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FIELD AND FARM. ]

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I I GARDENING- GOSSIP.

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GARDENING- GOSSIP. CONSERV ATORY.—Fuchsias are lovely now (re- marks a writer in Gardening Illustrated ") in any form, but especially as tall pyramids trained to a single stake in the centre with the flowering branches drooping gracefully on all sides. A Fuchsia will flower as freely in a young state in a 5iu. pot as when several years old and six or more feet high; but for early flowering in small pots the cuttings should be rooted either now or during early summer for early flo tvering following spring. Spring-struck cuttings make nice little flowering scuff during the summer, but they are not early enough for the market grower. It is the same with early flowers as it is with fruit and vegetables —the first-comer realises most. In a large, cool conservatory Fuchsias of the free growing kiods planted out and trained to wires under the rafters are very effective, and I have had them do well planted out and trained to vertical wires rising in any part of the house. The wires are fixed to blocks of wood driven in the borders and secured at the upper er.d to one of the tie rods, or in some other way. Of course, Fuchsias planted out in the border will bear a good deal of pinch- ing and pruning, but they pay for the trouble, and they flower continuously all the summer and well into the autumn. Scarlet and other Salvias should be rooted now, and when well established in pots and hardened, may either be planted out or grown on in pots. The planting out system produces the largest plants, but do not crowd, and attend to the pinching and watering if necessary during the summer. Arum Lilies may be divided and planted out now if that system is adopted. The berry-bearing Solanums will be ready for a shift now. If it is intended to plant them out, set them out in a sunny position, giving plenty of room for growth and air circulation. Here, again, for early work it is better to grow a part of the stock in pots. Some of the silver-leaved and other Maples will be in good foliage now if brought on under glass, and will be useful among dark foliaged plants as backgrounds. Calceolarias must be kept free from insects. HONEYSUCKLE IN POTS.—It is seldom that one meets with this deliciously-scented climbing shrub in pots for conservatory decoration, but it cer- tainly well repays the little trouble it takes to do so. One of the best varieties I have ever grown for this purpose is the old favourite Dutch variety that makes good plants of dwarf, sturdy habit. Pot up in the autumn good strong plants of two or three years' growth in Sin. pots, and plunge them in a bed of leaves, and at this time of year bring a few under glass at a time, so that they may give a long succession of bloom. If the young growths are pinched at about 1ft. long, they may be kept in pots for several years. Fumigating to keep them clear of green or black-fly is the main thing needed, as also plenty of water at the root. MOULDING UP POTATOES.—The exigencies of the season have led to a good deal of moulding up of early Potatoes already, because cold nights and white frosts have rendered some covering of the tender leaf tops necessary. It may well become matter for discussion whether much is gained by planting seed-tubers so early, and necessarily in cold ground, so as to cause them to have tops above the surface from the end of April. If frosts do not catch them and inflict material injury, certainly the cold soil and air check growth, and it becomes very doubtful whether well-sprouted seed-tubers of simihar early varieties planted a month later do not in the end give quite as early, if not indeed better crops. In any case, covering up the growths with soil, though but thinly, to protect them from late frosts has become a necessity, although under ordinary conditions moulding up would follow later. But as a matter of culture moulding up is invariably done, yet not always well or properly. One of the worst evils incidental to bad work is the covering up of so much of the lower leafage. That is slovenly work. Were more care shown by employ- ing two persons to do the moulding, one should be instructed to use a long rod wherewith to lift the lower leafage from the ground, that loose soil between the rows may be drawn up close to the stems of the plants without injuring or burying the leaves. Not only does this burying of leafage help, as it were, to tie or hold down the plant growth, but it robs the plants of much reproduc- tive power, as tubers are, after all, the primary products of leaf action. It is. indeed, a question whether moulding up of Potato plants, by which much leafage is buried or injured, compensates for the labour or for any ad- vantages that may result from the labour. That proper moulding up does render Potatoes good service there can be no doubt. Thus, it is impor- taut that the tubers be well secluded from air, otherwise they become hot and astringent. That may be of no moment in the case of seed tubers, but as Potatoes are primarily grown for eating, such exclusion of air is of great importance. Then a proper moulding up gives the plants needed support in windy weather, and prevents much twisting and injury to the stems. But, not least, it is now fully understood that a good mould- ing-up, or coat of finely-pulverised soil, over the newly-forming tubers greatly helps to exclude fungoid spores from them, thus saving them from disease. Generally the advantages which result from proper moulding much outweigh the cost of labour involved in the work of moulding. But to do it properly, Potatoes should be far less crowded than they habitually are, for crowding, whilst causing waste in seed tubers, never does produce such fine crops as thinner planting does. Also, prior to the work being done, the intervening soil should be either deeply hoed or lightly forked over. GREEN-FLY ON ROSES, PELAKGONIUMS, &C.- In the spring months most cultivators are troubled with this pest to a greater or less extent. To keep it under is of great importance, and many things are used to this end. Fumigating is most commonly recommended, but many dislike this in any way, as it is not everyone that can endure this. Some years ago I used a lot of fumigating material, but during the last few years I have almost given it up, having proved that dipping, spraying, z, &c., are far more satisfactory. Many washes can be obtained, all more or less good. Years ago I made my own wash, but have given it up, seeing I can buy it more cheaply than I can make it. I make it a rule not to allow things to get infested with insects; immediately I see them coming I begin spraying or dipping. Cinerarias can easily be kept clean by spraying once a week; the same may be said of Pelargoniums and things akin to them. SOWING WALLFLOWER SEEDS.—The time has arrived for sowing Wallflowers if a display of sweet-smelling flowers is desired next winter and spring. Some, in their anxiety to get strong plants, sow their seed much too soon, with the result that the plants become too large by winter. There is no advantage in having over-large and vigorous plants by the autumn, for severe weather coming on these succulent Wallflowers often deals hardly with them. Owners of fine plants in early autumn sometimes find by the spring their display of flower is not in keeping with the autumn prospect. The latter half of May or bpcrinning of June I find to be a suitable time to get in the seeds, and I prefer sowing in the open ground thinly, so that the seedlings can grow sturdily until other vacant ground can be devoted to them. There are several good sorts varying in colour, but the best is a selection of the dark red and bright yellow. Waltflowersmaybehadinamix- fcure of colours from some seedsmen who mnke a speciality of them. I saw some beds recently filled with Wallflowers in mixture, and I could not help thinking that the person who would not be satisfied with such a wealth of beautiful flowers and wide range of colours must indeed be hard to please. Wallflowers are not difficult to raise, and do not require any special treatment. Soil in fairly good heart, made firm, and in an open position, will supply their wants in this respect. Sowing in drills drawn with a small hoe about 1ft. apart are preferable to broadcast sowing, in that weeds can be more easily dealt with. Should the weather be dry, water the drills before sowing, and continue this until the seedlings have made a good utarfc.

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