FIELD AND FARM. 1 (From the "Agricultural Gazette.") I ROOT-CROP SOWING. I The season (remarks Professor John Wrightson) is now at its height. Mangel is well above ground, and recent rains will soon bring it up to the hoe. Rape and early-sown swedes are showing in drill, but cannot yet be touched except by the horse-hoe. Until quite recently these crops could not make much progress, and of all others seemed most in want of a refreshing shower. As previously explained in this column, our own system of root cultivation is simple, and consists of following the sheep folds, and putting in mangel, swedes, rape, or turnips, according to the requirements of the farm. lis is far different with the cultivators of clay land, who must have experienced a difficult time of late. This class of ground is readily caked together after heavy rain, and refuses to break into the fine tilth required for turnip husbandry. Stiff clay soils are really scarcely fit for arable culture in these days, and are better under grass. What is to be done with clay lands in a dry season ? What is to be done with them in a wet season ? It is a heartless spectacle to see them lying under the blazing sun in a condition which appears hope- less so far as root cultivation is concerned. The summer fallow is their natural destination, with wheat to follow on the earliest sign of the approach of aatumn. Hopeless as this may appear in the present time, it is preferable to the awful risk of growing roots. There seems little chance of any alternative ex- cept grass. The successful farmer of clay land must be a skilful cultivator. He must till in au- tumn and early winter, and be careful not to bury his fine surface. Late ploughing in spring is fatal to his prospects of root growing. One day's ploughing in autumn, with a coat of dung ploughed in at the same operation, seems to be the right system, followed with the use of the cultivator. I remember a first-rate Scotch farmer who always worked his land on this principle, and as it was clean he was able, as he told me, never to touch it again until the previous day to sowing his root crop. He was a very successful grower, and seldom had a gappy piece. This was on deep red land, which, it must be allowed, was not of the soapy character of some of our midland county clays. Beans seem to be the natural crop for clay soils, but no crop has gone so much out of cultiva- tion. It is not always easy to meet with a sample of good old beans, and yet the price for "English" has not suffered so much as wheat, being still about 40s. a qr. for heavy lots. After all, it is the successful tillage of the ground which makes the farmer. How to crop and how to till land is always the crux, and before the intri- cacies of tillage all questions of fertilisers sink into secondary importance. POULTRY KEEPING IN DORSETSHIRE. In all branches of industrialism, it is very inte- resting (observes Mr. Edward Brown) to not1 ce what is being done in other parts of the country, and an account of recent visits paid to the county named above will probably be interesting to your readers, and it maybe afford encouragement under more favourable conditions. It is a very striking fact when visiting different parts of the land to see how great are the variations in prices obtained for poultry produce within the limits of even so small a country as England. I have recently been making inquiries as to prices in other countries, and I find that at certain seasons of the year eggs are cheaper in some of the rural districts of Eng- land than they are abroad. In these days, carriage is not so serious an item as is commonly supposed, especially where large quantities are forwarded at one time. I do not, however, propose to discuss the question of railway rates, as that is quite another matter. So far as Dorsetshire is concerned, it may be taken as a typical southern county and representa- tive of the district lying between London and Land's End. During the spring and summer eggs are very low in price, in many places getting down to twenty-two and twenty-four a shilling, which, of course, is a very low figure for this class of pro- duce, and one which does not afford adequate returns to the producer, although of course, the expenses are not so great as they would be in some other parts of the country. Dorsetshire is a county of mixed farming, and over the greater part of it pasture lands prevail. There are many portions of the county where corn growing at one time was more general than is the case to-day, but the thin and light soils do not afford conditions suitable for corn growing in these days. The position of the county, of course, gives it considerable heat during the summer months, and in such a season as last year there was a great want of grass, and these conditions are very similar to what are found in France during the warmer months of the year. In some parts of the county large farms are met with, but there are also a very great number of small holdings, and in connection with these poultry are kept to a considerable extent. Readers have only to consult the map to see that there are no great markets very near, and in Dorsetshire the towns are small, whilst the county does not contain any large manufactories. Hence, the produce must chiefly go elsewhere. This is always a fact that has to be kept in view when dealing with the con- ditions of any county. On the coast-line there is a pretty good demand for both eggs and poultry during the summer months, in consequence of the number of visitors who go there, and at that period of the year the prices increase considerably. The class of poultry kept in the county is dc- cidedly mixed, and what are known as barndoor fowls prevail, though there has undoubtedly been considerable advance in this respect of late year-j, and pure breeds have been introduced. The methods adopted have been modified as in other parts of the country, though perhaps hardly to the extent met with further north. Still, we find poultry scattered about the fields, either in port- able or other kinds of houses. This system, how- ever, has not been developed to the extent which may be looked for ultimately. One disadvantage which is met with in some districts, especi- ally upon the Downs, is that the amount of shelter is not so great as could be desired, especially during the summer months. There is no question that woods are of very great benefit in that they afford shelter from the intensity of the sun, and more and more this will be realised. It is a very common im- pression, and yet an erroneous one, that fowls do best where there is plenty of sunshine. Whilst the southern counties are advantageous undoubtedly during the winter, in that they usually have more sun than in the manufacturing districts, during the warmer months of the year the benefit of shelter in this way is very great indeed. I have previously mentioned the question of what we may term the summering and wintering of our poultry, and this requires to be pressed forward even to a greater extent than has ever been the case before. The chief weakness in production in the south- ern counties is that the bulk of the eggs are pro- duced during the spring and summer, and the supplies in the winter are comparatively small. Under the conditions we have already mentioned there is no reason why this should be so, because they are undoubtedly favourable to winter egg production, but the question has not been taken ap to the same extent as is necessary in order to ensure regularity of supply. We cannot press home too strongly the point that the equalisation of productiveness between one season and another will go far to overcome low prices. As we have pointed cut previously on several occasions, every egg produced in winter means one less when they are plentiful. It is a striking fact that even in such counties as Dorsetshire good prices can be obtained for eggs from October to February, and in some districts the demand is greater than the supply at that season of the At certain periods of gestation the udder becomes sore and very sensitive to the touch, consequently the cow when being milked by the prevailing methods becomes restless and may kick, when at all other times she is gentle. A cow's udder and teats do not attain uch ungainly changes from their natural shape except by injudicious handling in drawing the milk. To grasp the teat like a vice and pull downward, as you would a pump handle, at every motion, will soon distort the udder and cause the teats to acquire a gourd-handled and enlarged shape. Stripping the milk" from the udder comes nearer the calf's method of drawing the milk than any Ouher. This is done by pulling the teat between the thumb and front finger, and should be employed iWall times when the udder 18 painfully full or sore at periods above mentioned.
GARDE KING- GOSSIP. I (From" Gardening Illustrated.") CONSERVATORY. I Permanent plants growing in the border must (writes Mr. E. Hobday) have abundant supplies of water. Camellias especially must never be per- mitted to get very dry at the roots or the plants will neither grow nor flower in a satisfactory manner. Climbers on the roof also must be well nourished, especially such free-growing things as Passion-flowers and Tacsonias. Plants in baskets will require' a good deal of water in such bright sunny weather as we have had lately. The best way to water such moisture-loving plants as her- baceous Spiraeas is to dip them in a pail, or else, when convenient, stand the plants in saucers. These plants are not so popular as they were, either for cutting or blooming in pots, the chief reason being their thirsty nature. The dwarf Cannas, when grown into large specimens, are showy things in the conservatory. They want rich soil and a good- sized pot to properly develop foliage and blossoms. When well grown, Fuchsias 'are graceful plants. They are well adapted for planting in the borders and training up the rafters, a free growth being encouraged. If pruned back moderately in August a new growth will start away that will flower up till Christmas. The same treatment will suit Heliotropes and Habrothamnus fasciculatus,' which is a very useful winter-lfower i.jg plant against a wall or over an arch. Oranges in pots and tubs may be stood out on the terrace or in suitable positions outside. Some of the hardy Palms will do outside in a shady, sheltered spot in summer. The conservatory should not be too much crowded in summer. A few well-grown speci- mens, a few Palms or other fine-foliaged plants of graceful habit, a few Lilies or any other plants in season, with plenty of roof greenery and flowers in baskets, will make the house much more attrac- tive than if there is much crowding. It is impos- sible to grow plants well in a crowded condition. A few plants well grown will give more satisfac- tion than a larger number of badly-grown things that will satisfy neither the gardener nor the em- ployer. Many things will do better now in the open air than in a warm, stuffy house but do not turn out Azaleas too soon or the flower-buds will not be sufficiently developed. July is time enough to turn out hard-wooded plants. POTTING CHRYSANTHEMUMS. This work usually begins early in June, and continues more or less throughout the month. For the last shift the soil should be rough, old turf, six months or so, cut from an old pasture or common. This should form two-thirds of the compost, and the remaining third should be com- posed-the drainage occupying not less than two inches of the bottom of the pot-of the necessary stimulating food to infuse new life into the growth and produce fine blooms. The soil should be rammed in firmly, and the pots filled quite full. All growers do not top-dress, but I think when the pots are filled with roots, an inch or so of top- dressing, in which a little guano or something cheaper has been mixed, will be very useful. Success in anything is built up by attention to small details. Nothing should be too small or in- significant to the plant grower. PEACHES ripening must not be over-watered, or the flavour will be inferior. A good, quickly- grown Turnip is superior to a badly ripened Peach, and when the Peach borders are con- stantly watered till the fruits are ripe the flavour must suffer. Another important matter during the ripening is to ventilate abundantly, and leave a little air on all night. When mildew attacks Peaches it may be regarded as a sure sign that the roots are in bad condition, and if the trees are to be saved root-lifting must be adopted the moment the leaves begin to fall. When fruit- trees, especially Peaches, are planted in shallow borders, the watering must have special pains bestowed upon it. I have taken out trees which for a time I was told had done well and then went wrong, the cause being, I was perfectly certain, dryness at the root for some considerable time previously. -VENTILATING THE VINERY. Many evils follow the carelss ventilator. Crack- ing, scalding, mildew, and red-spider are all more or less due to careless ventilation. A little air should be left on all night now. A very small crack along the highest point of the roof will keep the air moving inside and prevent the deposit of moisture upon the fruit inside. This should be increased as soon as the thermometer rises inside, but at no time should a rush of cold air be given. The ventilation should be increased gradually with the sun's power, and its reduction after three o'clock should be in the same ratio. OUTDOOR GARDEN. Supports should be put to Carnations early, and the growth adjusted from time to time as re- quired. A ligh mulch of old turf and cow- manure in a mellow condition will be beneficial. What one has to guard against is the introduction of wireworms. The same treatment will suit the laced Pinks. Weed-killers may be used on gravel paths now. It has more effect in dry weather, and is less likely to do injury to edgings of turf or Box. Sub- tropical and carpet or leaf-beds are all that remain to be bedded out in most places, and the latter have been consequently reduced. Where bulbs are planted about the lawn those particular spots should be avoided by the mowing machine till the foliage is approaching maturity. Narcissi, Snow- drops, and Crocuses, grouped or scattered in a picturesque fashion, always have a pretty effect, and the same idea can be worked out in other plants. If watering is necessary, let a thorough soaking be given and then wait a few days. Mulch- ing and hoeing are easier work than watering, and more effective. Thin hardy annuals. FRUIT GARDEN. Up to the present Royal Sovereign Strawberry has done well, and prospects of a fine crop seem assured. Some large growers are growing less of this variety because the spring frosts so often cut the blossoms on account of its earliness. Those who had a good stock of strong late plants have found them useful. When well done Sir Charles Napier is a fine late Strawberry. Spraying Apple and other fruit-trees is receiving more attention. Those who object to using arsenic can use the sulphate of copper and lime mixture, or the old soft-soap and Tobacco mixture that was relied on for the destruction of insects in the past. Pinch the young shoots of Plum trees on walls when four good leaves have been made. Apricots may be treated in the same way. The war with insects on the Peach wall must be inces- sant so long as an insect remains.. The work of keeping fruit trees clear is much easier when taken in time. Do not give the insects time to increase, and they will soon disappear. Fill all spare f rames with Melons. They want a little root warmth to start them. After that in warm, sunny gardens the sun will do a good deal of the work if hardy kinds are grown. Do not shade Melons, bring them on hardy. VEGETABLE GARDEN. Give the final earthing to early Potatoes. Except in very large gardens, late Potatoes are not much grown in gardens, as the quality is often better from field culture. Up-to-Date and Windsor Castle still hold their own as main crop kinds in most places. Magnum Bonum has pretty well dis- appeared from our district. Peas should be mulched with manure. Manure: fresh from the stable may be used. After the first week in July it is of little use sowing Peas except for' the purpose of having young tops to flavour soups. For this purpose Peas may be sown in boxes somewhat thickly all the winter. See that Marrows and Ridge Cucumbers are attended to with mulching and watering. Those who plant these things early must shelter the plants in borne way. Shelter for these things when first set out can easily be improvised. Flower-pots inverted are as good as anything for a night or two till the plants are settled in their quarters. We generally have to depend upon Spinach substitues for the real article when hot weather comes, and the bes t of these are Spinach Beet and New Zealand Spinach, both of which are coming on now. Sow plenty of French Beans and Runners, and plant out Celery. Mulch and water lettuces.
BOTH on the ground of historical comprehensive- ness and of artistic interest the collection of draw- ings which is being exhibited at the British Museum deserves to be ranked as one of the most valuable that has ever been seen in this country. It includes examples of all schools and periods, of the great Italians like Da Vinci, Michael Angelo, Paul Veronese, Caravaggio, and Raphael, of German and Dutch masters, like Holbein, Elsheimer, and Rembrandt, of famous Frenchmen, like Watteau, Poussin, Delacroix, Millet and Daubigny, and of English masters, from Hogarth, Flaxman, and Stothard, to Millais, Leighton, Bume Jones, and Du Maurier. It is a strange jumble of priceless treasures, but it abounds with instructive juxta- positions, andis of almost unapproachable import- ance.
CARNEGIE TRUST. j OFFICIAL DETAILS OF -THE a2,000,000 SCHKME, The official details of Mr. Andrew Carnegie's magnificent gift of £ 2,000,000 on behalf of Scottish education, and of the constitution of the trust which is to adminster it, have been issued, the scheme itself having been finally revised and approved, and the trust deed signed. The operation of the assignment will be almost immediate, and when the Universities open in October they and the students will be in actual possession of the benefits of the trust. The preamble of the deed states that, Mr. Car- negie having retired from active business, he deems it his duty and one of his highest privileges to administer the wealth which has come to him as a trustee on behalf of others. Entertaining the belief that one of the best means of discharging that trust is by providing funds for improving and extending the opportuni- ties for scientific study and research in the Uni- versities of Scotland, he transfers to the trustees bonds of the United States Steel Corporation of the aggregate value of lO,OOO,OOOdol., bearing in- terest at five per cent., and having a currency of 50 years. The deed then goes on to appoint the following strong body of trustees: The Earl of Elgin, Chairman. The Earl of Rosebery. Lord Balfour of Burleigh. Lord Kelvin. Lord Reay. Lord Kinnear. Sir Henry Cainpbell-Bannerman, M.P. Mr. A. J. Balfour, M.P. Mr. Bryce, M.P. Mr. Morley, M.P. Sir Robert Pullar. Sir Henry E. Roscoe. Mr. Haldane, M.P. Mr. Shaw, M.P. The following also are appointed trustees ex- officio: The Secretary for Scotland. The Lord Provost of the City of Edinburgh. The Lord Provost of the City of Glasgow. The Provost of Dunfermline. The four Universities are to be represented by one trustee each, to be chosen by the University Courts. The trust deed is followed by a constitution which provides that the administration of the trust shall be conducted by an executive committee of nine members. The'first committee is constituted as follows: The Earl of Elgin, chairman Lord Balfour of Burleigh, Lord Kinnear, Sir Henry E. Roscoe, Mr. Shaw, the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, and the ) Lord Provost of Glasgow. The two remaining members are to be two of the four trustees nomi- nated by the University Courts, the members for Edinburgh and Aberdeen acting during the first two years and the members for Glasgow and St. Andrews acting during the second two years. One-half of the net annual income is to be ap- plied towards the improvement and expansion of the Universities of Scotland in the faculties of science and medicine For improving and extending the opportunities for scientific study and research; and For increasing the facilities for acquiring a knowledge of history, economics, English literature and modern languages, and such other subjects cognate to a technical or commercial education as can be brought within the scope of the Uni- versity curriculum. This is to be done by the erection of buildings, laboratories, class-rooms, or libraries, the provid- ing of efficient apparatus, books, and equipment, the institution and endowment of professorships and lectureships, &c. The other half of the income, or such part as may be found requisite, is to be devoted to the payment of the whole or part of the ordinary class fees of students of both sexes of Scottish birth or ex- traction, duly qualified, and of 16 yeyrs of age or upwards, or scholars who have given two years' at- tendance after the age of 14 years at State-aided tendance after the age of 14 years at State-aided schools in Scotland, or in such other schools and institutions in Scotland as are under the inspection of the Scotch Education Department. The decision of the committee in all questions of qualification is to be final; and if a student has shown exceptional merit they are to have power to extend such assistance either in money or other privileges upon such conditions as they may pre- scribe. They are also to have power to withhold pay- ment of fees from any student who is guilty of misconduct, or who fails within a reasonable time to pass examination. Extra-mural colleges, schools, or classes in Scotland, attendance at which is recognised as qualifying or assisting to qualify for graduation, are to be entitled to participate in the benefits of the trust. The surplus income, if any, may be expended in establishing courses of lectures or for the benefit of evening classes of students engaged during the aay or in any other way the committee may think proper in connection with the purposes expressed in the trust deed and constitution. Finally, the trustees are to have full power, by a majority of two-thirds, to modify these con- ditions according to the changed conditions of the time.
EMINENT SURGEON'S SAD DEATH- At the Westminster Coroner s-court on Satur- day Mr. John Troutbeck held an inquiry with reference to the death of Mr. Thomas Bond, who committed suicide on Thursday morning by throw- 'ng himself from a window at his residence, 7, The ""anctuary, Westminster Abbey. Dr. John Norton, of Queen Anne's-gate, S.W., gave formal evidence of identification, and said that Mr. Bond was 59 years of age. He was an F.R.C.S., M.B., and B.Sc. The witness had long been associated with him in his work. Of late years his health had been indifferent, and he suffered fearful pain, in consequence of which he took a good deal of morphia, under medical advice. That had the effect of rendering him very emotional, and he had said, "I am sure I shall jump out of window or blow my brains out." He was only allowed to have morphia at certain inter- vals, and when its influence went off the pain would return and continue until the time came for another dose. The habit of taking morphia would have a distinct influence on his will-power and sanity. Generally speaking, he was a most strong-minded man and very cour- ageous. He had been taking morphia since last August, and had been in one or two surgical homes. At one time he was under a very kind nurse, who, however, tried to persuade him to give up the morphia, and he took a great dislike to her, so that she had to leave. There was no immediate danger from his illness, but it must eventually have killed him. He had septicoemia with internal growths, the like of which one would not see again in a lifetime. Kate Truncheon, a nurse attached to the West- minster Nursing Home, said that she was in attendance upon Mr. Bond on Wednesday night of last week. He was very quiet during the night, but did not sleep. At eleven p.m. he complained of very great pain, and had a grain of morphia given him. He was then perfectly quiet until 3.15 a.m., when he had a drink of milk. After that he settled down again until four o'clock, when he was rather restless and turned about for half an hour, when he had more milk. Then he was very weak, and remarked that he had been in great pain and had not slept at all. At six o'clock the witness made him a cup of tea, and he was sick and went into a violent perspira- tion. The witness remarked upon this and also spoke about a nurse. He answered quite sensibly, and seemed to take an interest in what she said. After that he was again sick, but seemed to lie quite quiet. The witness wiped his face, and asked him if he felt more comfortable. He replied that he felt better and turned over, apparently to go to sleep. The witness made another remark, and he said he thought he would wait a little while, at the same time closing his eyes and to all appearances going soundly to sleep. The witness sat reading a book for ten minutes, and then left the room to empty a basin. She had been absent scarcely a minute when she heard the rustling of a blind. Rushing up to the bedroom she was just in time to see the patient's feet leav- ing the open window. Mr. Bond had removed a heavy marble-topped dressing-table, just leaving room for him to get to the window, which was on the third floor. She had tucked him up before leaving the room. The morphia he took at eleven o'clock would affect him for about five hours. When he perspired his head was always better. The witness was aware he had told others that he would kill himself. She had left the bedroom door wide open, and left the rocm very softly. Thomas Goldsmith, a lift porter at Westminster Hospital, said that he was going on duty at 6.45 a.m., when he saw what he took to be a bundle of clothes thrown from the upper part of Mr. Bond's house. Then, hearing a shriek, he thought there was a fire, but on looking down the area he saw Mr. Bond lying there with his head close to the wall. He was only just breathing, and died in the area. The witness placed him in a blanket, and, with assistance, carried him into the hospital opposite. He did not know where the shriek came from. Police-constable Brewer, 398A, said the window was 45ft. from the ground. Mr. Alfred Reginald Roach, house physician at Westminster Hospital, said that Mr. Bond was dead when admitted. In summing up, the Coroner said that it was to him a very painful duty to be called upon to hold an inquest on one of the oldest friends he had in the world. He had known Mr. Bond for 30 years, and it was a great grief to him to have to hold an inquest upon him. All who knew Mr. Bond knew that he was one of the best-known men in West- minster, and if he had any characteristic that was specially noted by all it would be his great courage and determination. The jury returned a verdict "That Mr. Bond committed suicide whilst temporarily insane."
THE EXPEDITION AGAINST THE MAD MULLAH. The British officers are with the Abyssinian advance guard, which has captured some of the Mullah's spies. The Mullah is reported to be retiring south, hearing of the withdrawal of the Abyssinian expedition. A fresh force, 10,000 strong, is concentrating here. Rain is plentiful. Active operations are pending.
WAR OFFICE REFORM. I COMMITTEE'S REPORT. I The report of the Committee appointed to in- quire into the War Office organisation has been issued. The Committee was composed of Mr. Clinton Dawkins, Mr. F. V. Beckett, M.P., Colonel Sir George Clarke, Mr. G. S. Gibb, Mr. W. Mather, M.P., Colonel H. S. G. Miles, and Sir Charles Welby, Bart., M.P. The Committee state that the limitation in the terms of reference which made their inquiry, sub- ject to the general distribution of responsiblity laid down by the Order in Council of March 7,1899, precluded the consideration of any organic changes in the constitution of the War Office. The Committee are of opinion that the general structure of War Office organisation has been built up piecemeal as the result of constant changes and compromises, and principles of administration and of business have been too frequently subordinated to temporary exigencies or personal and political considerations. Definitions of the duties of depart- ments have been therefore wavering and uncertain. There has also been a disposition on the part of energetic heads of departments to enlarge the area of their activities beyond all reason and expediency. Great confusion is thereby introduced, and indi- vidual responsibility cannot be assigned. These evils have been enormously augmented owing to the government of the Army being mainly carried on by a vast system of minute regulations which tend to destroy the responsibility of general officers and suppress initiative and individuality in all ranks. The complexity of regulations is now so great that their interpretation alone leads to a mass of useless correspondence. This state of affairs constitutes a grave detriment to the public service. The committee have been impressed by the growing abuse of the practice of questioning Ministers in the House of Commons. Last year, when the War Office was confronted with an enor- mous pressure of important work, 66 questions affecting the Army were asked on an average every week, frequently on trivial matters, but which in- volved very considerable labour and correspon- dence. The committee tabulate the following business principles—which are particularly applicable to the War Office, and are conspicuously absent from it. 1. The division of the work into well-defined sections. 2. Distinct definition of duties and responsibili- ties of individuals accompanied by an adequate delegation of powers. 3. A clear adjustment of the relations between the civil and military department. 4. Adequate provision for dealing with questions of policy and military preparation, unhampered by administratis routine work. administratis routine work. 5. The substitution of an effective system of in- spection for elaborate returns and minute regula- tions in the government of the Army by the War Office. 6. Decentralisation, meaning a large and real delegation of authority and responsibility to general officers commanding districts. 7. Adequate machinery for co-ordinating work of all kinds, civil and military, and for securing effective supreme control and management of the business of the War Office as a whole under the authority of the Secretary of State. On the question of financial control, the Com- mittee recommend that all works of £ 5000 and over should be provided for by loans, to be sanctioned by Parliament for specific works, and therefore should be taken out of the category of annual votes. The moneys voted on Army estimates for work and buildings should be classified as follows: Part 1.—New works under 95000. Part 2.-Repairs, renewals, and maintenance. These services should not be detailed, and no re- ference to the Treasury should be required so long as the total amount allotted to the various districts is not exceeded. On the question of contracts, the Committee consider the relations between the contracts and the Supply Department call for immediate re- adjustment. Committee consider the clerical constitution of the military departments unsatisfactory. Higher division clerks are employed in posts where military officers should be employed, and second division clerks and soldier clerks are distributed on no principle. Military posts in the War Office should not be used as stepping stones to employment in the field at a moment when the whole organisation of the War Office is strained by Military opera- tions and when changes are least desirable. The Committee recommends the grouping of War Office work into three military divisions-viz., mili- tary policy, personnel, and material; and two civilian divisions- financial and secretarial. The committee recommends the formation of a War Office Board to supersede the War Office Coun- cil and Army Board. The Secretary of State should be President of the Board, and attend and preside when he thought fit. The Commander-in-Chief should be chairman whenever important questions demand his attendance, and the Permanent Under- Secretary deputy chairman. The Board would consist of the heads of all the great departments, civil and military.
TO EXTERMINATE MALARIA. j Major Ronald Ross, who has already rendered great service in establishing the connection between mosquito-bite and malarial fever, is starting for the West Coast of Africa on the fifth expedition that has been sent out by the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Major Ross, who was the chief guest at a dinner given by Mr. A. L. Jones, given the other day in celebration of the expedition, told a Daily Mail representative that the primary object of the ex- pedition is to determine without a doubt the theory of the propagation of malaria by means of the bite of the anopheles mosquito, and to demonstrate that the discoveries made recently may be applied in a practical way to exterminate the disease in any given area. We have already discovered," said Major Ross, "two valuable facts concerning the mosquito. One is that it propagates itself under conditions easily ascertainable namely, lays its eggs in pools, where the larvcs, when hatched, may feed on more minute organisms of stagnant water; and another is that it is incapable of flight over anything like a great dist. nee." Microscopical investigation has proved that if the bite of a mosquito of this species be inflicted upon a person suffering from malaria the partially developed germs of the disease existing in such person's blood find in the stomach of the in- sect a habitat congenial to their full development, that in the cause of a very brief time they reach full maturity and throw off spores, that the spores pass into the system of the insect, and so into the matter which it exudes from its" lance" when it pierces the skin, and that by this means a healthy person bitten by an infected insect is inoculated with the deadly germs. One of our most important experiments will be the preparation of a malaria-haunted district in the dry season by poisoning or filling up all breeding places of the anopheles mosquito within a given area. This, if effectively carried out-and the ex- pedition will in that respect have the good offices of the Colonial Office-should banish the insect from that area. Should malaria vanish with the anopheles, or be very materially diminished, that would be good prima-facie evidence not only that the anopheles theory is true, but that it will be possible to render certain spots in West Africa immune from the scourge, and therefore under proper sanitary super- vision safely habitable by white men."
POOR ACCOUNTS FOR MAY. I According to the Board of Trade returns May was an interesting month. Imports of all kinds showed a decrease of nearly one-and-a-half millions, in comparison with the returns of last year, and exports showed a de- crease of over a million. Doubtless the anticipation of the new duties in April led to an overstocking in that month, and a lessened import in the following. The total decrease in exports for the five months ending May 31 compared with the returns of the same period last year amounted to £ 3,125,405. The figures would look still more sorry if it were not for a big item in the export of new ships. These, however, though built in England, were not registered as British. For the five months imports show an increase of £ 7,072,065 and exports a falling off of £3,125,000, the chief items of decrease being metals and metal alleles, F.3,772,399 raw materials, £ 1,680,569; machinery and mill work, £ 755,571; and yarns and textile fabrics, £ 649.506. The increased imports for the five months include £8,806,685 under articles of food and drink.
CANADA has lost a distinguished scientist by the death of the late Dr. George Mercer Dawson. Born in Picton, Nova Scotia, in 1849, he received his early education at Montreal; but in 1869 he entered the Royal School of Mines, London, carry- ing off high honours. Returning to Canada, he was appointed geologist and botanist to the Corn- mission for fixing the international boundary be- tween the Lake of the Woods and the Rocky Mountains—a task which took him through an al- most unknown wilderness. Later lie did much good work in the Yukon territory, on Behring Sea questions, and in connection with the Alaska boundary dispute. Eminent as a naturalist, a botanist, and a geographer, his work was always thorough. IF the Royal Buckhounds, so recently abolished, had no other excusef or their existence, at least they gave opportunity (says the Liverpool Post) for one of the most courtly, and at the same time witty, replies recorded in the chronicles of Windsor Castle. For it was when starting off to a meet of these hounds in his younger days that George III., having mounted his horse, asked Sir Isaac Heard, Sir Isaac, you are a judge of horses. What do you think of mine ? We call him Per- fection.' A most appropriate name," replied Sir Isaac, readily, "for he bears the best of characters!" UNDER the auspices of Robert De Cotte, a cele- brated French architect, the ancient Hotel de Nevers, formerly the Hotel de Mazarin, was trans- formed during the Regency into the BibliotMque du Roi, which has since been expanded into the BHjothéqué Nationale. De Cotte also superin- tended from 1708 to 1735 all the most important publio works in France; and his bust in white marble, the work of Eugene Sollier, is about to be placed (says the Journal des Debats) in the chief vestibule of the Bibliotheque Nationale.
ART AND LITERATURE. 1 THE ultimate destination of M. Benjamin Constant's large portrait of Queen Victoria is still uncertain, though a weekly contemporary makes the definite statement that it will be removed to Windsor Castle after the close of the Academy, and will be hung in the state dining-room opposite the well-known portrait of the King and the Duke of Connaught by Detaille. We are even told how the Constant will be framed, but it is impossible to attach much importance to this interesting information, because neither the King nor any one else has yet purchased the picture, which is still marked for sale in the priced catalogue at the Royal Academy. Before it had been seen in Eng- land the suggestion that M. Constant's work should be purchased by public subscription was made by more than one journal, but since the opening of the Aca-demy nothing has been heard of this idea. PRINCE KROPOTKIN has just concluded an American lecturing tour. An American publisher has invited him to write a book containing his impressions of that country, and he has decided to return to America in the autumn for the purpose of collecting further material for the book. Prince Kropotkin is at present in England writing encyclopaedia articles on Russia, Siberia, Asia Minor, and other subjects. MR. LIONEL SMYTHE'S picture, Within Sound of the Sea," which was selected for purchase by the Chantrey Trustees, will not, after all, find its permanent resting place in the Tate Gallery. When the selection of "Within Sound of the Sea was first made known at the private view of the Academy, it was suggested that the terms of Sir Francis Chantrey's bequest might prohibit its purchase, and this has proved to be the case. Mr. Smythe lives and paints in the North of France, in a chateau near Wimereux, and it was a condition of the bequest that no picture should be acquired which had been executed out of the United Kingdom. The same condition prevented the acquisition of a clever picture by an outsider some 12 or 13 years ago. Within Sound of the Sea has found another purchaser, and this fact, together with the high compliment implied by its selection, should go far to console Mr. Smythe for any regret he may feel at the non-acquisition of his picture. He is, too, already represented in the Chantrey Collection by a water-colour Germinal," purchased in 1889. POLICE-CONSTABLE JONES, the Leeds artist, has had two of his landscapes hung at the Royal Cambrian Academy. His large painting of a Shropshire scene was only conditionally accepted at the Royal Academy, and it has been crowded out of the exhibition. The artist has 100 or more paintings in his studio, all of which he has pro- duced in his spare moments when not acting as caretaker at the Leeds Town Hall. IN the National Eisteddfod of Wales more entries have been taken for literary composition than for musical composition. MRS. CREIGHTON has now recovered of her serious illness, and is at work on the biography of the late Bishop of London. She would be much indebted to any persons who may have letters from Bishop Creighton if they would kindly send them to her now at the Palace, Hampton Court. They will be returned with as little delay as pos- sible. IT seems that there is a scheme on foot for the enlargement of the Luxembourg. The Senate is the trustee of the Mus6e, and M. Deandreis, Senator, says this body has consented, in prin- ciple, to the reconstruction of the entire building on an increased area. Should the project be carried to successful issue the Senate would deserve the thanks of everyone interested in art. Artists in particular will be exceedingly grateful. The Luxembourg is far too small to fulfil its purpose. Many pictures purchased by the State are packed away in stores or are sent to provin- cial galleries, where they remain unknown. IT is only 11 years ago that M. Edmond Rostand published his first volume of poetry, and now at the age of 33 he has been elected a member of the French Academy. Victor Hugo took his place among the Forty Immortals when he was 39, but Lamartine joined them at the age of 31. The rise of M. Rostand in the world of literature has been a remarkable one. It was really not until 1894 that he began to attract attention, but within the space of three years he had become famous by his play Cyrano de Bergerac," and L'Aiglon" produced since has enhanced his great reputa- tion. As in the case of Dr. Villiers Stanford's new opera, so with that of M. Paderewski just pro- duced at Dresden, the critics are in practical agreement as to the merits of the work. The Polish musician, who has already gained for him- self a unique position as a pianist, has, it appears, written an opera which is melodious and dramatic in its vocal parts, while the orchestration is declared to be a veritable surprise in a first work, indicating, as it does, so much of the fruit of ripe experience. "Manru" is said to be a distinctly Polish work, in which the musical characteristics of the composer's country are set forth with marked effect. WHEN a manuscript has travelled to and from a certain number of offices, it begins (says the Literary World) to tell its own tale-the tale of declined with thanks." An American lady novelist, Miss Frances Weston Carruth, the author of "The Way of Belinda," has been confessing that she did not allow her rejected MSS. to tell this sad story. Each time they appeared on the editor's table they looked as though they had never been on a journey before. They had been under a hot flat-iron! THE appointment of Sir Martin Conway as Slade Professor of Fine Art at Cambridge must have come as a considerable surprise to the many people who know him only as an enthusiastic ex- plorer and mountaineer. But at an earlier stage of Dis busy and energetic life he was Art Pro- fessor to Liverpool University, so that he has now reverted to a type of work in which he has given ample proofs of efficiency. Such an ardent lover of nature may be expected to give to his teaching at Cambridge a note of freshness and vitality which is too often lacking in the academic lecture. IT seems that the Gresham Committee have decided not to accept the offer of Mr. C. W. Bartholo- mew to present to the Royal Exchange a panel illus- trating some incident connected with the enrolling of the C.I.V. Regiment. The decision was after all inevitable! unless the sequence of the panels as originally arranged was to be disregarded. The last of the series of paintings, Mr. Macbeth's representation of the opening of the Exchange by Queen Victoria, was put into position long ago, and so no later piece of history can be appro- priately introduced. But Mr. Bartholomew might very well transfer his offer to the Guildhall Gallery. A C.I.V. picture ought certainly to hang there as a pendant to Mr. Gow's canvas depicting the scene at St. Paul's on Jubilee Day. AMONG the chief articles in the curr CP ntMaga- zine of Art are 11 The Portrait in Enamel of the German Emperor, by Professor von Herkomer," by Mr. M. H. Spielmann, Antokolsky" by Prince Karageorgevitch, Artists' Studios as they Were and Are by Air. W. Goodman, Portraits of the two Duchesses of Devonshire" by Mr. W. Roberts, The New Salon of 1901" by M. Henri Frantz, and the first instalment of the annual notes on the Academy and New Gallery. The pictorial supplements are Professor von Herko- mer's study for the Emperor's portrait, two studies by Gainsborough, a drawing by Mr. Clifford Harrison, and a photogravure after Fragonard's picture, Le Chiffre d'Amour." THE other day an amusing incident happened in Paris. A celebrated member of the Academy of Medicine was called to the house of an equally famous painter, a member of the Academy of the Beaux Arts. When he arrived the patient, in the form of a pet dog, was presented to him. The doctor was astonished, but the pitiful look of the malade softened his austerity, and he con- descended to examine it and to write a prescrip- tion. Soon the dog was as friskv as ever. Sc me days later the artist, meeting the doctor, thanked him profusely and asked the cost of the cure. The doctor would charge nothing for a service so slight. The painter persisted, and the doctor at last said: "Very well, since you insist, I shall ask you to to do me a little favour in return. I have just had erected a beautiful railing at my i villa at Montmorency. Will you be good enough to some and paint it r"
THE KING AND THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. The following letter from the Keeper of his Majesty's Privy Purse has, by command of the King, been addressed to Sir Walter Gilbey with reference to the fund which is about to be raised by the Royal Agricultural Society for the purchase of a site of 100 acres of land between Willesden and Ealing for the purposes of the future perma- nent showyard of the society: Marlborough House, Pall-mall, S.W., June 6. Dear Sir Walter Gilbey,—I have given the King a full account of the conversation I had with you and Mr. Cecil Parker the day before yesterday, and his Majesty has also read in this morning's paper an account of the proceedings of the Royal Agricultural Society at the monthly meeting of the council which took place yesterday. I now Nviite by command of the King to ask you to let it be made known to the council with what interest and satisfaction his Majesty learns the decision of the council to purchase outright the freehold property of 100 acres between Willesden and Ealing, which has been offered to the society on such very generous and favourable terms. The King quite sees that the society is not in a position to purchase the site without financial assistance from the outside world. His Majesty is, however, not only hopeful, but confident, that the £ 30.000 required for this good object will soon be forthcoming from those interested in the great national agricultural show and in the success of agriculture generally. Although his Majesty is no longer able to con- tinue to take the active part in the management of this society which he has hitherto done, having four times been president and for 22 years a trustee, still his Majesty will never cease to take the greatest interest in its welfare, and it will be a source of great pleasure to him to learn that the £ 30,000 required for the purchase of the site may soon be forthcoming. As a donation to the fund I am commanded by his Majesty to ask you to put him down as a sub- scriber of 250 guineas. I remain, dear Sir Walter, yours truly, bir Walter Gilbey, Bart. D. M. PROBYN.
A MOST delightful souvenir has been presentea to the Duchess of Fife in memory of her visit to the West Australian Court at the Glasgow Exhi- bition. It is a casket of sandalwood, inlaid with other well-known West Australian woods, containing a necklet composed of gold nuggets in their virgin state. The nuggets are of the descrip- tion known as flake gold, and have been strung together closely so as to form a solid but flexible band. As a pendant there is a piece of crystal, with gold showing freely through it. ONE of the strangest cases of larceny we have heard of for a long time is reported from New Jersey where a farmer is being sued for stealing electricity from a local company. It appears that the ingenious peculator wanted the current in order to stimulate the growth of his radishes, and had so skilfully tapped one of the main wires that the whole of his radish beds were perfectly satu- rated with electricity. One would like to have further information as to the effect upon the radishes,.