FIELD AND FARM. I HAY VALUES, I Should we meet with severe weather in J aft nary there will be a further rise in the value of I my (remarks Prof. John Wrigfctson in the A:(/'ricuJ- i-j/rai Gazette) especially as the present abundance of grass must be tending to keep back prices. Tha question is whether it will pay to feed hay to p«»-ep or cattle which is worth £ 5 and may be worth £ (j before long ? Straw is at 60s., and in some cases 70s., per ton, so that even straw becomes an ex- pensive food. Cotton cake is at £ 5 5s. and linseed cake at ,£9. so that it is difficult to see any sourco of cheap food for sfccctk. To sell hav and straw is always doubtful policy, but of the two, one ton of cotton cake will go fur- ther and prove of greater feeding value than one ton of hay and certainly than two tons of straw. In the meantime, those who have plenty of tail grass are to be congratulated as having time to look round and see how the markets will tend. LATE SOWN ROOTS. I The late-sown roots are the only ones (mangel excepted) which are promising. These have grown at a rapid rate during the last two months, and now cover the ground with luxuriant green. in many cases the season was too far advanced for singling these late crops, but where this important work was performed the labour has paid well. WHEAT SOWING. I The season has been favourabJe for wheat sowing, and the work has in many parts proceeded rapidly. The area sown will probably be further curtailed by allowing seed to lie but, on the other hand, it will he helped by the failure of many acres of roots which, after several sowings, were left in fallow. Much vetch land which ordinarily would have been broken for roots after folding will now go into wheat. The miserable price or the leading cereal certainly favours restriction of the area, and the upshot will probably be further curtailment of the wheat area. MANGEL-WURZEL. This crop is increasing in favour, as it always does after a series of dry summers. The fact that it can thrive upon the lighter soils is being im- pressed upon farmers, and of this there is abundant proof. In one case known to the writer mangel is growing successfully for the second time upon some poor high-lying land in close proximity to fields where turnips and swedes failed through the heat and drought of last summer. A good crop of mangel can be grown after roots fed on land which would ordinarily be brought into oats or barley. The cultivation in such eases is scarcely more expensive than that of corn, for neither dung nor artificial manures are needed for the production of a 25-ton crop, worth at least 10s. per ton. As to feeding mangel in the autumn, it may be done by sheep without injury, but mangel generally acquires value as the season runs on, and in April and May it is worth a good deal. Stock farmers also find mangel invaluable through the hot months of the summer, for which its excellent keeping properties fit it admirably. F(RM MOEALISINGS. I Master and f! -reman are not up to much it they cannot (avers the "Home Farm" specialist of the Journal Of Horticulture) the night before. arrange (barrBg weather) the best plan of work for the follow .ng day; how the horses may all be used, and ho'y the men may have no useless run- ning to and ro after little tiresome jobs. On a farm the waste of power, and also of food, may be most considerable, and it is for men to aid masters in the suppression of this kind of wrong-doing. It may be tiresome, but it certainly is most neces- sary thnt all horse corn be kept under lock and key, and only given out by weight. In olden days, when oats were the staple horse food, it used to he the plan to have two or three days thrashing and then let the horseman run at the heap on the granary floor. The same applies to pig-meal, and also to hen-corn. We could tell sad tales of (over-true, too) pigs being fattened on the corn that belonged of right to the master's fowls, and we sadly fear bits of oil-eake have gone the same way. We know, too, of corn being taken and ground for flour by the very man who was put by the master in charge, and his con- fidence thus terribly abused. It is always well to count cakes on delivery, for there are plenty of un- scrupulous men who would think nothing of tempt- ing a waggoner to give them a cake or two when returning with the teams from the local oil mm. These things are done, and done constantly, and lads are sometimes tempted beyond their strength. The same applies to cut meat or chaffed straws. Cases of this kind have come under our knowledge, and give us a very painful impression as to the recti- tude of mankind in general. We know lads are often tempted to take eggs, not for themselves, but for their horses, under the mistaken notion that it gives a fine lustre to the coats. The lustre should come from plenty of elbow grease, not from stolen food. How many a cow has been wasted by improper milking. A cow should be milked dry. The last drops are always the richest. A cow should be milked gently, and handled without harshness. A heifer's temper is easily made or marred, and kick- ing cows are often the outcome of bad usage. It is not legitimate wear and tear that so runs up items in the tradesmen's bills. We all know things wear out, but how is their end hastened by rough, careless usage. Some men have no idea of order; forks, rakes, buckets, chaif baskets, and bags are just tossed down anywhere, to be trampled on or run over, or possibly lost alto- gether, and a foreman or master has no business to be continually on the outlook to prevent leakage in this form. Some men are very handy, and can do many little repairs themselves, and others are just as useless—always ready to run to the wheel- wright or blacksmith, forgetting that each item means so much hard cash. This habit of care- lessness follows a man into the stable and the field, makes him neglectful of his horses, of their careful and proper feeding, and hurries him over their cleaning and grooming. Good food and pure water, administered at suitable intervals, and with clock-like regularity, are the best preserva- tives of health, and the whole system responds most readily to a carefully groomed coat. We know the effect of a good rough towel on our own backs, so we can judge of the pleasant sensations to a horse when his body is well rubbed down. Nothing is more aggravating to a master than a crookedly drilled piece of corn, or worse, where one spout has been stopped up and no corn drilled at all! SEASONABLE SHEPHERDING. I In seasons like the present (says a writer m thfe Live Stock Journal) green food cannot be allowed to go to waste, and many who in ordinary years would not permit their sheep to eat mangel leaves will be obliged to put them on them. If this is done, the leaves should be allowed to wither slightly first, and plenty of dry food should be provided. At any rate. the mangel leaves should only form a, slight portion of the daily food and the sheep shcald be closely watched, so that at the first appearance of scour the food may be altered. Violent scouring, from whatever cause. has a prejudicial effect on in-lamb ewes, for it tends very directly to cause abortion. The drugs commonly used to bring about abortion mainly effect it through the scouring they cause. In a season such as this, all dry food has to be made best use of. and in order to save the hay- stacks the chaff blown out while thrashing corn is not uncommonly used for ewe feeding, and 11 sweet it is serviceable. If. however, it contains many seeds of weeds it may have a very poisonous effect on the sheep. We have known wholesale cases of poisoning through sheep being fed with chaff containing mayweed seeds or the seeds of the field marigold. jThe haulm or cavings from ellover seed, pea hanlm chaffed, most cavings chaffed, all are useful, bulky, dry foods well suited for ewes to save hay. If the sheep do not take to them readily, a little nietti or even a sprinkling of fenugreek will prove attractive, and get the sheep into the habit of eat- ng dry food. The grass land farmer has far fewer troubles with his sheep. for the pastures provide the bulk of the food and if the sheep get their fill of this it is not, difficult to add concentrated foods to keep them thriving, or even to fatten them out. The present price of concentrated feeding stuffs will r, make it a somewhat expensive year for wintering I coarse food is scarce. When, however, the cost of concentrated food is calculated out it -ioes not appear so great per head as somf s are inclined to think. Half a pound a. day is lol'i per month; consequently, that quantity for sever) months is under a hundredweight. There can hE little doubt that those who keep their sheen through the winter will be well repaid eveii if they have to use extra food for a portvui of 'the time. It is in the spring that follows a difficult winter that animals are short, in number, and the demand becomes active, conse- quently prices are relatively much better than in the preceding spring. It is a mistake, there- fore to let the head of sheep fall if there is anv reasonable chance of carrying them through until grass comes again. Of course, the nature of the winter and the earliness of frosts are a great factor in regulating the help that can be got from the pastures, but having in view the present price of stores, and the fact that many will carry but a few through winter, it is a good policy for those who can to hold on to all they are able.
PAT was a bashful lover and Biddy was coy— but not too coy; "Biddy," Pat b?gan, timidly, did ye ivver think av marryin'?" Sure, now, th' subject has nivver entered me thoughts," de- murely replied G iddy. "It's -zorry*Oi am," said Pat, turning away. Wan minute, Pat!" called Biddy, softly. Ye've set me a-thinkin' So tenderly he loved her! If she would plight her troth, he said, he would go foith and battle with the cruel world, and when his fortune was made he would come and lay it at her feet. He would hustle—oh, how he would, hustle, if--if she but wait But she would not. "'B—but, Charley," she said bashfully, I will marrv you now—and then you will have to hustle!"
LITTLE JOYS OF FEUDAL TIMES. I A writer in the Architect relates that some of the antique forms of paying homage to a feudal superior were very comic. In one of the lordships of France the peasants were obliged to bring a canary bird to the chateau, placed on the top of a carriage drawn by four horses. In Austria a noble vassal was to present every St. Martin's Day to his superior two pots of flies. Another nobleman in Franconia offered to his lord as a mark of homage a grasshopper. When the Abbot of Figeac made his entrance into the city of his abbacy, the Lord of Montbrun and Larogue received him dressed as a harlequin, with one leg bare. When the Abbot descended from his horse the same person held his stirrup, and when he sat down to table waited behind his chair to fill his cup with wine. The Lord of Pae6 had a right to summon all the pretty women of Saumur and its suburbs every Trinity Day before him, and they were to pay him each four farthings and a chaplet of roses. Those who refused to dance with his officers were to have the family arms marked on their bodies with the point of a needle.
ROYAL SALUTES. It is understood that the usage in the matter of Royal salutes in every part of the public service is to remain untouched, for some time to come, at any rate. A desire exists in some quarters for a revision of the rules in the direction of simplicity, but there are some international questions in- volved, and the subject bristles with difficulty. It is to be remembered that certain of the native chiefs of India are entitled to salutes, the reduc- tion of which would cause much difficulty, and it is, therefore, impossible to attempt revision at one end so long as it is impracticable at the other.
SMALL-POX AND THE SEASONS. The occurrence of an outbreak of small-pox at the present time of year, which is out of the com- mon course, is (the Hospital remarks) a matter of some interest both in regard to immediate pro- spects, and to the outlook of the future. The seasonable curve of small-pox mortality is a simple one, that is to say, it has one rise and one fall per annum. Taking the mean of a large number of years the maximum mortality occurs between January and May, when it rapidly falls, the mini- mum being reached in September. From this point it gradually rises again through October and November, and runs up quickly in December to its maximum in January gand February. The fact, then, that the present outbreak began at the bottom of the curve, that is at the time when under nor- mal conditions the tendency to small-pox is slight, may by some be taken to indicate that it will be easily dealt with. We do not, however, think that such a view is quite tenable in the light of past experiences. When we find an infectious disease gradually dying away at a certain season, year after year, notwithstanding that during the preceding months of its maximum prevalence the dissemination of its infection must have been at the highest, it is clear that there must be at work some influence, we know not what, but something connected with the season, to account for the phenomena, and we cannot but believe that an infection accidentally imported during that period of decreasing prevalence is comparatively unlikely to extend. When, how- ever, we find that at a given season, as also happens every year, the disease begins to spread, notwithstanding that the foci of infection must be at the minimum, we have to admit that there is some hidden influence at work to cause this result, and again in our ignorance of its exact nature we have to describe this as "seasonal "-80 something which makes infection at such season of the year more potent for evil than at other times. Now, to apply all this to small-pox. The present outbreak has occurred at the very bottom of the curve when, under ordinary circumstances, small-pox is at the minimum. So far so good. Evidently the season favours our efforts to suppress it. and for the pre- sent we may succeed. But the infection which is now being spread abroad by these cases comes into operation at the very season of the year at which, as the natural history of the disease shows, a very little infection always goes a long way. Hence we must not be misled by the fact that this outbreak has so far shown no marked tendency to become epidemic. What we have to think of is what will happen in the early spring. We know that the seed has been sown, and not until harvest time arrives can we be sure that it has not taken root.
LOST HIS HEAD. The police-office in the quarter of St. Lambert (says the Paris Figaro) was startled the other day by the appearance of a man carrying in his hand a puppet's head, the face of which had been red- dened with rouge. Round his own neck the man had painted a line of vermilion, and he calmly in- formed the Commissaire that he had been run over by a vehicle which had cut off his head. Voici ma tete," said he, exhibiting the puppet. The Commissionaire offered to put his head on again for him, but the man refused, saying he had decided henceforward to live without it. Then," he added, "I shall have no more headache or toothache." He was removed to an infirmary for examination as to the state of his mind.
HARD ON THE PHOTOGRAPHERS. It is stated that the King is at present averse from the perpetuation of the custom adopted by the late Queen with reference to the publication of photographs of interiors of the Royal palaces. Whether his Majesty will relax his present inten- tions in this respect at a later stage remains to be seen, but it is realised by the private secretaries that a new order of things has arisen during the \ast ten years, and the enormous multiplication of illustrated journals, each of which is hungry for new pictures, and some of which are owned by in- fluential men whom the King cannot readily ignore, has made it necessary to lay down some law of limitation for the mere purpose of safe- guarding the Royal residences from indiscriminate intrusion.
OUR WOODEN WALLS FOR SALE. Last year the Admiralty realised £ 15,000 by the sale of sundry ships, and in the latest issue of the London Gazette it is announced that three wooden walls, types of the old Navy which held the com- mand of the seas 100 years ago, are to be sold by tender. The largest is the Nettle, a second-rate ship of 2279 tonnage, which was built at Woolwich in 1831. The other two ships are the Lavinia, of 1258 tons, and the Peterel, of 668 tons.
AN IRON CROSS. I It is stated that the idea of the establishment of a military decoration which shall partake more of the character of the Iron Cross of Germany than of the Victoria Cross has commended itself to the King. The field of choice for the Victoria Cross is very limited, and the decoration never assumes the character of an immediate reward, while, generally speaking, only junior officers and the rank and file can secure it. On the other hand, the Iron Cross of Germany can be bestowed on the field of battle by Generals commanding army corps, and men can be recommended for it by their captains on the day of combat.
AT the last meeting of the Optical Society Mr. Aitchison succeeded in getting his resolution carried for the appointment of a Committee of members to inquire into the best methods for the practical and scientific training of opticians. There is no truth in the suggestion of a contem- porary that this is the result of a scare brought about by American competition. The manufac- ture of optical instruments has never been an English monopoly, rather the reverse, and the object of the Committee is more in the nature of an attack on a great foreign industry than a de- fence of English methods. The purpose is the development of the technical classes in optical subject which have for the past .three years been carried on with such great success at the North- ampton Institute, Clerkenwell, London, and which foreign critics have admitted are far ahead of those in existenco for a similar purpose on the Conti- nent. GAS of from 12 to 14 candle-power will replace gas of high illumina^M^ power, says Professor Vivian B. Lewes.
A PLEA FOR ARCHERY. ] "I claim for archery," says Lady Onslovr i*. Country Life, that it is older than the royal and ancient' game of gclf. as wholesome an oxer- cise, if not so athletic, as tennis, more elegant than croquet, and more enthralling than any of these when once the initial difficulties have been over- come. It is a sociable amusement, too, and one that interests the onlookers. An archery club in a neighbourhood is a distinct gain to the society therein, and the meetings make pleasant gatherings, which give pleasure to shooters and spectators alike. There is to most people something exhilarating in the very appearance of the smooth sward and row of bright targets at each end. The 'ladies'day' at the Tox,' or one of the big public meetings, is a very grand function indeed, where may be seen the best archers in England-and probably in the world. It is an education in archery to observe these champions and championesses, whose grace and style as a rule are only equalled by their skill."
A CHINESE MUSEUM. I A museum formed on European models is shortly to be established in Tientsin, in North China. The chief purpose of the proposed museum is to attract and interest the members of the official community, but there is little doubt that the Chinese will also make considerable use of it, and it is thus hoped to bring about mutual national intercourse on many matters likely to in- terest both "foreigner" and native. 9,
"SCOTTISH HUSSARS." An anonymous correspondent of the Times sug- gests the creation of a regiment of Scottish Hussars. Ireland, he says, is represented in the cavalry by Dragoons, Lancers, and Hussars, while Scotland is only represented by the Scots Greys. .—- —
REMARKABLE FAMILY INCIDENT. It may seem strange to hear of two members of the same family having to be introduced to each other, but such a thing actually occurred at a diamond wedding ceremony just celebrated in Glasgow. Children and grandchildren were present from various parts of the world, and the eldest of the family, brother and sister—both now over 60 years of age—failed to recognise each other. and a formal introduction was necessary. The eldest son-now a white-haired old man—had been abroad for over 30 years, and came a distance of about 4000 miles specially to be present at the kappy reunion of his aged parents.
THE GUILD CHAPEL AT STRATFORD. Considerable public interest is being shown in the proposed work of restoring the old chapel of the Guild of the Holy Cross, which is so pro- minent a feature in the centre of the town of Stratford-on-Avon. The first chapel of the guild on the same site was erected by Robert de Strat- ford in 1269, but with the exception of the chancel, which is of an earlier period, the present structure was built in the reign of Henry VIII. by Sir H. Clopton, once Lord Mayor of London, who erected the fine bridge over the Avon at Stratford. The building remains practically as Shakespeare saw it. The interior contains some most interesting frescoes, covered over at the beginning of the last century.
CURIOUS CLAIM. A curious claim has recently come before the United States Congress, a man having petitioned that body to grant him a pension for injuries received before he was born. It seems that his brother, 20 years older than the applicant, was engaged in the war, and, after one of the battles, was reported dead. This report was afterwards contradicted, but, at the time, the shock was so serious to the mother that her next child was born a cripple, and he now claims that the war and the act of the Government, in reporting his brother dead, are responsible for his injuries.
I TEACHING AND TEACHERS. The Inspectors of the London School Board, in their annual report, just submitted to the Manage- ment Committee, make allegations of a startling nature in regard to the inefficiency of the teaching and want of discipline in the schools. A few years ago the Board of Education altered the method of testing the progress in the schools, and substituted periodical inspection for the usual stereotyped examinations each year! but, though the inspectors approved of the change, they state that "inspection, as now understood and ad- ministered, does not provide an instrument for a thorough probing of the value of the work being done," and they express the fear that there is in the instruction of the general mass of the scholars a falling off in thoroughness. In the recent exami- nation for admission to higher-grade schools a considerable proportion of the candidates were considered to be unfit to profit by the advanced course of instruction," runs another passage; and, finally, they make the grave assertion that a griev- ous mistake has been made, and, whilst striving to escape from the evils of the one system, we have rushed into the evils of another. Another portion of the report deals with the re- lations between head and assistant teachers. Cases have come to our knowledge," says the in- spectors, of assistants resenting head teachers writing reports in which any faults are found with their work": "Opposition to the legitimate func- tions of the head teacher is not always individual. but is sometimes the result of combination It is openly stated by head teachers that, owing to the combined influence of assistants, their just complaints may be turned against themselves." There is much more in the same strain, and it is felt that allegations such as these cannot be let pass without full investigation.
FOURTEEN IN SEVEN YEARS. I The most talked-about woman in the States when the last mail left was Mrs. Joseph K. Ormsby, of Chicago, who is the mother of four babies, all born at once, and all doing well, according to last accounts. The newspapers have told of the birth of the quadruplets, and their fame have spread far and wide. Three of the babies are boys and one a girl. The heaviest boy has been named Theodore Roosevelt. Mrs. Ormsby has only been married seven years and has had 14 children. During the first three years she had one baby annually, then twins twice in succession, then triplets, and finally } quadruplets. The triplets won prizes at a baby show. Mrs. Ormsby herself was a triplet, and this probably has some bearing on these peculiar occurrences. The mother is in a distressing situa- tion, for her husband became insane and left her seven months ago she has to provide for all her children. Nevertheless she is happy, and says that she would not part with one of them for a million dollars.
IRISH LIFE FIGURES. The marriages registered in Ireland during 1900 number, according to the Registrar General's report, 21.330; the births, 101,459 and the deaths, 87,606. The marriage rate shows a decline, as compared with that for the preceding year, and is slightly below the average for the 10 years 1890-99; the birth rate is 0'4 under that for the preceding year, and also 0-4 under the average rate for the 10 years 1890-99; while the death rate in 1-9 above the rate for the preceding year, and 1-4 above the average rate for the 10 years 1890-99. The recorded natural increase of population, or excess of births over deaths, was 13,853; the loss by emigration amounted to 45,288; there would thus appear to have been a decrease of 31,435 in the population during the year, but against this decrease there is a set-off in immigration, of which no official record has been obtained. The estimated population in the middle of the year was 4,466,326. The population has steadily decreased from 4,717,959 in 1890. Under the causes of death some interesting figures are obtained. Thus, the deaths from in- fluenza in 1900 were 4677, against 1716 in the pre- vious year. Cancer took the lives of 2717 persons in 1900, and 2654 in 1899. It is remarkable that cancer in Ire- land exists in sharper-defined districts. Armagh County has the blackest record, with 10-09 deaths per 10,000 of population. Dublin and Londonderry stand next. Kerry, on the other hand, enjoys almost total immunity from the disease. -rllll
GUNS AND GAME. There are 233,997 persons in Great Britain and' Ireland who pay 10s. a year each for the right to use or carry a gun. The Manchester Courier wonders for what purpose these people obtain the privilege. The license does not permit them to kill game, and it seems incredible that so many guns are owned for the killing of rabbits, or pigeons, or small birds. Probably they are kept for the purpose of protection, but in that case the owners would hardly go to the expense of taking out a license. The number of licenses to kill game is 73,811, so that 160,000 guns are presum- ably not employed in sport. But is that so ? Are there not a very large number of cases in which people take part in game shooting without paying for a license ? It is a fact, unfortunately for the revenue, that the law is in this respect frequently violated. Some time ago the attention of the' Chancellor of the Exchequer was called to this evasion of the tax, but he pointed out that, as the proceeds went in aid of local taxation, it was for the local authorities to see that the law was en- forced.
WILLIAM AND MARY CHAPELS. One of the most interesting of the William and Mary Chapels left to us (remarks the Builder) is at Knutsford, in Cheshire. Authorities differ as to whether it was this chapel or that at Dean's Row, or that at Macclesfield, to which Mrs. Gaskell re- ferred in her story of Ruth, all three being of contemporary date. There are two sets of external stairs attached to the frontage, one at each extremity, and access to the ground floor of the chapel is gained through doorways in the walling that supports them. The diamond panel windows have mullions and drip-stones, and impart a delightful old-world air; and foliage is not wanting to give on extra charge. Another interesting Cheshire example is in the county town. This is the chapel built for Mathew Henry. Some of the walling has been renewed and a new front built but within, though his Commentaries may be no longer chained to the gallery as they used to be, we may see the same two lines of massive oaken pillars, and the same pulpit that was originally placed in it. The oaken gallery, too, is the same that was added when there was an influx of 350 additional communicants, owing to the retirement of a contemporary minister, though the space below it was partitioned off many years ago to accommodate members who had seceded from the rest.
SOLDIERLY SMARTNESS. Referring to the scrupulous care of the British cavalry soldier for his appearance in uniform, Major Arthur Griffiths, writing in "Living London," says men have been known to carry a comrade in their arms and deposit him in his saddle lest some speck should fall upon him in mounting, and mar the perfection of his appear- ance. It is said that sometimes the blacking brush is carried round the ranks to give the last brush when the men are on horseback, or the adjutant himself will condescend to remove dirt from the aokliers' boots with his pocket-handkerchief.
ABYSSINIA'S WEALTH. A WARNING TO BRITAIN. Major Hanbury Tracy and Captain R. Po Cobbold, the two British officers who were de- spatehed early this year on a mission to Abyssinia to accompany Menelik's army in the combined Anglo-Abyssinian expedition against the Mad Mullah, have returned home. Captain Cobbold, in an interview with Reuter's representative, spoke in high terms of the Abyssinian soldier and the friendship of Menelik's Government. Asked re- garding the mineral wealth of the country, Captain Cobbold said It isj impossible to speak with certainty of the future, or of what may be done when the country is thoroughly ex- ploited. At present it is known that the Province of Berri Shengul, which is co-terminous with the Egyptian Soudan, is highly auriferous.. Menelik obtains much of his wealth from this source. Prospecting is already going on in this area, and various concessions have been obtained from the Emperor, of which British companies seem to have a fair share. This country can be readily developed from the side of the Soudan, as the Blue Nile is navigable to within a short dis- tance of the goldfield, and gold, which now has to be carried on mule back 300 miles to Adis Ababa, and a further 500 miles to the Red Sea coast, will be able to find its way in steamers down the Nile in a few days. It is to the development of com- merce with the western provinces of Abyssinia that Great Britain should turn her attention, owing to the facilities afforded by the fine waters of the Sobat and Blue Nile. It is not only for its mineral wealth that I advocate the extension of commerce in this part of Abyssinia, as hundreds of miles of country in Lekka and Kaffa are covered with the: finest coffee within easy reach of the Sobat." la conclusion, Captain Cobbold said: At present-, French influence in Abyssinia is extremely active, and the completion of the Jibutil railway to a point some distance north of Harar, to which place a branch line will be laid, will be effected early next year. The rail head is now within two days' journey of Harar. The completion of the railway will mean that the whole of the trade of Harar (one of the richest provinces of Abyssinia),, the greater portion of which formerly passed through the British ports of Berbera and Zeila will be diverted to the French port of Jibutil, and unless the British Government is satisfied with the threatened extinction of its ports on the Somali coast it must seriously consider the advisability of competing with a British line from Zeila oc- Berbera." .9'
THE equivalent of Mr. Carnegie at Denmark is named Carl Jacobsen, a brewer, who has just made a present of his brewery to the State, the value of the gift being estimated at 10,000,000 kroner. The brewery will henceforth be worked for the public benefit. It is not long since Mr. Jacobsen gave to Copenhagen the largest private collection of sculptures in the world, the same being valued at 12,000,000 kroner. Then there was his father's gift of 20,000,000 kroner for scientific and philan- thropise purposes, and his Carlsberg Fund," which now amounts to 12,500,000 kroner. IT has long been known that his Majesty the King occasionally indulges himself by wearing a bangle on his wrist. The late Duke of Saxe- Coburg and Gotha wore a heavy gold curb brace- let for years previous to his death, and it was Lord Brampton's fancy when sitting upon the Bench as Mr. Justice Hawkins to wear quite a number of similar adornments. The custom of wearing jewellery is rapidly gaining ground among men in England. The practice is not confined to any particular class or section of male society. All are more or less affected. Quite a large number of men now wear a plain curb bracelet as a token of their betrothal just as a lady wears an engage- ment ring. ACCORDING to the report of the British Consul of Nagasaki for 1900 the Japanese are making rapid progress in their shipbuilding industry. No expense is being spared to render the Mitsu Bitsu Shipbuilding and Engineering Works thoroughly r.p to date in every respect. It is being equipped with tools and appliances of the latest and most labour-saving description. During last year four ocean-going steamships ranging from 2000 tons were constructed, and the list of vessels laid down at the end of the year included two passenger ships, each of 6300 tons, for the American line of the Japan Mail <0ompanv.
I GARDENING G-Ossir. I NEW EARLY FLOWERING HRYSANTIIEMUMS. I The seedlings and sports from that well-km wn ,and popular variety, Madame Mario Masse, bid fair (says "J. B. R") to revolutionise our early Chrvsanthemullis-so much so, indeed, that they are likely to oust the older Pompon forms. The parent has much to commend it to all growers, whether for an early display in the greenhouse, for window boxes, or to cheer up the borders in September. Now that we have such striking colours in its progeny, it looks as though the Masse family will become as popular in the bor- ders as the Morel family are in the November dis- plays. Perhaps the most striking of these new forms is Bobby Burns a delightful salmon pink, possess- ing all the good qualities of its parent, and quite distinct from any other early variety. Dorothy Humphrey, a seedling from Crimson Marie Masse, is now opening well, and is of a bright amaranth, with silvery reverse a capital border plant. Irene Hunt, another seedling of the same parentage, may be described as a dull chestnut, edged with gold a pretty flower, but would look better were it a little brighter. Ryecroft Pink is a real beauty, the flowers being of a bright pink, which does not become at all washy in appearance. The plant has, in addition, a splendid habit, and every flower develops. Eyecroft Crimson is evidently later, for it was not open with the rest. A few other good new forms are Mrs. R. Mol- linson, a bright yellow sport from M. Gustavo Grunerwald; a good bright variety of dwarf habit, which will become popular. Mytchett Pink is a free-flowering variety, but I am disappointed with the colour, for there is nothing bright or decided about it. Eva Williams is a beautiful shade of cerise and pink, of good habit, and free-flowering. Tnese comprise all the new varieties which I have grown the older kinds, although later in opening with me this season, are making a grand show in contrast to the taller-growing Dahlias, and it seems a pity that they are so seldom seen in gardens in anything like adequate numbers. CUTTING DOWN MAIDEN-HAIR FERNS. I It is a common practice to cut down Maiden-hair Ferns at certain seasons, and in the case of de- ciduous species, such as the Bird's-foot Maiden- hair (A. pedatum), of course the withered fronds should be removed. But (says a correspondent of Gardening Illustrated) A. cuneatum, the species which it is most unusual thus to cut down, is ever- green. and is positively weakened and much in- jured by being deprived of all its fronds, which are its breathing pores, at once. In exceptional cases cutting down may be recommended by way of mak- ing a fresh start, when for some reason the Fern has become hopelessly disfigured, but it should never be done except from necessity. The best plan is carefully to cut out with a pair of sharp- pointed scissors each frond as it becomes unsightly. Growth naturally is quickened in the spring, and the greater number of young fronds will then make their appearance but under proper cultivation a constant succession of these will be found pushing up to take the place of those which have done their duty. Maiden-hair Ferns, therefore, should never be in the melancholy plight in which they are too often to be met with. There is certainly a natural period of rest during the winter when growth is not active, and it is at this interval that they should be repotted. should be repotted. TUFTED PANSIES FOR CUTTING. Most lovers of these know their value in the open garden, and few low-growing plants have more value, but few recognise their merit for cutting, for they have no attraction for me (J. Crook remarks) as seen in the hideous colours, or on green boards as seen at exhibitions. If promoters of flower-shows wish to extend or show their value, either in a cut state or the garden, why not give prizes for them cut with their own foliage in shoots, say, 4in. to 6in. long, and let them be arranged in as natural a way as_ possible? I believe the present system of showing them has been a hindrance to their usefulness as cut flowers. When shown as single blooms no one can judge of their value in a growing condition, which often leads io disappointment. I use them largely for cutting, but not in the form of single blooms. It is astonishing how long the flowers last in water. When arranged loosely in low or large open vessels they have a. charming effect. For some weeks past 1 have used them on the dinner-table in large flat vases, arranging one colour in each vase. It is easy to arrange them loosely by placing some light foliage in the vase to keen them un. CYCLAMEN. I .formerly Cyclamen-seed was sown in spring, but many good growers of these charming flowers now raise the plants in autumn and, doubtless, it is the best plan, as they make steady growth during winter and are ready for potting off in February. New seed is preferable to old, as it germinates quicker, and the plants are. as a rule, more sturdy. A shallow, well-drained pan is the best receptacle for the seed, the best compost being sandy loam rubbed down by the hands and enriched with a little cow-manure which has lain long enough to assume the form of mould; some silver or river sand also being added. Sow the seed half-an-inch apart. If sown thicker the roots of the seedlings get entangled, and some of them are sure to get broken when lifted from the pan. Cover the seed with a quarter-of-an-inch of fine soil, water gently, lay a pane of glass on the pan, and place it in a Cucumber-house till the young plants appear. Then place in a temperature of 60deg. and water very carefully during winter, as. although Cyclamen delight in plenty of moisture, they resent the least approach to stagnation. All being well, the young plants will be fit for potting early in February, and if carefully potted and kept syringed and shaded from bright sun they will make rapid growth. Keep them near the light and give them a night temperature of 65deg. till the pots are well filled with roots. Then repot into 4fin. pots and place them in an intermediate-house till the end of May, when a frame facing north will be best for them. Here, with careful airing, slight shading, and gentle overhead syringmgs when the frame is closed early in the afternoon on sunny days, they will make rapid progress, and will be ready for potting in 6in. pots at the end of July. In these they should be allowed to flower. At the final potting use the compost in a rather rough state, and add to it a small percentage of fowls' manure in a dry state. Weak liquid-manure and clarified soot-water, given alternately once a week. will greatly improve the growth. Should green-fly or thrip attack the plants, mild fumigation with Tobacco-paper must be resorted to, but they must be shaded from the sun the following morning Give a chink of air at night, and remove the plants to the green-house in October.
"REGATTA" IN THE AIR. The Marquis de Dion is going to organise the endowment of an annual race for steerable balloons from Paris to Meulan and back, for which object subscriptions are to be opened throughout the civilised world. It is hoped that it will be fouud practicable to make the prize extremely valuable. The first of these races is to come off next year, the different airships being started at intervals of flveminlltes.
ST. BERNARD PASS. The famous pass of St. Bernard is now provided with shelters at short intervals, and the good old dog that used to search for lost wayfarers has been superseded by a telephone line connected to the "hospice" in such a way that when a tra- veller calls up the "pious monks they know the shelter he is at. Even now the pass is crossed by many persons. Every year the "hospital" re- ceives 4000 to 5000 tourists, 5000 to 6000 pilgrims, and about 15,000 Piedmontese workpeople going to Switzerland to seek work.
SHE: "Are you a total abstainer, Colonel Blue Grass ? He: Yes, ma'am. I hain't touched water for 40 years." THE red hat of a Cardinal costs him more than kings pay for any except their very best crowns. Before accepting it the grateful prelate must make offerings to the Propaganda and to his titular church at Rome, and pay fees to a long list of officials, ranging from chamberlains of the Vatican down to cooks and sweepers and the soldiers of the Swiss Guard. Indeed, the new Cardinal has to pay fees at every step from the moment of his creation to the occasion of his receiving the red hat in public consistory, and when all is over and done finds himself out of pocket to the extent of f'500 at least. MR. W. SHRUBSOLE, F.G.S., F.R.M.S.^ who has recently been travelling in Hungary, is a well- known lecturer on scientific subjects indeed, on minute organic life, he is second only to Dr. Dal- Jinger himself. One of his most interesting sub- jects is a geological lecture, in which he describes the town in which he lectures as it was a million years ago. He thinks that Hungary is a very pro- mising field for the employment of British energy and capital, and would be only too happy to give information on the subject to any of our readers who care to communicate with him at Vancouver- road, Cat ford.
TRADE UNIONS. 1 ine ninth quarterly report of the Management Committee of the General Federation of Trade Unions, for the quarter ended September 30, 1901, calls attention to the recent House of Lords' de- cision, and says that trade unionism has received a reverse, but that it is contrary to all experience to believe that the unions will sink under the re- verse. Already there are evidences that the large unions are fully alive to the situation, and it may be taken that they will find ways and means to meet it. So far as the Federation is concerned, the committee believe the position to be set forth in an article attached to their report by lr. Clement Edwards, barrister. Mr. Edwards ex- presses the opinion that the risks run by federa- tions of trade unions under the Taff Vale and other decisions will not be so great as that run by a trade union proper, inasmuch as few of the federations tako any active part in the conduct of strikes, and the wrongs which have been decided to be action- able in the recent cases almost invariably arise in connection with the active conduct of strikes, Perhaps the two directions in which the danger of federations overstepping the law is greatest are in connection with sympathetic strikes and libellous circulars. He understands, however, that the General Federation has declared against sympa- thetic strikes, and with a watchful eye against sen- sational circulars the Federation may reduce their risk to a minimum. An abstract of the accounts of the Federation shows that the income for the quarter was E7016 and the expenditure £2291, giving a balance of £ 4725, which, added to the balance in hand on June 30, 1901, of £ 47,007, gives a balance in hand at the end of the quarter of £ 51,732.
LINKING THE EMPIRE. I NEW CABLE TO THE CAPE AND AUSTRALIA. I The important work which the Eastern and Eastern Extension Telegraph Companies have for some time past been engaged upon, with a view to improving their cable service to South Africa and Australia, has been completed. It has involved the laying of nearly 15,000 nautical miles of cable, at an expenditure of over £ 3,000,000, and it will result in a financial benefit to all who desire to communicate with the Cape and the land of the Southern Cross. The first part of this work con- sisted in the laying'of a new cable between Corn- wall and the Cape, which was completed in the early part of last year. The extension from South Africa to West Australia has just been success- fully accomplished, leaving the remaining section, between Perth and Adelaide, to be laid early next year. The new route has connected British posses- sions which were previously outside the pale of telegraphic communication—such as the Islands of Ascension and St. Helena, in the Atlantic; and Rodrigues and the Cocos-KeelIng Islands, in the Pacific Ocean, and has been provided by the coin- panies without any Government assistance what- ever in the shape of subsidy or guarantee. Tele- grams exchanged with Australia by the new route will be transmitted entirely by the companies' employes, instead of being handled as heretofore by operators belonging to different administrations. By this change a substantial improvement in speed and accuracy is expected to be effected. Considerable reductions of tariff, on a standard revenue basis, have been brought into force for telegrams exchanged between Europe on the one side and South Africa and the contracting States of Australia on the other side and if the stan- daid revenue" is maintained the rates for such telegrams will be further reduced to 3s. per word on January 1 next, and to 2s. 6d. on January 1, 1903. Moreover, next Friday reduction of tariff will lie brought into operation for telegrams ex- changed between Australia and South Africa, which it is hoped will materially assist in develop- ing the commercial intercourse that is so rapidly growing up between these important portions of the Brish Empire.
AN amusing story is told of Mr. Briton Riviere, the celebrated animal painter. A dog fancier who has been in the habit of furnishing him with four- legged models was in the studio of another emi- ,9 nent artist one day when he remarked to the latter: "They do tell me, sir, as Mr. River gets two 'undred pounds for painting of one dawg. Is it true ?" I have no doubt it is," the artist replied. Well," said the fancier, after a moment of reflection—" well, I can't say as I blame 'im; if people are sich fools I don't see why a sharp chap shouldn't take advantage of 'em." SEEKING to remove the want of confidence which he rightly says is felt just now respecting the sea- worthiness of several of the torpedo i boat type, which includes destroyers, Mr. A. F. Yv i row gives particu- lars of some 60 vessels of this class from 100ft. to 220ft. in length which his firm has constructed. They have, he adds, been navigated long distances —to Buenos Ayres, to China, to Australia, the Dutch East Indies, &c.—without showing the slightest symptom of structural weakness, and although they are always insured until handed over, a claim has never been made on the score of structural weakness or breakdown of machinery. I THE autumn gales have, alas, blown down the remaining trees planted by Lord Nelson as part of an avenue leading to Merton-place, his last resi- dence, opposite which was a lake the hero of Tra- falgar named The Nile." Many years ago on one wild Sunday night in November, 14 of the old elms fell with a terrific crash. Merton treasures Nelson's memory still. Two cottages remain behind the High-street, where his gardener and coachman resided. Old James Hudson was the last inhabitant to remember him, and over a pipe he used to tell how as a boy he closed the door of the carriage on which Nelson drove away to take up his last command.
A CEMETERY NOVELTY. An American publication, bearing the cheerfuj title of the Embcdmer's Monthly, states that one of the most curious sights in the United States i. now to be found at Nevada, and consists of what is known as Dorsey's Tomb." The tomb is about 10ft. long, 5ft. wide, and 5ft. high. On the top is a revolving stone, cut in the shape of a Bible, which, in turning can be made to reveal or conceal a glass pane. Through this glass pane the em- balmed body of a man named Louis Dorsey is plainly visible. The widow, who designed the tomb, used the insurance money on his life to carry out the work. Up to the present time the body oresents the freshness of life.