The larger object glass, measuring 24in., will cost £850. The lifting floor erected in the tower is of a kind rare in England. There is only one other lifting floor in England, and that is in a private observatory. When finished the telescope will be one of the finest for photo- graphic purposes in the world.
EPITOME OF NEWS. I Scotland has 146 parishes without paupers, poor rates, or public-houses. An experimental sheep-breeding farm is to be established in Upper Burmah. The smoke nuisance is being strongly taken up in Bradford. The curfew bell is regularly rung during the winter months at Boston. The steamer Rocklands has sustained exten- sive damage by collision with Dieppe Pier. Mr. E. Price Edwards has been appointed secretary of Trinity House in the room of the late Mr. Charles A. Kent. Musolino, the Italian briganu now in solitary confinement, is suffering from consumption. Lord Dundonald will be asked to secure a cap- tured Boer gun to be placed on Dundonald- avenue, Abergele, North Wales. Newsham House, Liverpool, where the judges reside during the assizes, is to be fitted with a billiard room. Nottingham has more back-to-back houses in proportion to its population than any other town in England. Thirty-two Leeds Reservists have found em- ployment this month at wages averaging over Zl a week. Over 8,000 persons were vaccinated or re- vaccinated in Stepney during the small-pox epi- demic. All the butchers of Amoy have gone out on strike owing to a tax being placed on pork by the local authorities. "King Lear" has been translated into Japanese. It has been considerably modified in order to adapt it to Japanese tastes. Warwickshire farmers have been asked to con- sider the question of fruit growing with a view to taking up the pursuit. A Frenchman who has been hanged at Singa- pore is the first European ever executed in the Straits Settlements. The boring operations which are being con- ducted near Barrow have not yet resulted in the discovery of coal. Mount Etna has diminished 65ft. in height dur- ing the last twenty years, through the gradual crumbling of its crater. The chancel of Bangor Cathedral is to be completely renovated, at the expense of Lord Penrhyn. Baked mouse, it is alleged, it still considered a good remedy for whooping cough in some part? of Yorkshire. Only one death from tubercular disease oc- curred last year at Tow Law, Durham, which is said to be the coldest region in the country. It has a population of nearly 6,000. A census of Johannesburg will be taken early next year. It is suggested that particulars of the nationality of all the inhabitants shall then be obtained. At the village of Dozenkowka, in Russia, a peasant woman has given birth to three boys and one girl. The woman has had already three sets of twins. All officers joining the regular army will in future be supplied with a field kit at the public expense. This is to be maintained at the offi- cer's own expense. Steps are being taken to get rid of the pigeons which have made a home in the tower of Leeds Town Hall, as they are disfiguring the facade. Mr. Geo. Crowe, the Master-at-Arms who acted as historian of the eventful commission of H.M.S. Terrible, has been presented with a type- writer by the vessel's crew. Discharged soldiers admitted to the casual wards at Bath, are now only called upon to do two hours' work in return for their night's board and lodging. Thirty-four years' service is the record of' an Afghan war veteran with three medals and eight good-conduct badges now at the barracks depot, Newcastle. Royal permission has been given to call the new chair of music at the University of London "The King Edward Professorship of Music." As an experiment the French Government has established an eight hours working day in sec- tions of the dockyards at Toulon and Lorient. The "New York Herald" announces that it has been definitely settled that Mr. C. Oliver Iselin shall be the manager and owner of the new America Cup defender. Sir John Milbanke sails very shortly for India to rejoin his regiment, the 10th Hussars. He will be accompanied by his pretty wife, who was so well known in Ireland as Miss Crichton, the popular daughter of a popular father. If he owes money a workman must, pay his debts before obeying the behest of his union to go on strike, so a defendant has been informed by the Bradford County Court Judge. The Rev. John Stanley Chesshire, of Batten Hall, Worcester, rector of Hindlip from 1873- 1884, who died on August 29 last, left P.102,784 8s. 7d. gross, including E90,895 9s. 9d. in net personalty. A man named Murino, of Osaka, who recently bought the wreck of the Sendai Mari for P,800, has already salved cargo to the value of C3,000, and will probably get £ 10,000 worth more. Should his engagements permit, Lord Roberts will unveil a handsome memorial which is to be erected on the parade at Hastings as a memorial to local men who fell in South Africa. The most valuable handkerchief in the world belongs to Queen Margherita of Italy. It is made of the purest old Venetian lace, and it is in perfect condition, in spite of the fact that it was made in the fifteenth century. It is prob- ably worth £ 2,000 or £ 3,000. Nearly 8,000 motor-cars are now in use in Paris and the neighbourhood, 3,800 of the cars having a registered speed of over eighteen miles an hour. The number of licensed "chauffeurs" at the beginning of the month was 13,600. Trained cats are the latest fad of French society women. Fashion decrees that the animal must be "educated" entirely by its owner, and several of the best-known women in Parisian society are giving an hour a day to training their pets. The Mullingar Board of Guardians recently made a contract for oatmeal at C2 11s. per cwt. in excess of another tender. When called on by the Local Government Board to furnish an explanation of their action, ey replied that the successful contractor was a United Irish Leaguer, which the other man, whose price was lower, was not. A summons has now been served on the Guardians by a ratepayer fbr breach of disbursement of moneys committed to their charge. Mr. Grove, the leader of the African Explora- tion and Traction Company's Expedition, from Blantyre, has, on returning to the coast, been detained by the Governor of Mozambique, owing to his having adversely criticised the Portuguese Administration in the interior. The Expedition remains in the Moravis country, and is being protected solely by the native chiefs. The Nottingham guardians have made several appointments to the staff of the new workhouse from Army Reserve men, a large number of whom, wearing South African medals,, were applicants for the positions. One man who received an appointment went through the whole war, and is the proud possessor of a medal with six bars. Mr. Horace S. Folker, of Guildford, secretary to the National Fire Brigades Union, has received from the Kaiser the Red Cross medal of the third class, in recognition of his services as delegate to the International Fire Brigade Congress at Berlin last year. The King has given permis- sion to the recipient to accept aud wear the decoration. A prize of £ 2,000 for the inventor of a gas mantle twice as efficient but not twice as expen- sive as the present one, is (says a contemporary) offered by the Chicago gas-lighting authority. » Some observations carried out by Mr. Arthtn MacDonald have brought to light this interest- ing fact, that persons breathe less when they are concentrating their minds on study or work,, and also when under the influence of depressing emotion. On the other hand, we breathe more when exhilarated by pleasure and amusements. The Premier has a great passion for music, his favourite composer being Handel. He plays t-ho piano very well, and he has composed several in- strumental pieces. When at Eton his closest school friend was Sir Hubert Parry, for whom hcr has ever since entertained the warmest affec. tion. A few years ago Mr. Balfour gave a con* cert at his house in Carlton-gardens, the pro- gramme for which consisted of compositions taken entirely from the works of Sir Hubert Parry. It is said that the only lady superintendent and manageress of a coal-mine is Mrs. Jane Sherkie, of Clinton. She holds a certificate of membership in the National Coal Operators* Association, and knows the mining industry and the coal market as well as any operator in America. She employs 150 men, has an office at her own house, and attends to every detail of the business, including the correspondence, salaries, and the shipment of every ton of coal. j Doctors must be thankful that all men are not like Nathaniel Wright, of Leake, Lincolnshire. He has never been attended by a medical man, has never had a bottle of medicine, and yet is & hundred years old, having just completed his ccntury. Smoking and stimulants are also banned by Mr. Wright, who is a cousin of Mr. T. Wright, the clerk of works at Wastminster Abbey. M. Bernard Maury, a well-known Parisian actor, stopped before a public fire-alarm in one of the boulevards and rang the bell, which brought a fire-engine to the spot. He explained that he was telephoning to Mme. Sarah Bern- hardt to say that he was unable to fill his role in "La Tosca." It was discovered that he had sud- denly gone mad. ) A gigantic fossil carnivorous animal has beert discovered by M. Boule in the clay of Vaugirard. The jaw is about 18 inches long, and the animal resembles the fossil "pachyaena gigantea" dis, covered in the Rocky Mountains. It is curious that while animals of North America and France at the same geological epoch were alike, thosQ of North and South America were unlike. Sir Martin Conway, the famous mountaineer,, has achieved many mountaineering records I during the years which have elapsed since he' made his first ascent. This was at the age of seven years, when he climbed to the summit of Snowdon. Two of his greatest feats were the scaling of the tremendous Himalayan giant, the Golden Throne, which is 23,000ft. above sea- level, and his successful climb of Aconcagua, itt South America., an elevation of 23,080ft. Six specimens from Carolina, of the curious reptile known as the anolis have just been placed in the Zoo. The London correspondent of the "Manchester Guardian" states that this animal is the nearest thing to a chameleon which: America can show. It is remarkable for the loose skin or bag beneath the throat, which, when inflated, frequently changes colour. This assumes an endless succession of hues according to the emotion which is agitating the anolis. The Rev. Dr. A. B. Simpson, who attained fame by his remarkable success in obtaining con- tributions for the Christian and Missionar y Alliance, of which he is the head and fronts nearly doubled his best previous record on a. recent Sunday in New York, by securing £ 12,000 in offerings to pay the expenses of foreigil missions. This feat was performed at the annual' convention of the alliance held in the tabernacle in Eighth-avenue. Four hundred pounds was in. cash. Many fish can produce musical sounds. That red gurnard has earned the name of sea-cock from the crowing noise which it makes, while another species is called the piper. Others, notably two species of ophidium, have sound- producing apparatus, consisting of small" movable bones, which can be made to produce a sharp rattle. The curious "drumming" made by the Mediterranean fish known as the maigre can be heard from a depth of thirty fathoms. A careful study of the circumstances of birtli and childhood of what were considered to be the fifty greatest men of modern times disclosed! the fact—interesting in comparison-that the average great man was born in a family of six children, not including half-brothers or half- sisters. It was figured from the data that the chances for greatness in a child are two to one in favour of the older half of the family. M. Koth, a barrister, of Munich, drew con- siderable attention to himself early in the summer by an amusing conflict in which he became involved with his Benchers. M. SCothi had offended against the dignity of his profes- sion by taking part in a burlesque, and was subjected to certain disciplinary visitations., Against these he appealed, but has ultimately; decided to cut the knot by another process.. The Berlin "Lokalanzeiger" states that he has abandoned the Bar, and has taken to the stage. Further interesting archaeological discoveries are reported from Carthage. The Paris '• Siecle states that a PUlllC tomb just unearthed has been found to contain, besides much sym- bolic ornament, an entirely new series of stond engraved with hieroglyphs. There were also considerable number of carved stones, square and triangular, some lozenge-shaped, and others in the form of olives. One object in bronze was cut in the form of the sign of Astarte. Every spring and: autumn large numbers off birds are killed by the Washington Monument.. The city of Washington, says the "New York Tribune," seems to be directly in the route taken by many of the migratory birds in the flighfJ between the north and south, and twice a yeaij thousands of feathered songsters meet theic; death by flying against the tall marble shaft inS the night. Just now the fall slaughter is at its- height, and every morning many birds are to bet seen about the base of the monument. A woman has just died in a Philadelphia hos- pital who has been for some time an object of interest to medical men. The disease of which" she finally died changed her bones to a chalky substance, and several times she fractured hee arms and legs by slight movements of her body-! So brittle did her frame become that the doctors feared her neck might be dislocated, and she was placed in her bed in such a position that she could only move her head a few inches. The Empress of Germany possesses a bracelet which is quite unique. It is a birthday present from the Kaiser, made from his own design, and is practically a jewelled miniature art gallery. Portraits of himself, his six sons, and little daughter were painted on ivory and cowtected by wreaths of diamonds and gold. The place of honour in the centre of the bracelet is given to an oval miniature of his daughter, while three boys are on each side. The Emperor's portrait is heart-shaped, and hangs as a pendant. The bracelet is set with 253 of the finest diamonds that could be procured. A long-distance swimmer, correcting popular errors, states that accidents to swimmers are seldom due to cramp, but to apoplexy resulting from sudden cooling. The sinking three times is a curious error, as some persons swallow water) and strangle on first immersion, sinking but once, while others may sink and rise fifty times. A man who has saved sixty-five lives has found that the drowning person cannot be stunned bye a blow in the face, but that he can be handled bs pressing the thumbs under his ears and ducking t,sh e,g d "?? manageable, this being done from e llld. Statistics just published by the "Revue Statistique show a steadily continuing increase in the consumption of absinthe in Francø-, Between 1885 and 1892 there was an increase of 85,000 hectolitres. From 1892, only four years more were needed to add another 85,000 litres to the consumption. What this means in the physical deterioration of the people may be inferred from recent experiments, in which it was ascertained that six drops of essence of absinthe in three gills of water were as deadly to fish life as six drops of prussic acid in the same quantity of water.