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FIELD AND FARM.I

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FIELD AND FARM. I HAY VALUES, I Should we meet with severe weather in J aft nary there will be a further rise in the value of I my (remarks Prof. John Wrigfctson in the A:(/'ricuJ- i-j/rai Gazette) especially as the present abundance of grass must be tending to keep back prices. Tha question is whether it will pay to feed hay to p«»-ep or cattle which is worth £ 5 and may be worth £ (j before long ? Straw is at 60s., and in some cases 70s., per ton, so that even straw becomes an ex- pensive food. Cotton cake is at £ 5 5s. and linseed cake at ,£9. so that it is difficult to see any sourco of cheap food for sfccctk. To sell hav and straw is always doubtful policy, but of the two, one ton of cotton cake will go fur- ther and prove of greater feeding value than one ton of hay and certainly than two tons of straw. In the meantime, those who have plenty of tail grass are to be congratulated as having time to look round and see how the markets will tend. LATE SOWN ROOTS. I The late-sown roots are the only ones (mangel excepted) which are promising. These have grown at a rapid rate during the last two months, and now cover the ground with luxuriant green. in many cases the season was too far advanced for singling these late crops, but where this important work was performed the labour has paid well. WHEAT SOWING. I The season has been favourabJe for wheat sowing, and the work has in many parts proceeded rapidly. The area sown will probably be further curtailed by allowing seed to lie but, on the other hand, it will he helped by the failure of many acres of roots which, after several sowings, were left in fallow. Much vetch land which ordinarily would have been broken for roots after folding will now go into wheat. The miserable price or the leading cereal certainly favours restriction of the area, and the upshot will probably be further curtailment of the wheat area. MANGEL-WURZEL. This crop is increasing in favour, as it always does after a series of dry summers. The fact that it can thrive upon the lighter soils is being im- pressed upon farmers, and of this there is abundant proof. In one case known to the writer mangel is growing successfully for the second time upon some poor high-lying land in close proximity to fields where turnips and swedes failed through the heat and drought of last summer. A good crop of mangel can be grown after roots fed on land which would ordinarily be brought into oats or barley. The cultivation in such eases is scarcely more expensive than that of corn, for neither dung nor artificial manures are needed for the production of a 25-ton crop, worth at least 10s. per ton. As to feeding mangel in the autumn, it may be done by sheep without injury, but mangel generally acquires value as the season runs on, and in April and May it is worth a good deal. Stock farmers also find mangel invaluable through the hot months of the summer, for which its excellent keeping properties fit it admirably. F(RM MOEALISINGS. I Master and f! -reman are not up to much it they cannot (avers the "Home Farm" specialist of the Journal Of Horticulture) the night before. arrange (barrBg weather) the best plan of work for the follow .ng day; how the horses may all be used, and ho'y the men may have no useless run- ning to and ro after little tiresome jobs. On a farm the waste of power, and also of food, may be most considerable, and it is for men to aid masters in the suppression of this kind of wrong-doing. It may be tiresome, but it certainly is most neces- sary thnt all horse corn be kept under lock and key, and only given out by weight. In olden days, when oats were the staple horse food, it used to he the plan to have two or three days thrashing and then let the horseman run at the heap on the granary floor. The same applies to pig-meal, and also to hen-corn. We could tell sad tales of (over-true, too) pigs being fattened on the corn that belonged of right to the master's fowls, and we sadly fear bits of oil-eake have gone the same way. We know, too, of corn being taken and ground for flour by the very man who was put by the master in charge, and his con- fidence thus terribly abused. It is always well to count cakes on delivery, for there are plenty of un- scrupulous men who would think nothing of tempt- ing a waggoner to give them a cake or two when returning with the teams from the local oil mm. These things are done, and done constantly, and lads are sometimes tempted beyond their strength. The same applies to cut meat or chaffed straws. Cases of this kind have come under our knowledge, and give us a very painful impression as to the recti- tude of mankind in general. We know lads are often tempted to take eggs, not for themselves, but for their horses, under the mistaken notion that it gives a fine lustre to the coats. The lustre should come from plenty of elbow grease, not from stolen food. How many a cow has been wasted by improper milking. A cow should be milked dry. The last drops are always the richest. A cow should be milked gently, and handled without harshness. A heifer's temper is easily made or marred, and kick- ing cows are often the outcome of bad usage. It is not legitimate wear and tear that so runs up items in the tradesmen's bills. We all know things wear out, but how is their end hastened by rough, careless usage. Some men have no idea of order; forks, rakes, buckets, chaif baskets, and bags are just tossed down anywhere, to be trampled on or run over, or possibly lost alto- gether, and a foreman or master has no business to be continually on the outlook to prevent leakage in this form. Some men are very handy, and can do many little repairs themselves, and others are just as useless—always ready to run to the wheel- wright or blacksmith, forgetting that each item means so much hard cash. This habit of care- lessness follows a man into the stable and the field, makes him neglectful of his horses, of their careful and proper feeding, and hurries him over their cleaning and grooming. Good food and pure water, administered at suitable intervals, and with clock-like regularity, are the best preserva- tives of health, and the whole system responds most readily to a carefully groomed coat. We know the effect of a good rough towel on our own backs, so we can judge of the pleasant sensations to a horse when his body is well rubbed down. Nothing is more aggravating to a master than a crookedly drilled piece of corn, or worse, where one spout has been stopped up and no corn drilled at all! SEASONABLE SHEPHERDING. I In seasons like the present (says a writer m thfe Live Stock Journal) green food cannot be allowed to go to waste, and many who in ordinary years would not permit their sheep to eat mangel leaves will be obliged to put them on them. If this is done, the leaves should be allowed to wither slightly first, and plenty of dry food should be provided. At any rate. the mangel leaves should only form a, slight portion of the daily food and the sheep shcald be closely watched, so that at the first appearance of scour the food may be altered. Violent scouring, from whatever cause. has a prejudicial effect on in-lamb ewes, for it tends very directly to cause abortion. The drugs commonly used to bring about abortion mainly effect it through the scouring they cause. In a season such as this, all dry food has to be made best use of. and in order to save the hay- stacks the chaff blown out while thrashing corn is not uncommonly used for ewe feeding, and 11 sweet it is serviceable. If. however, it contains many seeds of weeds it may have a very poisonous effect on the sheep. We have known wholesale cases of poisoning through sheep being fed with chaff containing mayweed seeds or the seeds of the field marigold. jThe haulm or cavings from ellover seed, pea hanlm chaffed, most cavings chaffed, all are useful, bulky, dry foods well suited for ewes to save hay. If the sheep do not take to them readily, a little nietti or even a sprinkling of fenugreek will prove attractive, and get the sheep into the habit of eat- ng dry food. The grass land farmer has far fewer troubles with his sheep. for the pastures provide the bulk of the food and if the sheep get their fill of this it is not, difficult to add concentrated foods to keep them thriving, or even to fatten them out. The present price of concentrated feeding stuffs will r, make it a somewhat expensive year for wintering I coarse food is scarce. When, however, the cost of concentrated food is calculated out it -ioes not appear so great per head as somf s are inclined to think. Half a pound a. day is lol'i per month; consequently, that quantity for sever) months is under a hundredweight. There can hE little doubt that those who keep their sheen through the winter will be well repaid eveii if they have to use extra food for a portvui of 'the time. It is in the spring that follows a difficult winter that animals are short, in number, and the demand becomes active, conse- quently prices are relatively much better than in the preceding spring. It is a mistake, there- fore to let the head of sheep fall if there is anv reasonable chance of carrying them through until grass comes again. Of course, the nature of the winter and the earliness of frosts are a great factor in regulating the help that can be got from the pastures, but having in view the present price of stores, and the fact that many will carry but a few through winter, it is a good policy for those who can to hold on to all they are able.

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