FIELD AND FARM. ] THE HAY citop. Early hay crops are now (remarks Prof. John Wrightson in the "Agricultural Gazette") cer- tain to be light. Whitsuntide was unusually earlv. it is true, but could not fail to remind us that grass is often down at that holiday season, and that the work of hay-making is sometimes interrupted by it. To think of cutting even two or three weeks ahead fills us with rather dismal forebodings as to what the result must be. This, with the high price of both hay and straw and of all descriptions of feeding materials, is not reassuring. Meanwhile the brightness of the foliage and the verdant appearance of the country generally helps to keep up hope that, although the season is late, it may yet turn out better than we fear. As to the later hay crops, there is still soma probability that they may prove satisfac- tory. Grass requires moisture, and is capable of growing rapidly in localities too elevated and cold for corn. It, however, requires some forcing weather, which may soon make an improvement manifest. TEE TUBERCULOSIS SCARE. We never expressed much sympathy (says Prof. Wrightson) for the tuberculosis scare," which affected us so much some few years ago. It seemed unreasonable to believe that milk, after all that had been said and written in its praise, should be a fatal beverage and the cause of con- sumption. A milk diet had always been thought to be about the best for consumptive patients. Happily the old opinions on the virtue of new milk, fresh and warm from the cow, do not ap- pear to have been so hopelessly wrong after ail. Warm from the cow may be going a little too far, but this is how calves like it, and mother's milk, drawn from the natural source, has always been thought the best food for infants. Hence the high estimation in which wet-nurses have been held. The report on experiments made at the Veterinary College support the views expressed a year ago by Professor Koch, that the human and Dovine forms of tuberculosis are quite distinct a.nd are not communicable from the one host to the other. This is very satisfactory to stock- keepers, many of whom were much exercised in their minds on this subject. Many of us lost money by weeding out reacting cows, and were rather horrified at the time by finding how many apparently healthy cows cHid react to the test. This opened up a moral as well as a financial ques- tion, for what right had anyone to keep cows which might be sources of danger to the com- munity? This most difficult question seems now on the high road to settlement. It was raised by science, and was contrary to common-sense, or at least to experience but, on the other hand, it seemed to be capable of demonstration. That a large proportion of our cows were infected with tubercle was sufficiently proved, but that the milk was affected was always doubtful. Now it appears that even in the few cases in which tubercle bacilli are present in the milk it is mora than doubtful if any harm can come from imbib- ing it. The matter is still under investigation, and cannot be said to be absolutely settled, but the evidence so far as it goes supports Dr. Koch's dictum that the human and bovine forms of the disease are quite distinct, and that the one form is incapable of being communicated to the host of the other. It is to be hoped that it will be similarly found that tuberculosis of fowls, which is so common in poultry-yards, is distinct from tuberculosis in cattle and in man. If not, we must live in constant dread, not only on account of the milk we consume, but the eggs and poultry which form so important a part of our daily food. The drift of past experience, as well as the more mature views of science, point to the conclusion that tuberculosis assumes many forms, and that it does not follow that it is intercoinmunicable between animals of different species. If it were so, carnivorous animals, which eat raw flesh often diseased, and in a most offensive state of decom- position, would stand a poor chance of preserving their health. THE MAKING OF GOOD BUTTER. < At the convention of the Dairymen's Associa- tion of the Province of Toronto, Canada, Mr. J. W. Newman was awarded the first prize for a valuable essay on How to Make Good Butter." The following is a portion of his paper:— Unfavo-Lirable conditions for cream separa- tion are (1) speed below that which the machine is calculated to run (2) feeding separator to its capacity or over when speed is too low; (3) milk below a temperature of 84 deg. when being separated; (4) making very heavy cream by adjustment; (5) vibrating, swaying, or unsteady running of the bowl. Reversing these condi- tions. of course, will cause the most favourable conditions for thorough separation. Every butter-maker should see that his separator runs smoothly, and with regular speed, and that as near as possible to the speed intended for that particular machine, which is usually stamped on the bowl. It is not wise to run any separator much faster, owing to the danger of injuring the bearings or bursting the bowl. As soon as separation is complete, the separator sh mid bo thoroughly washed, getting every particlo out of the crevices, and then have it thoroughly blown out' with live steam, so that all parts coming in contact with milk or cream will be perfectly sterile. The heat absorbed by the bowl will then cause all dampness to vaporise, thus leaving all parts dry and free from danger of rusting. Immediately after separation, the cream should be cooled down to about 70 deg. Always have ready a good pasteurised skim-milk starter to put into cream when separation is finished, so as to set up the desired fermentation, and to overcome the evil effects of any injurious forms of bacteria that may have been in the milk. Cream is ripened to improve the yield, flavour, and keeping quality of the butter. A good starter is a boon to successful butter-making. It hastens the development of lactic acid, allows the cream to be ripened at a lower temperature, and, to a great extent, controls the flavour of the butter. It is important that the starter has a good flavour. Should the starter go wrong from any cause, a fresh one may be started from the buttermilk of.a lot of cream that was ripened in good condition and that produced good-flavoured butter. The quantity of starter used must be governed by the ripeness of milk, the time allowed for the cream to ripen, and the tempera- ture at which it is ripened. As soon as the cream commences to thicken (which should be in about four hours after adding the starter), be ready to cool quickly to at least 55 deg. temperature before leaving it for the night, and then the churning is ready any time in the morn- ing." Sufficient lactic acid should be developed in the cream to cause coagulation in at least six or eight hours before churning. Always stir the cream frequently while ripening, to ensure uniformity. Properly-ripened cream will have a smooth, glossy appearance. It will pour like thick mollasses, and have a pleasant acid taste and smell, and with the alkaline test will show from .45 to .7 per cent. of lactic acid, according to its density or per cent, of butter-fat. In Denmark, nearly all the milk or cream for butter-making is pasteurised. This, tith the use of a good starter, gives the maker full control of the cream ripening, as it leaves, as it were, clean soil to grow the desirable bacteria form- Prepare the churn by scalding, followed by a liberal amount of cold water to cool it; when the cream is in the churn add what colour is neces- sary to get a uniform shade. The cream should be at its proper churning temperature at least two hours bef0re the churning is commenced. This will secure a. firmer body and a better texture in the butter. Churning temperature will vary according to the season, the time the cows have been in lactation, and the per cent. of butter-fat in cream. It should always be arranged to have some cows fresh in milk at every season. Slow churning is caused by (1) too thin cream—make richer cream (2) churn too full —one-third full is sufficient; (3) temperature too low (4^ cream not sufficiently ripened; (5) churn running too fast or too slow (6) putting in too much cold water too soon after the butter begins to break."
A trooper ot the 12th Uhlan Regiment is now j lying in the barracks hospital in Insterburg in- dulging in a three weeks' sleep. He can eat and drink, but drowsily, and immediately after his meal falls into a profound sleep again.
GARDENING- GOSSIP. CONSERV ATORY.—Fuchsias are lovely now (re- marks a writer in Gardening Illustrated ") in any form, but especially as tall pyramids trained to a single stake in the centre with the flowering branches drooping gracefully on all sides. A Fuchsia will flower as freely in a young state in a 5iu. pot as when several years old and six or more feet high; but for early flowering in small pots the cuttings should be rooted either now or during early summer for early flo tvering following spring. Spring-struck cuttings make nice little flowering scuff during the summer, but they are not early enough for the market grower. It is the same with early flowers as it is with fruit and vegetables —the first-comer realises most. In a large, cool conservatory Fuchsias of the free growing kiods planted out and trained to wires under the rafters are very effective, and I have had them do well planted out and trained to vertical wires rising in any part of the house. The wires are fixed to blocks of wood driven in the borders and secured at the upper er.d to one of the tie rods, or in some other way. Of course, Fuchsias planted out in the border will bear a good deal of pinch- ing and pruning, but they pay for the trouble, and they flower continuously all the summer and well into the autumn. Scarlet and other Salvias should be rooted now, and when well established in pots and hardened, may either be planted out or grown on in pots. The planting out system produces the largest plants, but do not crowd, and attend to the pinching and watering if necessary during the summer. Arum Lilies may be divided and planted out now if that system is adopted. The berry-bearing Solanums will be ready for a shift now. If it is intended to plant them out, set them out in a sunny position, giving plenty of room for growth and air circulation. Here, again, for early work it is better to grow a part of the stock in pots. Some of the silver-leaved and other Maples will be in good foliage now if brought on under glass, and will be useful among dark foliaged plants as backgrounds. Calceolarias must be kept free from insects. HONEYSUCKLE IN POTS.—It is seldom that one meets with this deliciously-scented climbing shrub in pots for conservatory decoration, but it cer- tainly well repays the little trouble it takes to do so. One of the best varieties I have ever grown for this purpose is the old favourite Dutch variety that makes good plants of dwarf, sturdy habit. Pot up in the autumn good strong plants of two or three years' growth in Sin. pots, and plunge them in a bed of leaves, and at this time of year bring a few under glass at a time, so that they may give a long succession of bloom. If the young growths are pinched at about 1ft. long, they may be kept in pots for several years. Fumigating to keep them clear of green or black-fly is the main thing needed, as also plenty of water at the root. MOULDING UP POTATOES.—The exigencies of the season have led to a good deal of moulding up of early Potatoes already, because cold nights and white frosts have rendered some covering of the tender leaf tops necessary. It may well become matter for discussion whether much is gained by planting seed-tubers so early, and necessarily in cold ground, so as to cause them to have tops above the surface from the end of April. If frosts do not catch them and inflict material injury, certainly the cold soil and air check growth, and it becomes very doubtful whether well-sprouted seed-tubers of simihar early varieties planted a month later do not in the end give quite as early, if not indeed better crops. In any case, covering up the growths with soil, though but thinly, to protect them from late frosts has become a necessity, although under ordinary conditions moulding up would follow later. But as a matter of culture moulding up is invariably done, yet not always well or properly. One of the worst evils incidental to bad work is the covering up of so much of the lower leafage. That is slovenly work. Were more care shown by employ- ing two persons to do the moulding, one should be instructed to use a long rod wherewith to lift the lower leafage from the ground, that loose soil between the rows may be drawn up close to the stems of the plants without injuring or burying the leaves. Not only does this burying of leafage help, as it were, to tie or hold down the plant growth, but it robs the plants of much reproduc- tive power, as tubers are, after all, the primary products of leaf action. It is. indeed, a question whether moulding up of Potato plants, by which much leafage is buried or injured, compensates for the labour or for any ad- vantages that may result from the labour. That proper moulding up does render Potatoes good service there can be no doubt. Thus, it is impor- taut that the tubers be well secluded from air, otherwise they become hot and astringent. That may be of no moment in the case of seed tubers, but as Potatoes are primarily grown for eating, such exclusion of air is of great importance. Then a proper moulding up gives the plants needed support in windy weather, and prevents much twisting and injury to the stems. But, not least, it is now fully understood that a good mould- ing-up, or coat of finely-pulverised soil, over the newly-forming tubers greatly helps to exclude fungoid spores from them, thus saving them from disease. Generally the advantages which result from proper moulding much outweigh the cost of labour involved in the work of moulding. But to do it properly, Potatoes should be far less crowded than they habitually are, for crowding, whilst causing waste in seed tubers, never does produce such fine crops as thinner planting does. Also, prior to the work being done, the intervening soil should be either deeply hoed or lightly forked over. GREEN-FLY ON ROSES, PELAKGONIUMS, &C.- In the spring months most cultivators are troubled with this pest to a greater or less extent. To keep it under is of great importance, and many things are used to this end. Fumigating is most commonly recommended, but many dislike this in any way, as it is not everyone that can endure this. Some years ago I used a lot of fumigating material, but during the last few years I have almost given it up, having proved that dipping, spraying, z, &c., are far more satisfactory. Many washes can be obtained, all more or less good. Years ago I made my own wash, but have given it up, seeing I can buy it more cheaply than I can make it. I make it a rule not to allow things to get infested with insects; immediately I see them coming I begin spraying or dipping. Cinerarias can easily be kept clean by spraying once a week; the same may be said of Pelargoniums and things akin to them. SOWING WALLFLOWER SEEDS.—The time has arrived for sowing Wallflowers if a display of sweet-smelling flowers is desired next winter and spring. Some, in their anxiety to get strong plants, sow their seed much too soon, with the result that the plants become too large by winter. There is no advantage in having over-large and vigorous plants by the autumn, for severe weather coming on these succulent Wallflowers often deals hardly with them. Owners of fine plants in early autumn sometimes find by the spring their display of flower is not in keeping with the autumn prospect. The latter half of May or bpcrinning of June I find to be a suitable time to get in the seeds, and I prefer sowing in the open ground thinly, so that the seedlings can grow sturdily until other vacant ground can be devoted to them. There are several good sorts varying in colour, but the best is a selection of the dark red and bright yellow. Waltflowersmaybehadinamix- fcure of colours from some seedsmen who mnke a speciality of them. I saw some beds recently filled with Wallflowers in mixture, and I could not help thinking that the person who would not be satisfied with such a wealth of beautiful flowers and wide range of colours must indeed be hard to please. Wallflowers are not difficult to raise, and do not require any special treatment. Soil in fairly good heart, made firm, and in an open position, will supply their wants in this respect. Sowing in drills drawn with a small hoe about 1ft. apart are preferable to broadcast sowing, in that weeds can be more easily dealt with. Should the weather be dry, water the drills before sowing, and continue this until the seedlings have made a good utarfc.
On the occasion of the King's visit to Alder- sot Camp on Sunday, June 15, his Majesty has consented to be the guest of Major-General Marshall, Commanding the Royal Artillery at Alder2fwt, and of the officers of that corps, at their mess. The,Sing will be accompanied by Earl Roberts, Commander-in-Chief, who is him- Mif an old Ar4. illery offi-ear.
I OUR SHORT STORY. I I STORY OF A SONG. I What I am about to relate occurred a number of years ago, a short time after that popular song, He Turned Her Picture Toward the Wall," came out. I was then living at Branton, out in Western America, our family consisting of myself, my wife and two children, Mattie, aged fifteen, and George, aged seventeen. We pos- sessed an organ upon which my daughter played, George singing, Mrs. Wilters and myself coming in in the chorus in regular country fashion. I was the musical enthusiast of the party, and while I did not like all the songs then extant, when one did strike me I immediately mastered it. I went into ecstasies over this particular song, and whistled it in the woodshed, hummed it in the parlour, sang it to visitors, neighbours and friends. Many of these took the fever but mine was especially malignant, and the song haunted me for weeks after everybody else had caught on to something new. 11 My wife casually mentioned an asylum for lunatics several times a day. But I still repeated the song, and the first thing on rising in the morning, and the last thing on retiring at night. Then she expostulated, and ventured to hope that no more popular songs would come out for at least a year. I realised that my state was be- coming alarming. Something must be done, and immediately. Mrs. Wilters," I said, the thing shall be stopped." But how, dear? she queried, wearily. I shall lock up the organ." Which I did; but the song still ran in my head. At last I collapsed. I was ill from an overdose of music. The doctor said I would re- cuperate after a few days of rest, but upon my becoming convalescent I must refrain from all music. Right in the midst of this mental tribulation something happened. Mrs. Wilters staggered into my bedroom, one morning, her eyes as large as saucers, and exclaimed. Sam Wilters, every picture in the parlour is turned to the wall! Yes," chimed in George, "and the organ is unlocked! And pa," added Mattie, the organ stops are open where you play He Turned Her Picture.' Instead of throwing me into a mental fever, this information did the reverse. It broke up the musical trend of my thoughts. Reverse every picture," I commanded, Lock the organ and fetch the key to me." I was obeyed. Then I said— George, go and fetch my gun from the attic." Oh gasped my wife. Yes, I will sit here in bed, armed, and at J the first approach of danger leap from it and shoot the person who is perpetrating this joke." But you are too ill to think of anything of the kind," expostulated my wife. I shall need only to step from the bed and fire. Pity if I cannot sing a popular song We'll see about it! It will be murder," said Mattie, with tearful eyes. It won't be murder It'll simply be defence against a burglar. See?" They all saw; and as I was master of the house and thoroughly aroused to the situation, it was decided that I should go on picket duty that night. Mrs. Wilters, you will retire to the chamber above," I ordered at bedtime. And Mattie, you can accompany your mother. As for you, George, get a cudgel from the woodshed, and be- come a sort of body guard to me." As night set in the darkness in the rooms be- came intense. Not a flicker of light anywhere just total darkness. George sat in the parlour behind a case of books containing poetry, prose, and enough dictionaries to scare an ordinary bur- glar out of his wits. I sat bolt upright in bed, my back resting against the headboard, my trusty gun in my hands. The clock struck, one, two, three. The sound of the bell had scarcely ceased when a loud noise came to my ears. Striking a match, I peeped into the room where George was sitting. He was fast asleep, and his falling cudgel had awakened me. I lighted the lamp and stared at the pic- tures. George I shouted. "What, father?" he cried, starting from his chair. See! He staggered back. All the pictures were again turned toward the wall, the organ was un- locked, and my favourite stops were out! I George stared at me. I stared at George. "vYhat does it mean, dad? You slept! But you were on guard? n Yes." And did you sleep? I think not." How came you here then? The falling of your cudgel aroused me." From sleep? Perhaps." Mattie and her mother soon appeared on the 'scene, but none of us could offer a solution to the mystery. Daylight came. The organ stops were replaced, the organ relocked, and every picture righted. The next night Mrs. Wilters and myself were to go on guard, she to remain in the parlour, as George had done the night pre- viously, and I in bed, as I was not quite strong enough to remain up. At midnight the house was again quiet, Mrs. Wilters on guard. I heard the clock strike twelve, then one, and My hair stood on end. A scream came from the parlour. Hastily lighting a lamp, I beheld Mrs. Wilters standing in a corner, swinging a stick frantically and screaming. Eleanor, what in Heaven's name are you doing? You nearly frightened me to death!" she gasped. "1?" What did you fire at? I had discharged the gun, and it lay smoking against the footboard, the looking-glass having a round hole through it. Did I fire? "Did you? Mr. Wilters, to-morrow night Mattie shall be on guard, and neither you nor your gun can frighten her Great Heaven, see Every picture was again turned toward the wall, and the organ was open Eleanor, what mystery is this? My wife was speechless. Just at this moment George and Mattie appeared. Father, we will try it to-morrow night, and failing, we'll call in the police to watch for us," George said, when the situation had been explained. And so once more the pictures were turned back. I prefer a revolver to a cudgel," Mattie said stoutly. Thus armed we again awaited events. Singular that I should hear the clock striking every night toward morning! But so it was. It struck twelve, then one, then two, and- I leaped from bed. Mattie was firing her revolver rapidly, the light revealing her in an attitude of despair. Well, Mattie, what have you hit? Nothing she said doggedly, throwing her smoking revolver into a corner. Oh, yes, you have! You've shot four holes through my new picture." As we came back to a normal condition of mind we found that all the pictures had been reversed as before. I It is terrible said Mattie. But why did you shoot? I heard footsteps." Whose? I do not know." Leave me to watch to-morrow night," said my wife, determinedly. Well and good; we will! I answered. When the fated hour came Mrs. Wilters com- manded- Mr. Wilters, you will now retire as usual. I retired gun in hand. George—Mattie—your father hap gene to bsd. We will retire. Come! The three left the room, going to the spare chambers above. What it meant I had no means of knowing at the time, but it all came out afterward. When I fell asleep they returned to the sitting room, each holding a revolver and a dark lantern. Mrs. Wilters was at the head of the undertaking, her idea being to flash the bull's-eyes full upon the parlour adjoining at the slightest noise, and should a person be discovel ed tampering with the organ or the pictures, to shoot him. As usual I heard the clock strike twelve, one, two, and- The next I knew the parlour was suddenly illuminated, and crack crack crack went the three revolvers. They had surprised the man in the very act of displacing the pictures. and after firing excitedly, rushed into the room. Great heavens cried my wife, fainting and falling. Are you hurt? gasped George. We have shot father!" screamed Mattie, springing forward and clasping me in her arms. Matters were soon righted. But if my bold warriors had not been too badly frightened to shoot straight, I should not be telling this story. It ia all explain ed by the fact that I was a somnambulist, and did these things in my sleep.
NINE-TENTHS OF THE LAW. I There are times when differences of rank do not count, and an Irish soldier is said to have chanced upon one of them during the late war in Cuba,. He was discovered by the sergeant of his company in a hole, well out of the way even of a stray shot, when he should have been en- gaged in active service. Get out of that hole commauded the sergeant sternly. Get out of it this minute The broad Irish face looked up at him with stubborn resistance written on every feature. You may be me superior officer," hx said, boldly, but all the same Oi'm the wan that found this hole fir-rst
A KING OVERTHROWN. There was excitement among Jacobites in Lon- don the other day that the last of the Stuarts had been removed. It was the bronze statue of James II. in Whitehall. As his Majesty was in the way of a Coronation stand the Office of Works removed him, and he now lies in a forlorn corner, where he will stay until the Coronation is over and the stand removed. Poor James II. There was no rest for his bones, and there is none for his effigy. This is the second time it has been moved in the last five years. Tradition attributes the statue to the famous Grinling Gibbons. It is certainly a fine piece of work-the only statue in the metropolis worth looking at, say the ex- perts. Fashioned in bronze, King James looks very dignified and melancholy, and he wears a toga, Roman boots, and a laurel wreath. His original spot was in Whitehall Gardens, within sound, but not within sight of the whirl of the street. His index finger pointed mournfully to the spot where Charles I. was beheaded-or, if it did not, people said it did, which came to the same thing. There he stood for two centuries. In August 1897, in fulfilment of an order given for some forgotten reason by a former First Com- missioner, the statue was placed in Whitehall proper, at the front of Gwydyr House, which is the home of the Charity Commissioners. And now, instead of being able to see another King drive by, he lies on his back, with his head on a pile of shavings, and his avenging forefinger pointing at an upstairs window. Poor James!
NOISE MAKERS WANTED. I Even the four-legged inhabitants of the Royal Mews at Buckingham Palace are sharing in the busy preparations for the Coronation ceremony, says M.A.P." The riamg school looks won- derfully picturesque, for it is hung with the flags of almost all nations; and here the horses are taken on various mornings to accustom them to the aspect of the decorated streets on Coronation Day, even the King's own Charm occasionally sharing in the exercise. Drums are beaten in the centre of the hall, and youngsters are admitted, with the special and welcome injunction to make as much noise as they can
REMARKABLE BURIALS. Dr. Lawson Tait, the eminent surgeon, who died at Llandudno in June, 1899, maintained his striking individuality to the last by making an extraordinary request to be buried in a romantic cave in his garden, known as the Gogarth Cave, formerly a portion of the grounds of the ancient Abbey of Gogarth. This, however, is not more strange than the fact that the body of Fred. Archer, the famous jockey, was buried within two hundred yards of the winning-post for the race known as the Cambridgeshire at New- market. To be buried in a pillar was the fate of Clement Spelman, Recorder of Nottngham, who died in 1679. He was put to his rest in an up- right position, enclosed in a pillar in Narburgh Church. This is one of the very few cases of pillar burials, but the upright position has been adopted more frequently. Thomas Cook, who was a Governor of the Bank of England in 1739, died in 1752, and his body was taken to Morden College, Blackheath, where it was taken out of the coffin and buried, in a winding-sheet, upright in the ground. Ben Jonson was buried upright at Westminster. This was disbelieved for a long time, but when the grave was opened some years ago the dramatist's remains were discovered in that attitude. On Palm Sunday, 1461, the battle of Towton was fought, and among the many thou- sands slain in that conflict, one of the most san- guinary ever waged on English soil, was Ralph, Lord Dacre, of Gillesland. He was buried at Saxton, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, seated in an upright position on the back of his favour- ite charger.
A NOTABLE BIBLE. Bishop Tugwell has an interesting curiosity in his possession. About 1855 Bishop Crowther pre- sented to the rulers of Bida an Arabic Bible which, when Bida was taken by the Niger Com- pany's forces in 1897, was found in the palace amongst other treasures, and has since been handed over to Bishop Tugwell. The book has evidently been read and valued, for strong leathern covers and a highly finished leathern case were made for it when the original covers were worn out.
D EPITOME OF NEWS. Whita the United States Squadron was in Na- ples five seamen deserted and made good their escape. A chimney of 115ft. height will, without dan- ger, sway ten inches in a wind. It is announced from Washington that Mr. Elihu Root, United States Secretary of State for War, will pay a brief visit to Carlsbad in August. The Reigning Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont has placed the Castle of Schaumburg at the dis- posal of his sister, the Queen-Mother of the Netherlands, who will spend some weeks there next month. The latest thing in hotel Vills of fare is stated to be an edible menu-card. It is generally made of biscuit, which the guest 6.:tts with his cheese. The most expensive railway to travel on is the Congo, where the fare is k-20 for 250 miles. This works out at about Is. 8d. a mile. The Government of Argentina and Chile have signed treaties settling the questions or arma- ments and general arbitration. The British Government is appointed arbitrator for the set- tlement of any differences which may arise be- tween the two countries. The largest map in the world is the Ordnance Survey map of England, containing over 108,000 t, sheets, and costing 2200,000 a year for twenty years. The oldest inhabited house in England is on the River Ver, close to St. Albans Cathedral. It is octagonal in shape, and supposed to be eleven centuries old. Great Britain is the greatest butter-eater among nations. We eat 131b. a head a year, as against 81b. in Germany, 41b. in France, and 21b. in Russia. A great fire has occurred at the Roumanian naval arsenal at Galatz, doing immense damage and destroying a number of launches. The University of Missouri is to confer the de- gree of LL.D. upon Mr. Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain) at its coming commencement cere- mony. Some of the salmon-smolts recently turned into the ri*3r at Teddington have been found floating dead in the vicinity of Blackfriars Bridge. It is reported that a second German expedi- tion will start from the West African coast for Lake Chad in July. It will be of a scientific nature, and will be undertaken to study the pro- ducts of the German territory up the lake. The Committee of the United States House of Representatives on the Congressional Library has directed a favourable report on the Bill pro- viding for the erection of a statue of Casimir Pulaski, the Polish Count, who fought and died in the American Revolutionary War. The Marquis of Bute comes of age on June 20, but the festivities in connection with that event have been postponed until the early autumn, in consequence of the Coronation, and of his lordship's consequent inability to attend at that date the rejoicings on his estates. An anti-tipping" society has been formed in Berlin. The members of the society pledge themselves not to give" tips" either in hotels, cafes, railways, or in any place where" tipping is customary. The orderfi of decoration borne by the German Emperor are worth a little over £ 45,000. His most valuable decorations are the insignia of the Black Eagle, the Order of St. John, of the Gar- ter, and of the Toison d'Or. In all he has over 200 crosses, stars, badges, and other insignia. Mr. Thomas Walsh, who emigrated from Ire- land to America as a millwright fifteen years ago, has sold his famous Campbird Mine, near Den- ver, to a company for eleven million dollars. He became a miner and struck it rich." A marriage has been arranged, and will take place early in September, between Colonel Mac- kenzie Churchill, late Northamptonshire Ilegt., commanding 27th Regimental District, and Eleanor Agnes, youngest daughter of Colonel L. M. Buchanan, C.B., of Edenfel, Omagh, County Tyrone, formerly 88th Connaught Ran- gers, and 4th Battalion Inniskilling Fusiliers. The latest craze in Paris is the wearing of a lighted lantern as a personal ornament. The fashion originated with a speculative manufac- turer, whose petites lanternes were bought by tens of thousands at the fair at Neuilly. The lantern is very small and neat, and made in a Gothic form after an ancient model. The record of Colonel J. T. Marsh, late of the Royal Engineers, is probably without a parallel. He has six sons holding commissions in the Army, all of whom have seen serious fighting. By one or other of its members this remarkable family seems to have had at least one representative in all our recent campaigns. A French militarv court-martial has sentenced a sergeant-major to twenty years' penal servitude for stealing money from the barracks at Mar- seilles. Another soldier for a similar offence got ten years' imprisonment, while a third received fifteen years' for striking a non-com. On the recommendation of the Secretary for Scotland, to whom the names were submitted by the Lord Justice General, the King has been pleased to confer the rank and dignity of King's Counsel in Scotland on Mr. James Ferguson, Mr. Christopher N. Johnston, and Mr. William C. Smith, advocates at the Scottish Bar. Viscount Hayashi, the Japanese Ambassador; the Maharaja of Gwalior, the Maharaja of Kol- hapur, the Duke of Argyll, Sir R. Henn Collins, Sir West Ridgway, Governor of Ceylon General Sir Francis Grenfell, Governor of Malta Lieut.- Colonel Sir A. H. Hime, Prime Minister of Natal; Sir H. Harry Johnston, Uganda Com- missioner Professor Sanday, Principal Rucker, Frederick Seebohm, Dr. Bell, of Canada, and Professor Parker, of Yale, are (it is stated) to have honorary degrees conferred upon them by 0 Cambridge University. The bridal wreath is usually formed in Ger- many of myrtle branches; in France and England, of orange blossoms; in Italy and French Switzerland, of white roses; in Spain, of red roses and pinks in the islands of Greece, of vine leaves; in Bohemia, of rosemary; in German Switzerland, of a crown of artificial flowers. The German Emperor takes great pride in a cannon of solid gold which he possesses, inlaid with precious stones. Its value, purely as a piece of jewellery, is set at C5,000, and a special guard watches over it. The trustees of the Hamburg Museum, who had cherished it for two centuries, o-ave it to tl/e German Government some time ago- The Palace of The Hague, which is the official residence of Queen Wilhelmina and Duke Henry, The Palace of The Hague, which is the official residence of Queen Wilhelmina and Duke Henry, though a most imposing and splendid pile of buildings, was built by William II. on the site of a hunting lodge, and the great suite of rooms vie in splendour with the State apartments of Windsor, of Potsdam, and of Versailles. It was at the Palace of The Hague that the Queen was 'born, there that she was confirmed, and, though the coronation festivities were celebrated at Amsterdam, her Majesty is always most anxious that The Hague, and The Hague alone, should be regarded as the capital of her country. Professor Kaiser, a South German mechanical genius, has published a pamphlet on How to Steer an Airship with Eagles." Professor Kaiser says an eagle has sufficient strength to draw a balloon, and by means of numerous diagrams and elaborate calculations he shows how eagles can be harnessed and the weights they can pull through the air. In spite of the ridicule with which the pamphlet has been received, Professor Kaiser is training a team ox eagles for a balloon which he has in readiness. Seven thousand pounds a year would seem to be a pretty fair salary for a postman to earn, yet the United States Government has thought itself lucky in being able to engage a man for that fi°"are to carry the mails between Eagle and Vaidery, in Alaska. The distance is 414 miles, and the post man makes two trips a month, limiting himself to 3001b. weight each journey. He makes the trip by dog-sledge, and has pro- bably about as exciting a round as any postman in the world. The virtues of tobacco 00 a preventive against infectious diseases are not a recent discovery, for it is recorded that at the time of the Great Plague every child had to take a pipe and tobacco to school, and at an interval in the lessons master and scholars lit up. A correspondent of a trade journal writes saying that he has held positions in various cigar and tobacco manufactories in London and Liverpool since 1844, and has never known a single death of a cigar-maker or a tobacco-cutter from cholera or smallpox. If persons do not smoke, he says, they should burn a little tobacco every morning before leaving home. Lord Mark Kerr, G.C.B., when he was com- manding the Poona division in Mora some years ago, vigorously encouraged soldiers' gardens. One day, taking an early stroll in mufti, he saw three or four privates raking about. Much pleased, he remarked: Well, my men, nice thing gardening is, isn't it ? I see you take an interest in it ?" Do I?" surlily rejoined Tommy Atkins. "That's all you know! We have got an old general here who's mad on it, and we are here on fatigue duty in case he comes along." The Southern Pacific Railway Company is I making preparations for the use of oil as fuel throughout its system. The company intends to establish 72 steel tanks of 50,000 barrels average capacity along the lines. These tanks will have a capacity of 3,600,000 barrels, and these, together with the 13 already constructed, will give a total of 4,425,000 barrels. It is stated that the company intends to use oil for generating power in all the locomotives. Already the company has converted 210 locomotives into oil-burners, and has on hand material at the Houston shops for converting 120 more. Tar for laying dust has been given two prac- tical trials by Rimini, of Lugo, Ravenna, who experimented on a road near that town, where there is considerable traffic the road was re- cently subjected to a prolonged drought. The first place treated was 42ft. long by 10ft. wide, and the second 806ft. by 15ft. The surface of the road after treatment became very hard and compact, so that the rain flowed off without form- ing mud. The cost works out at £19 6s. 5d. a mile of road for the first application, but this diminishes for the following and it is not neces- sary to tar the whole surface of the road, but only a band 13ft. wide, so that the expense be- comes greatly reduced. For treating turf electrically, a factory has been established at Stangfjorden, in Norway, the pro- cess being one patented by T. Jebsen. The turf is firs!, dried and then compressed into blocks, the watery clemeet in this way being reduced to 20 per cent. Next" the blocks are enclosed in retorts, and heated to the required temperature by internally placed resistance coils. Bv these means heating and illuminating gas is obtained, a tarry liquor is distilled capable of being worked up for paraffin, methyl alcohol, and ammonium sulphate, while turf charcoal remaining in the retorts forms an excellent substitute either for gas-coke or wood charcoal. The electrical in- stallation at Stangfjorden includes five 128 horse- power turbines, direct-coupled to five dynamos. The current is employed for heating the retorts, a separate turbine supplying the necessary me- chanical power. Large impulse water wheels, probably the largest ever constructed, are to be made by a San Francisco firm to develop 3,700 horse-power each where the head of water is 1,600ft. They will have nickel steel shafts, and will be direct- connected to 2,000 kilowatt alternators. A storage battery traction system may be ex- pected in Brooklyn shortly, the general feeling being that the big network of trolley wires now existing is a great disfigurement. Any system of self-contained cars is almost sure to prove more expensive in cost of maintenance than does any trolley system but the cost is thought to be less than that of a service of cars on the open slot system. With longitudinal iron railway sleepers a ten- dency has been observed during the course of some lengthy experiments in Prussia for the rails to spread, whilst with the usual transverse wooden sleepers this tendency is absent. The superiority of the latter kind of sleeper is now acknowledged. There are several instances of meetings for Church service being held in railway carriages and barns, and even in disused breweries; but at Twyford, near Winchester, Divine service is regu- larly conducted in a public-house. This is done every Sunday and Tuesday throughout the year at the Phcenix Inn, a house of call for cyclists tour- ing through Hampshire, one of the rooms, which accommodates over 100 people, having been used for this purpose for 14 years past. The entrance to the meeting-room is the ordinary public entrance of the inn, and the services, which are well attended, are conducted during the business hours of the establishment. Titled society is wondering just what style of crown Queen Alexandra will wear on Coronation Day, but it has not been able to learn, for her Majesty is keeping it a deep secret (says Woman "). Even the fashionable jewellers do not know who has received the order to make it. The jewellers who usually serve the Queen have not yet been consulted about her crown, although they are now at work on the King's. Whatever the shape may be, it will be copied by many peeresses as soon as they learn of it. Perhaps that's why the Queen is so secretive. Whatever it may be, however, the greatest jewel in the crown will be the historic Koh-i-noor, a priceless stone to be only matched in historic if not intrinsic value by the ruby of the Black Prince, which will blaze in the King's crown. Although he has suffered discomfiture in his claim on the Lord Chamberlainship of England, the Duke of Atholl has much of dignity wherewith he can console himself. Besides his dukedom, ho has no fewer than five earldoms, two marquisates, three viscounties, and eight baronies—in all, nine- teen coronets. Contrasted with the Duke of Somerset, who is second on the ducal roll, he is fortunate, for his Grace of Somerset has but one other title besides his dukedom, and that is one of the lowest rank in the peerage. There is no other duke in the United Kingdom whose eldest son's title would be only that of a baron. And yet the Duke of Somerset has only his Grace of Norfolk as his superior in ducal rank. Some fair imitations of home-made lace are already manufactured by machinery. A recent invention by an Austrian named Matiscli renders it possible to reproduce one more variety, known as torchon lace. Herr Matitsch, after being asso- ciated with the lace industry in Vienna, and in- venting a machine which did not give satisfactory results, went to Nottingham, where he perfected the model of 1899. It was then necessary to make the jacquards for each pattern that it was desir- able to produce. Hitherto it has been necessary to have a separate machine for each design. With the Matitsch machine it is only necessary to sub- stitute one jacquard for another, as in weaving cloth. In Vienna it is thought that a new era in lace making is ahead. When Mr. Linley Sambourne, Punch's chief oartoonist, was a draughtsman at Penn s engineer- ing works, his boyiBh fun and love for practical joking were irrepressible. There happened to be a young French draughtsman in the same office, and one day the ingenious practical joker, "Sammy," conceived the idea for hooking down the French youth's hat and nailing it all round the brim firmly on the desk. When the lunch time arrived all but the French youth were aware of the joke. The merriment was intense when he rose to leave for lunch. He took down a hat off the pegs, placed it on his head, and walked out. The laughter was then turned against Sambourne. He had made a slight mistake. It was his own hat he had nailed to the counter 1 If there is one sphere of European domestic life in which, more than another, says a contemporary, the Chinaman finds "scope for the exercise of his own peculiar ingenuity, without doubt it is in the regions dedicated to the pursuit of the culinary art. Here he will allow no obstacle to daunt him, no unforeseen contingency to catch him unawares. Should you, having ordered two chops for the dinner of yourself and your wife, suddenly, all un- thinking, bring in a friend to share your humble meal, you will find the cook out of two chops has miraculously created a third-created it ,so skil- fully out of odds and ends of meat deftly strung together that only the practised eye may discern the difference.
FOUR MIGHTY CRUISERS. I Two of the Drake class of armoured cruisers, have now completed their trials, the Good Hope and the Leviathan. The contract speed of this class of vessel is 23 knots, and the contract i.h.p. 30,000. The Good Hope made 23.05 knots on her eight hours' full-power run, whilst the Le- viathan has just made 23.2 knots on the same trials. The increase in speed in the Leviathan is due to some alteration that has been made in the pitch of her propellers. The two other cruisers of this class-the Drake and the King Alfred—are building, the former at Chatham Dockyard, the latter at Barrow-in-Fruness. Both are nearly ready to ,ndergo their trials. Perhaps the Good Hope may take part in the Coronation Naval Review.
AN INTERESTING CENSUS. The European missionaries on the staff of the Church Missionary Society now number 1,305, made up of 421 ordained men, 146 laymen, and (including wives) 738 ladies. There are 374 na- tive ordained clergymen connected with the So- ciety, and the native lay teachers number nearly eight thousand. The Society's clergy in the year before last baptised 8,142 adult converts and 10,941 children of Christian parents. The re- turns for the past year are not yet complete, but so far the corresponding figures are 9,586 and 11,007. Uganda leads with 4,067 adult baptisms and India comes next with 2,830.
In Vienna every man's home is his dungeon from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. Vienna is a city of flats, and at 10 p.m. the common entrance door of each block is closed and bolted. Thereafter persons passing in or out must pay a fine of 2d. to the concierge until midnight, and 4d. from that hour to 6 a.m. To go out to post a letter costs 2d., and the same amount to return. To prolong a visit to a friend after 10 p.m. means 2d. to get out of his house and 2d. more to enter your own. A natural result of this irritating tax is that of all capital cities Vienna is earliest to bed.