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FIELD AND FARM. ] THE HAY citop. Early hay crops are now (remarks Prof. John Wrightson in the "Agricultural Gazette") cer- tain to be light. Whitsuntide was unusually earlv. it is true, but could not fail to remind us that grass is often down at that holiday season, and that the work of hay-making is sometimes interrupted by it. To think of cutting even two or three weeks ahead fills us with rather dismal forebodings as to what the result must be. This, with the high price of both hay and straw and of all descriptions of feeding materials, is not reassuring. Meanwhile the brightness of the foliage and the verdant appearance of the country generally helps to keep up hope that, although the season is late, it may yet turn out better than we fear. As to the later hay crops, there is still soma probability that they may prove satisfac- tory. Grass requires moisture, and is capable of growing rapidly in localities too elevated and cold for corn. It, however, requires some forcing weather, which may soon make an improvement manifest. TEE TUBERCULOSIS SCARE. We never expressed much sympathy (says Prof. Wrightson) for the tuberculosis scare," which affected us so much some few years ago. It seemed unreasonable to believe that milk, after all that had been said and written in its praise, should be a fatal beverage and the cause of con- sumption. A milk diet had always been thought to be about the best for consumptive patients. Happily the old opinions on the virtue of new milk, fresh and warm from the cow, do not ap- pear to have been so hopelessly wrong after ail. Warm from the cow may be going a little too far, but this is how calves like it, and mother's milk, drawn from the natural source, has always been thought the best food for infants. Hence the high estimation in which wet-nurses have been held. The report on experiments made at the Veterinary College support the views expressed a year ago by Professor Koch, that the human and Dovine forms of tuberculosis are quite distinct a.nd are not communicable from the one host to the other. This is very satisfactory to stock- keepers, many of whom were much exercised in their minds on this subject. Many of us lost money by weeding out reacting cows, and were rather horrified at the time by finding how many apparently healthy cows cHid react to the test. This opened up a moral as well as a financial ques- tion, for what right had anyone to keep cows which might be sources of danger to the com- munity? This most difficult question seems now on the high road to settlement. It was raised by science, and was contrary to common-sense, or at least to experience but, on the other hand, it seemed to be capable of demonstration. That a large proportion of our cows were infected with tubercle was sufficiently proved, but that the milk was affected was always doubtful. Now it appears that even in the few cases in which tubercle bacilli are present in the milk it is mora than doubtful if any harm can come from imbib- ing it. The matter is still under investigation, and cannot be said to be absolutely settled, but the evidence so far as it goes supports Dr. Koch's dictum that the human and bovine forms of the disease are quite distinct, and that the one form is incapable of being communicated to the host of the other. It is to be hoped that it will be similarly found that tuberculosis of fowls, which is so common in poultry-yards, is distinct from tuberculosis in cattle and in man. If not, we must live in constant dread, not only on account of the milk we consume, but the eggs and poultry which form so important a part of our daily food. The drift of past experience, as well as the more mature views of science, point to the conclusion that tuberculosis assumes many forms, and that it does not follow that it is intercoinmunicable between animals of different species. If it were so, carnivorous animals, which eat raw flesh often diseased, and in a most offensive state of decom- position, would stand a poor chance of preserving their health. THE MAKING OF GOOD BUTTER. < At the convention of the Dairymen's Associa- tion of the Province of Toronto, Canada, Mr. J. W. Newman was awarded the first prize for a valuable essay on How to Make Good Butter." The following is a portion of his paper:— Unfavo-Lirable conditions for cream separa- tion are (1) speed below that which the machine is calculated to run (2) feeding separator to its capacity or over when speed is too low; (3) milk below a temperature of 84 deg. when being separated; (4) making very heavy cream by adjustment; (5) vibrating, swaying, or unsteady running of the bowl. Reversing these condi- tions. of course, will cause the most favourable conditions for thorough separation. Every butter-maker should see that his separator runs smoothly, and with regular speed, and that as near as possible to the speed intended for that particular machine, which is usually stamped on the bowl. It is not wise to run any separator much faster, owing to the danger of injuring the bearings or bursting the bowl. As soon as separation is complete, the separator sh mid bo thoroughly washed, getting every particlo out of the crevices, and then have it thoroughly blown out' with live steam, so that all parts coming in contact with milk or cream will be perfectly sterile. The heat absorbed by the bowl will then cause all dampness to vaporise, thus leaving all parts dry and free from danger of rusting. Immediately after separation, the cream should be cooled down to about 70 deg. Always have ready a good pasteurised skim-milk starter to put into cream when separation is finished, so as to set up the desired fermentation, and to overcome the evil effects of any injurious forms of bacteria that may have been in the milk. Cream is ripened to improve the yield, flavour, and keeping quality of the butter. A good starter is a boon to successful butter-making. It hastens the development of lactic acid, allows the cream to be ripened at a lower temperature, and, to a great extent, controls the flavour of the butter. It is important that the starter has a good flavour. Should the starter go wrong from any cause, a fresh one may be started from the buttermilk of.a lot of cream that was ripened in good condition and that produced good-flavoured butter. The quantity of starter used must be governed by the ripeness of milk, the time allowed for the cream to ripen, and the tempera- ture at which it is ripened. As soon as the cream commences to thicken (which should be in about four hours after adding the starter), be ready to cool quickly to at least 55 deg. temperature before leaving it for the night, and then the churning is ready any time in the morn- ing." Sufficient lactic acid should be developed in the cream to cause coagulation in at least six or eight hours before churning. Always stir the cream frequently while ripening, to ensure uniformity. Properly-ripened cream will have a smooth, glossy appearance. It will pour like thick mollasses, and have a pleasant acid taste and smell, and with the alkaline test will show from .45 to .7 per cent. of lactic acid, according to its density or per cent, of butter-fat. In Denmark, nearly all the milk or cream for butter-making is pasteurised. This, tith the use of a good starter, gives the maker full control of the cream ripening, as it leaves, as it were, clean soil to grow the desirable bacteria form- Prepare the churn by scalding, followed by a liberal amount of cold water to cool it; when the cream is in the churn add what colour is neces- sary to get a uniform shade. The cream should be at its proper churning temperature at least two hours bef0re the churning is commenced. This will secure a. firmer body and a better texture in the butter. Churning temperature will vary according to the season, the time the cows have been in lactation, and the per cent. of butter-fat in cream. It should always be arranged to have some cows fresh in milk at every season. Slow churning is caused by (1) too thin cream—make richer cream (2) churn too full —one-third full is sufficient; (3) temperature too low (4^ cream not sufficiently ripened; (5) churn running too fast or too slow (6) putting in too much cold water too soon after the butter begins to break."

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