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I GREATER BRITAIN. ] A MEMORANDUM received at the Board of Trade through the India Office, states that the beer brewed in India in 1900 amounted to 4,951,666 gallons, of which more than half was bought by the Army Commissariat, the remainder being left for consumption by the civil population, or by soldiers independently of the arrangements under the army contracts with the breweries. The average purchases of the Commissariat for the last five years have amounted to 2,852,555 gallons yearly, the average production in the same period having been 5,632,180 gallons. The army therefore consumes under con- tract about half of the production. The reduction of the British garrison by the number of men sent to South Africa in the autumn of 1899 has reduced the consumption, and in the Bombay presidency the competition of imoorted beer has made itself f«lt. THE manufactare of iron and steel in Canada is as yet confined to the provinces of Nova Scotia and Ontario, which will soon be supplying all the steel and iron needed in the Dominion. But (says the special commissioner of the Commercial Intelligence) they will soon compete with Great Britain and the United States for the trade of the world, and on good terms. For the Canadian industry is assisted by the skill and enterprise of the Americans who have founded it, by rich and readily available mineral resources, and Govern- ment assistance of the most direct character. The Minister of Railways, Mr. Blair, was authorised to make a contract with Mr. Clergue, an American, then promoting the Clergue Iron and Steel Com- pany, which bound the Government to take 25,000 tons of rails a year from the company for five years, though the plant of the concern was not then built. The preamble to the contract began thus: "Whereas, for the purpose of encouraging the erection and equipment in Canada of plant and machinery for the manufacture and production on most modern principles of steel rails and plate and bridge mate- rials- ■" A TROPOSAL by the Sons of the Revolution of Boston, Massachusetts, to erect a memorial tablet, on the face of the Rock of Quebec to General Richard Montgomery, has aroused the utmost indignation among the Loyalists of Canada. It is felt to be most improper to allow such an historic spot as the base of Quebec's citadel to be dese- crated by the placing of a memorial to one who betrayed his King and country and threw in his lot with the American Revolutionists. The aver- age Canadian regards Montgomery with about the same version that the average American entertains for Benedict Arnold. The two cases are parallel, yet no one would dare to propose the erection of a memorial to Arnold in New York State. Some people, and these include the majority of Canadians outside of Quebec city, assert that the whole cause of Quebec's willingness to allow the Montgomery memorial is to be found in the fact that each summer thousands of Americans visit Quebec and leave a good many good American dollars behind them. IJoRD SIINTO, Governor-General of Canada, has become a patron of Captain Bernier's scheme for an expedition to the North Pole. THE title of Queen City of the Pacific," bestowed on the metropolis of New South Wales, is not un- deserved, for Sydney, writes an Australian corre- spondent, is one of the most beautifully situated cities in the world, and is without a rival in the sou: hern hemisphere. A stranger arriving in Sydney from the old country would find (writes a contri- butor to one of the metropolitan daily papers) very little at first sight in the everyday life of the people to remind him that he was many thousand miles away from home, though if he proceeded into the country he would probably observe a marked dif- ference. But in the city he would notice the streets presenting very much the same appearance as those of an English town, and in some of the prin- cipal thoroughfares he would find a strong re- semblance to the scenes familiar to his gaze in London, Liverpool, or Manchester. He would see the side-walks crowded with an ever-moving throng of people, some intent on business, others bent on pleasure. He would notice large and handsome shops, with glittering plate-glass fronts, and he would see the wares displayed to the gaze of passers by just as in Oxford-street or on Ludgate-hill. He would find the roadways alive with vehicles of all descrip- tions-omnibuses, cabs, carriages, carts, vans, and waggons, with electric and other tramways in the leading thoroughfares. He would see large and handsome stores, or wholesale warehouses, and magnificent architectural structures occupied as banks and public institutions. IF he went into one of the principal hotels lie, would be attended to and served in a manner that would forcibly remind him of home, with ona exception the waiter would expect no fee. But when the stranger had had time to mix a little more intimately with the people, and witness their mode of living, and their habits in their homes, he would find that everyday life in New South Wales, though very similar to that of Eng- land, nevertheless differs from it in many impor- tant respects; but these differences would not be observed so much in the abodes of the higher classes, for there may be found all the luxuries and elegancies of life that wealth can procure. In one respect there is a difference; for while comfort and ease are pretty generally studied, there is not so much attention paid to the fine arts in Sydney by the wealthy classes as would be the case in England. And the reason is not far to seek. In a young community like that of New South Wales where nearly all are engaged in business avocations, more or less, there is not the time to attend to the minor elegancies of life there is not the encouragement for artists to settle in the city, and the few who would willingly encourage them by purchasing their works have but a limited choice of objects. I IN this respect, however, the Sydneyites are im- proving fast; there is a decided taste for art among them, and the number of artists settled in Sydney is steadily increasing. The middle classes of the com- munity, too, live, generally speaking, very much as the middle classes of England do. Very many of the business people have their houses in the suburbs, and come in and go out by train, by omnibus, by tram or in their own vehicles. Living out of town means early closing, and therefore in. the principal establishments from nine in the morning till six in the evening is the business day. The early closing movement is practically universal, and very few of the retail establishments are open until. eight or nine o'clock at night. Hence the various places of amusement—the Schools of Art, the Free Libraries, and similar institutions—are generally well patronised. Among the middle, as well as the higher classes, there is a considerable amount of social intercourse, free from the restraints of class distinction that prevail at home, but pervaded with an atmosphere of genial hospitality and unostenta- tious welcome. Music and dancing are prominent among the amusements at these social gatherings, and these are indulged in with the same zest as would be displayed in family circles in England. COAL was the first mineral discovered in Australia, its existence having been ascertained shortly after the work of settlement h&d commenced on the shores of Port Jackson. Chis was in August, 1797, and the following reference, says a correspon- dent, is made to the event by Mr. Collins, in his account of the establishment and progress of New South Wales. Mr. Collins says: Mr, Clark, the supercargo of the Sydney Cove, having men- tioned that, two days before he had been met by the people in the fishing boat, be had fallen in with a great quantity of coal, with which he and his companion had made a large fire and had slept by it during the night, a whaleboat was sent off to the southwar( with Mr. Bass, the surgeon of the Reliance, to dis- cover where an article so valuable was to be met with. He proceeded about seven leagues to the southward of Point Solander, where he found in the face of a steep cliff, washed by the sea, a stratum of coal, in breadth about six feet, and extending eight or nine miles to the southward. Upon the summit of the high land and lying on the surface, he observed many patches of coal, from some of which it must have been that Mr. Clark was so con- veniently supplied with fuel. He also foun d in the skeletons of the mate and carpenter of the Sydney Cove an unequivocal proof of their having unfortunately perished, as was conjectured By the specimens of the coal which were brought in by Mr. Bass, the quality appeared to be good but from its almost inaccessible situation no great advan- tage could ever be expected from it, and, indeed, were it even less difficult to be procured, unless some small harbour should be near it, it could not be of much utility to the settlement." The place is now known as Coal Cliff, and is extensively worked, as are other rich coal mines in the vicinity.