w FIELD AND FARM. (From the "Agricultural Gwette.") THE WINTER FEEDING OF DAIRY COWS. The growing demand of town populations for the supply of milk (writes J. D.") at all times of the year causes in every successive year large numbers of contracts to be entered into by farmers for the winter as well as summer supply of milk to merchants. The impression is very general that it is more profitable to sell milk direct, rather than to make butter and cheese from it; and whether this be always so or not, it is a great convenience to be able to get rid of it daily. Hence the general desire on the part of farmers to make contracts whenever it be possible to do so at all advantageously, although the necessity ia devolved thereby of their having as many cows in profit in winter as in summer. Although in olden times the spring was universally considered to be the legitimate calving season, it was only the convenience of those who made butter and cheese that caused it to be so. Then as now ae many cows would have calved in autumn as spring, if they had been permitted to do so, or if Nature had been allowed to have her own way. Conse- quently farmers who enter into the new order of things have only one difficulty to grapple with, this being how to provide sufficient succulent food for their milch cows in winter when grass, the cheapest milk producer, is invariably almost, if not entirely unprocurable. Agricultural chemists profess to help farmers out of it by assuring them that if they only supply the necessary albuminoids and carbo- hydrates in sufficient quantities in dry foods, their cows will yield milk as abundantly thereon as when having in summer a full supply of grass. This may be so if the dry fodder be made sufficiently palatable and digestible, which brings on the tapis the reflec- tion that, if the matter be treated scientifically, phy- siology has quite as much to do with it as chemistry. But the farmer knows that relying principally on cake or meals, or other auxiliary feeding stuffs, for the winter feeding of his cows involves a heavy ex- penditure, consequently he'perceives it to be to his in- terest still to make the natural produce of the farm supply the food as much as possible, and only to rely on auxiliary feeding stuffs to the extent of supplying the albuminoids and carbo-hydrates wanting in the ordinary fodder. In doing this he acts right for another reason besides the economical one. The cow's stomach requires bulk of dietary as badly as her lacteal function demands quality, and unless the cow's internal organic system be kept in healthy play by enabling her to fill her stemach whenever inclined to do so, she would be unable to sustain her milk supply on ample albuminoids and carbo-hydrates in a concentrated form. Thus, while chemistry de- mands quality in the winter diet of cows, physiology just as strenuously insists on bulk and suitability. The crucial point is therefore the best natural food of the farm for dairy cows in winter, and by best ia implied the most relishable and agreeable to the in- ternal organic functions, as well as the most econo- mical. Quality can always be added easily to the extent they prove deficient in nutriment. For farmers occupying mostly grass lands, and very little arable, there can be no question about silage being by far the best, because the most akin to grass and being in- variably found practically to promote lacteal secre- tion far more effectively than hay, the only other natural food to fall back upon. Silage is also more digestible, no less than more agreeable to cows than hay, consequently it is only reasonable that there should be as much of this food produced as possible in those cases in which few roots can be grown. EveD in fine summers when it is easy to make hay cheaply, there should be every endeavour to stack enough grass for silage to enable a small portion to be given to the milk-yielding cows throughout winter, some succulent element in the dietary appearing to be so very essential. Almost every autumn it would be possible for grass-land farmers to collect and utilise sufficient coarse grass and weeds, which would otherwise be wasted, to provide a considerable quantity of silage for winter use. As Mr. Clare Sewell Read advised, after the severe drought summer of 1893, not only should the blotches of grass rejected by the cows in summer be pared up for the purpose, and similar coarse grass underneath trees or in the paths of woods be cut and collected, but the trimmings of banks and of hedges, and even weeds from rhynes and ditches. Such greenstuff, however distasteful to cattle in a raw state, becomes not merely relish- able but positively delicious after undergoing fer- mentation in the ensilage stack. As the human taste turns with aversion against the potato when raw, but accepts it eagerly after being cooked, pre- cisely similar will it be found in respect to nettles, thistles, flags, and numerous other weeds which are perfectly repulsive to stock ere being ensiled, which makes them absolutely delicious. On arable and mixed arable and pasture farms there are almost always abundant supplies of two products which utilised together make excellent winter food, so far as bulk is concerned. These are roots and straw, which by the former being pulped and the latter chaffed, for the chaff and pulp to be mixed together, get partially cooked by fermentation, this improving the properties of both. A grateful aroma always is imparted to straw by fermentation, and it is rendered more digestible either through that agency or by steaming or cooking. The latter seems almost indispensable for the straw of beans, the nutritive properties of which are so superior to those of the straw of the cereals that it seems worth while to adopt that costly way of making them soluble and the substance digestible. But there are other arable crops besides roots which are available to be grown for utilisation in winter. Cabbage in many districts of the South- west and Midlands may be made to serve the object up to Christmas, and in South Devon and Cornwall the Flatpole stands severe frost, and is given to stock throughout winter. Kale, although so extensively grown for the wintering of sheep, has not been used as much yet as it deserves to be for dairy cows; yet kale would make a valuable substitute for cabbage all through the dead season, after these have been consumed. Kohl-rabi is also an admirable milk pro- ducer, and might be grown far more extensively than at present for the winter feeding of dairy cows. Gorse has also teen well proved to be a crop deserving far greater appreciation than it receives at present, for the provision of cheap green fodder for milking cows in winter. POULTRY NOTES. Winter eggs for the farmer and winter eggs for the fancier are managed (observes" R. T.") in very different ways. The farmer wants them to sell and the fancier to sit. In both cases it is the moderately early-bred pullets that will help to fill the egg basket. Where anything like a systematic business is going to be made of it, a warm breakfast of smasbed small potatoes, offal meat, and a little meal, say, heated up overnight in an outhouse copper, makes an excellent preparation. This, how- ever, is by no means essential; ordinary boiled wheat given just warm is easily digested. It must be remembered that fowls at liberty have a chance of getting far more variety of food, both animal and vegetable, than those that are confined in small runs. The cpmmon practice, and one hard to beat at this time of year, is to give soft food in the morning and hard grain at night. When the weather is fine, scatter the food far and wide, and not in the same place every day. If the day is wet feed the meal in troughs, and the grain as suggested in the above paragraph under cover. The time is not altogether wasted in watching the birds feed. Not only will a certain quantity of food be saved that would other- wise go to something that is not poultry, but some of the more weakly fowls will be given a chance. In this comparatively slack time the house should certainly be seen to, and have a thorough clean out. Have everything made so that it can be taken out easily, perches, nest-boxes, and all. Shovel out all the manure (this if put on thin enough makes an excellent garden dressing). Then, after having swept down the sides and roof, go for a limewash throughout the interior. A little paraffin or carbolic iicid or tlb. of dissolved soft soap to every gallon of the limewash will make a good disinfectant. Several parasites, such as the red mite, attack fowls at night, living in the crevices and cracks of the house in the day time, and it is these we want to get at. A fowl examined in daylight and passed as being com- paratively clean, if picked up late direct off the Eerch, may be found swarming with vermin. The ouse should be light—fowls hate darkness—well ventilated at or near the top of the roof, and free from direct draught striking the birds. There will probably be a few more spare cockerels and pullets rather late hatched still on hand. If big enough, by all means shut them up and feed on ground oats, barley meal, and maize meal for a few weeks, and let them be sold. Athough, turkeys and geese naturally hold the simy at Christmas time. vet there is always some trade for fat fowls. The old birds ought to have been cleared out some time ago. The yard now should consist of stock pullets, care- fully selected males and young growing birds, which must be sold as soon as big enough. It is sometimes advisable to keep back a few late pullets, as these will commence to lay soon after the others have finished; but what we chiefly want to see is every- thing either growing into money or producing a profit in the shape of eggs.
I LORD WOLSELEY I I BIDS FAREWELL TO THE WAN OMEN. I Field-Marshal Lord Wolseley took farewell of the War Office on the 30th ult., on his retirement from the responsible post of Commander-in-Chief. He invited the heads of the military departments, and the chief members of their several staffs, to meet him at three o'clock in Sir Coleridge Grove's room. Here he said good-bye to them severally and collectively. The gathering in the military secretary's room was an interestiag one. It included Sir Evelyn Wood, the Adjutant-General; Sir Charles Mansfield Clarke, Quartermaster-General; Sir R. Harrison, Inspector- General of Fortifications; Sir H. Brackenbury, Director-General of Ordnance and Sir John Ardagh, Director of Military Intelligence. In fact, it was a company of military men and administrators who might on the spot have taken over the command of an army. Lord Wolseley, in a graceful little speech, thanked those present, and, through them, the staff of the War Office, for the work which had been so readily and efficiently performed, and for the great assist- ance he had received, during his term of office. Here it may be noted that this term has, as nearly as pos- sible, extended to five years and a month. If rumour is accurate, Lord Wolseley also touched upon-and, indeed, emphasised the especial services which heads of departments, and others, had been called upon to perform during the 19 months. Then he shook hands with everybody, and so a kindly a ceremony, wholly private in character, came to an end. There have been rumours that Lord Wolseley would become Governor of Chelsea Hospital, in suc- cession to the late Sir Donald Stewart, and, on the other hand, that he meant to make a tour of the world, during which he would visit some of his old battle-fields. When these matters were mentioned to an official of the War Office who has been asso- ciated with Lord Wolseley, he said I can't tell you anything about them. I should think his lord- ship, whatever else he may contemplate, will, in the first place, take a good rest." It need hardly be added that from now until the return of Lord Roberts Sir Evelyn Wood, as Adjutant-General, will act as Commander-in-Chief. THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF. The appointment of a Commander-in-Chief of the Forces takes place at such an interval of time that a glance back at the history of this highly-important and responsible post is of more than little interest. The Commander-in-Chief is the deputy of the Sovereign, who is the supreme commander of the army, but who can only command through the intermediation of another person or agent for reasons politic. The administration of the Land Forces is under the control of the Secretary of State for War, but the actual military heads are the Commander-in- Chief, the Surveyor-General of Ordnance, and the Financial Secretary. The duties of the Commander-in-Chief or those for which he is responsible may be briefly classified under six headings: i. The discipline and distribution of the Land Forces, when embodied or when called out for active service. ii. The military education and training of officers, non-commissioned officers, and men (a) of the Regular Army; (b) of the Re- serves, Auxiliaries, and Volunteers when assembled for training, exercise, inspection, or voluntary duty. Mi. To collect and record strategical and topo- graphical information. IV. To select those who may be recommended to her Majesty as fit and proper persons to hold commissions. v. To select for promotion for staff and various military appointmonts. vi. The nomination of suitable persons for honours and rewards. An Order in Council dated February 2, 1888, mapped out accurately the duties and responsibilities and powers of the Commander-in-Chief, which hitherto had been ill-defined, and consequently con- troversial, and at the same time the tenure of the office was limited to five years. From the institution of the office to the present day the names are as follows 1660—The Duka of Albemarle. 1674-The Duke of Monmouth. burgoss 1690-J ohn Churchill, Duke of Marlborough. 1691-Meinhardt Schomberg, Lord Leinster, after- wards third Duke of Schomberg (he being the third son of the famous Marshal). 1702-Prince George of Denmark. 1711-James Butler, Duke of Ormond. 1714-The Duke of Marlborough, again. 1744-John, Earl of Stair. 1744—The Duke of Cumberland. 1745—Field-Marshal Wade. 1757-John, Viscount (afterwards Earl) Ligonier. 1766-.Tohn, Marquis of Granby, who died in 1770, after which the office remained for some time vacant. 1778-Jeffrey, Lord Amherst, as General on Staff. 1782—General, the Hon. H. Seymour Conway. 1793-Lord Amherst, again. 1795-H.R.H. Frederick, Duke of York. 1809-Sir David Dundas, Bart. 1811-H.R.H. the Duke of York, again. 1827-The Duke of Wellington, from Jan. 22 to May 5. From May to August the post is un- occupied, but on the 27th of that month again takes office, which he held until 1828, when he resigned on becoming Prime Minister. 1828-Rowland, Viscount Hill, C ommander of the Forces, and General Commanding-in- Chief. 1843.-The Duke of Wellington, again. 1852.—Henry, Viscount Harding. 1856.-H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge appointed as General Commanding-in-Chief. In 1887 he was created by Letters Patent Commander- in-Chief, and on November 1, 1895, he resigned. 1895.-Lord Wolseley, appointed under the new regulations for a period of five years.
A COMPANY-PROMOTING CASE. In the London Sheriff's Court, on the 30th ult., before Mr. Under-Sheriff Burchell and a jury, the case of "London and Westminster Contract Cor- poration v. Brotherton came on for the assessment of damages. Mr. A. H. Spokes was counsel for the official liquidator on behalf of the corporation, and the defendant was neither represented nor appeared in Court. Mr. Spokes said the claim was for £57,500 and 4 per cent. interest, bringing the total up to £ 66,441. The defendant, Joseph Hamilton Brotherton, was, up to three years ago, a Metho- dist preacher in the United States of America. He threw up his position, and came to England, setting up in business at Bishopsgate with another man (who could not now be found) named J. C. Kemp van Ee as a stockbroker and company-pro- moter. Then he started forming companies-all bogus-the companies consisting of himself, Van Ee, and five office clerks. Having done this he consoli- dated the whole into a "Trust Syndicate," and started another company, which was now the plaintiff company. He got together a board of four directors, and then got himself appointed secretary and manager. Soon afterwards he succeeded in in- ducing thenew company to purchase for E55,000 the bogus shares of the Trust Syndicate, and then decamped to America, where he was now living in luxury. Van Ee could not be found. Mr. Esdon, one of the officials to the liquidator, having given evi- dence, the jury assessed the damages at the amount claimed, and judgment for that amount was entered, with costs.
I THE END OF THE MUTINY. News has oeen received in Brussels of the end of the Batetela Mutiny, which for nearly four years has been a cause of much trouble in the districts of the Congo State lying north and west of Lake Tangan- yika. An official letter written from Kabainbari on October 12 states that the two remaining bands of the mutineers who were, according to the last intelligenm, encamped, the first at Kashingo, north of the River Luama, and the second in the Uvira district, touching the northern part of Tanganyika, have been moved eastwards into German territory and surrendered their rifles to the German autho- rities. Among those who have thus surrendered is the chief Ngosi. This satisfactory intelligence, which removes the great anxiety the Sovereign of the Congo State has experienced from the mutiny of very formidable part of his native army, is not less welcome because if puts an end to the cruelties and depredations of the Batetela cannibals.
GENERALS RETURNED HOME. The Union-Castle liner Moor arrived at South- ampton on Sunday night with a large number of officers from the front, including Lieut.-General Sir C. F. Clery, Major-General Dickson, Major-General Brabazon, Colonel Alexander, Colonel Mansell, Lieut.-Colonels De Courcy, Hamilton, and C. V. Hume, Major A. H. C. Hanbury-Tracy, Captains De Winton and F. R. F. Boileau, and Lieutenants Pole and Vaughan, all of the staff; Colonel Viscount Valentia, M.P., and Lieutenant F. W. G. Gore, of the Imperial Yeomanry; Captain F. St. J. Hughes, South Wales Borderers; Captain E. J. Lugard, Indian Staff Corps Captain W. F. Hobdell, 5th Manchester Regiment; Captain H. Smith, 4th Scottish Rifles Lieutenant Faber, R.E., and Lieutenant King, Volunteer Company Middle- sex Regiment. The passengers, who were landed by tender, proceeded to London by mail train, reaching Waterloo about midnight. The Moor subsequently left for London. Among the troopers on board is Sergeant Bolton, of the Protectorate Regiment, who was twice taken prisoner during the siege of Mafe- king, but each time escaped, and eventually made his way to Pretoria.
GREAT FLOODS IN ROME. NARROW ESCAPE OF THE KING. Alarm in Rome is growing as the Tiber maintains its high level, and the weather is anything but promising. The celebrated island in the middle of the river is threatened with entire submersion, while the water has reached the parapets of two of the bridges, the arches of which have disappeared altogether. The Ripetta Bridge has been closed to the public, and may be swept away at any moment. In the lower parts of the town the water forms a spectacle which at- tracts thousands of people. The Forum is unrecog- nisable, as it now lies under six or seven feet lof water. The Protestant Cemetery is so covered that one cannot get within 600ft. of it. St. Paul's Basilica, outside the walls, is supposed to be full of water, but no one really knows, as it is completely cut off. The boats plying as ferries are doing a very good business. For a precedent to the present state of affairs one's memory instinctively turns to the great floods of December, 1870. Then the Clericals said it was the finger of God, because Ronpe had been wrested from them. Now, after 30 years, the Liberals have found their chance to retort that it is the finger of God n the Holy Year. The situation is a great victory for the Italian Government. The Popes never did any- thing to avert the dangers of an overflow of the Tiber, but the comparative immunity of the city to-day proves the necessity and utility of the embank- ment. To that is due the fact that the Eternal City is not completely under water. In 1876, when Gari- baldi put forward a project, the Government awoke to its duty, and began an embankment, which has only just been finished. The partial submersion is due to the deficiencies of the canal system, which will be remedied within two years, when the canals already begun are connected. The King of Italy spent Sunday afternoon visiting the quarters most affected, and was greeted every- where with great affection. However, he reatly ran great risk, as only a few seconds after he drove over the road leading to the bridge which connects the island with the right bank of the river the whole affair sank, producing a landslip of considerable extent. The confusion was great, as the crowd which gathered to see the King had not yet dispersed, and others, seeing them flying, thought it was the King coming, and so hastened to the spot. However, no lives were lost.
THE DUKE OF YORK'S TOUR. Commander R. E. Wemyss, R.N., who has been appointed second in commapd of the Ophir, in which the Duke of York will take his trip to Australia, has, since leaving the Niobe on Wed- nesday last, been employed at Portsmouth in making preliminary arrangements for the cruise, and will, this week, receive further instructions at the Admiralty. The Ophir will be fitted out at a private yard. Although it is generally understood that their Royal Highnesses will take their departure from Portsmouth, no definite decision has been arrived at. Captain A. L. Winsloe, R.N., will be in command of the flotilla and will fly his pennant on the Ophir. The liner will have a mixed crew of naval and mercantile hands, and a naval gunner, boatswain, and carpenter will be carried. From a service point of view the Ophir will be regarded as a Royal yacht, and all naval ratings, whatever their temporary rank may be, will be petty officers. So far as is known at present, the only ships forming the escort will be the St. George and Juno, cruisers. Major J. H. Bor, R.M.A., will be in command of the Marines.
THE Great Western Railway has the biggest mile- age of any company in the United Kingdom, i.e., about 2576 miles. The London and North-Western Railway comes next with about 1908 miles. MR. A. HAMILTON has been appointed Senior Secre- tary to the Board of National Education in Ireland, vice, Mr. M. S. Seymour, resigned-, and Mr. P. E. Lemass succeeds Mr. Hamilton, who formerly held the office of Secretary. THE marriage between the Hon. Walter Befb" youngest son of the first Lord Westbury, ana Ana Mary, widow of Mr. Thomas Hole, of Moorlands, Crewkerne, will tzke place in London on December U. THE petrified body of a girl has been found in a house in New York, formerly occupied by an em- balmer, who boasted that he could turn bodies into stone, but died without divulging his secret.
I GARDENING GOSSIP. I (From" Gardening Illustrated.") I CONSERVATORY. I Damp, the chief enemy to combat now among flowers, is best met (writes Mr. E. Hobday) by venti- lation, combined with a little warmth in the pipes. All watering should be done in the morning, with the ridge ventilation open more or less according to the condition of the atmosphere. Rearrangements should be frequent now; as soon as the Chrysanthe- mums lose colour the plants should be removed, as decaying flowers are always an eyesore. For some time at least there will be a succession of Chrysanthe- mums to take the place of those going off. What a bright mass the scarlet Salvias make now, and they last a long time in a buoyant atmosphere of about 50deg. or so. Retarded Lily of the Valley is flower- ing freely, and makes charming groups mixed with Ferns. Lilium Harrisi and L. longiflorum should be potted as soon as they come to hand. The former will soon start into growth, and with a little forcing will flower early. But L. Harrisi has not been so satisfactory with us the last year or two. The Ber- muda bulbs have been over-fed and become diseased. The Japanese L. longiflorum is very fine and usually does well. It is time the Spiraeas were all potted now. The roots of S. japonica were very poor last year the drought was too much for them. They should be potted and plunged in Cocoanut-fibre in a cold frame to make roots it is no use attempting to force them until roots have had another start. If early Spiraeas are wanted, retarded plants may be had that will flower in autumn, but the demand for her- baceous Spiraeas is falling off. They want so much water, and this often become a nuisance in room gardening, and the flowers in a cut state do not last long enough to meet the popular desires. Those who potted the double Daffodils early in August and plunged them out to make roots will soon have them showing flower if moved into a moderate tempera- ture 55deg. is high enough. If forced in a higher temperature some of the flowers will fail, and all will be smaller than they ought to be. Tuberous Begonias should be put away to rest where the frost cannot reach them. The dwarf Cannas in large pots are still showing a little colour, but they also will soon cease to be effective, and should be dried. Begonias now coming into flower should have the warmest end of the hous3. The early-flowering Poinsettias, when the scarlet bracts are well out, will last longer in the conservatory, and other things in the stove may be moved up for a time for a change. See that Camellias and other plants grow- ing in the borders do not suffer from want of water. STOVE. I Among ornamental plants of small dimensions Panicum variegatum, the pretty Indian Grass, forms a useful edging or basket plant. It is easily propa- gated by cuttings, but will not bear a low tempera- ture in winter. I have seen it formed into pyramids by making a cone-shaped framework of wires fitted inside a pot, and little plants of the Panicum planted in Moss all up the sides of the wire framework. This Grass has a small but effective scarlet flower. There should be a good deal of colour in this house now with Poinsettias, Euphorbias, and Begonias. Justi- cias are not quite so much grown as they were, and one does not often meet with Thyrsacanthus rotilans or Conoclinum ianthinum, both rather showy things when well done. Where quantities of Eucharis Lilies are growing there will generally be flowers, and if Orchids are grown some will be in bloom now, especially Cypripediums in variety, Calanthe Veitchi, and a few Oncidiums and Dendrobiums. PRUNING VINES. The early house has already been seen to, and is cleaned and top-dressed ready for the start, but later houses, as fast as the Grapes are cleared off, should be pruned and undergo the necessary clean- sing work. A little sulphur should be mixed with the lime for whitewashing walls, and Gishurst-com- pound or some other insecticide should be employed in washing1 paint. All loose bark should be taken from the Vine-rods, and afterwards a wash of Gis- hurst-compound should be applied, at the rate of 6oz. to the gallon of water, used warm, and brushed well in round the spurs. No one who has not seen the Vines can give any useful advice aboutjthe length of spur to be left. If the roots are in a proper con- dition near the surface there will be a crop if we cut back to the last visible bud, but if the roots are deep and the wood unripe the practice of cutting to a plump bud has a good deal to recommend it, but I when that stage has been reached it will be better to lift the roots and bring them under control. MUSHROOM HOUSE. A constant succession of beds should be made up, so that if one bed does not do quite so well others are coming on. I suppose every Mushroom grower finds some beds do better than others, and finds it difficult to explain the why or wherefore of it. A too damp or too dry condition of the manure will cause partial failura, or old spawn may be the cause of smallness of crop. Seakale, Rhubarb, and Chicory may be started in these houses now, and Endive may be lifted with balls and brought in to blanch. OUTDOOR GARDEN. I Every recently-planted tree or shrub that is likely to be blown aside by the wind should be staked or supported in some way, as any tree which is con- stantly being rocked about by the wind cannot establish itself firmly in the ground. This is the cause of many deaths among trees and shrubs. Roses also suffer from this cause. It is a great advantage when Roses have occupied one spot for a number of years to lift them, renew the beds, prune the roots, and replant. Root-pruning is very beneficial to Roses which are making 'strong wood which fails to flower freely. Cutting back old roots leads to the production of many fibres, which are of much more use for the production of flowers than the long fibrelpss roots which descend deeply into the earth. In exposed situations the stems of Tea Roses which are budded low down on the Brier may be easily protected by drawing a few inches of earth up round the stems, or a mound of burnt earth may be placed round the stems on the surface. This is even a better plan than drawing up earth from the beds. Weedy walks may be turned over and rolled down again firmly with or without a little fresh gravel. To make a garden walk that will wear well there must be a good layer of rough stones or brickbats in the bottom to make a firm, dry bottom. I am constantly seeing the evil effects of steep banks in gardens. Trees, shrubs, and turf on mounds die from want of moisture. The idea is to block out some object, but it generally fails and then becomes an eyesore. When ground is raised on a broad base the effect is not so bad. All kinds of spring flowers will move now. Daisies, Wallflowers, Forget-me- nots, Primroses, and hardy annuals will make a gay garden. garden. FRUIT GARDEN. I Well grown and properly trained espaliers have a neat appearance in a garden, and for Apples and Pears the system answers well, and at one time, a few years ago, when iron was cheaper than it is now, espalier training could be profitably carried out. Now, for small gardens, bush-trees on the Paradise are a good deal planted. There is no doubt the finest fruits are obtained from comparatively young trees on the Paradise-stock, and in some in- stances I have seen where the trees have been grafted near the ground the trees very soon make roots above the graft. To have trees on their own roots one has only to adopt root-grafting. To pro- pagate Apples from cuttings is a slow, tedious pro- cess, and there are many failures, but by grafting Apples on roots of either the Paradise or the Ciab, and planting them so as to cover the junction roots will form above, and then, if desirable, the stock at the bottom may be cut away. I have grafted a few root stocks, just to test the system, in the same way that many years ago we used to graft Roses on roots of Briers. In the case of the Roses the grafted plants were potted to cover the junction and plungpd into a warm frame. In the case of the grafted Apple roots, they were planted in a cold-frame, and kept close and shaded for a time; then air was gradually given until the grafts were growing, when the lights were removed. By grafting in the open ground low down, and then earthing up the plants, they will eventually be on their own roots. Own-rooted Apples may be obtained from layers, but striking cut- tings, except in the case of few varieties, is a very uncertain business.
SAVED BY AMY. William Fuller, the builder, had been a week absent from his home in Whitmead, a small town in the north. Getting back about noon in the hot July weather, he turned into the Rose and Crown for a glass of beer. What news while I was away, Staples ?" he asked as the landlord drew the beer. You haven't heard anything since you came back ?" said Staples. No. I came straight here. What's the matter? You look as solemn as if the bank had put up its shutters." That would be bad for a lot of people. The bank is right enough; but something has happened which may be very bad for one man, and may be the worst possible for another." Ah Then I have been missing an excitement. What was it?" said Fuller. "Young Walton, the teacher at the School of Art, went over Bleak Hill the day before yesterday to fish in the Heather Glen, and he hasn't been seen here since," said Staples impressively. Slipped in and was drowned?" suggested Fuller flippantly. Not so sure about slipping in," said Staples drily. He resented the light manner of his cus- tomer. An hour before he started, young Barker, secretary to the gasworks, you know, went off to the Glen also." Maybe he slipped in and was drowned ?" No, he didn't," said the landlord, sulky at the tone of the other. He came back." Well, it ought to be the other way, if things were to be put straight; for everyone likes Walton, and if Barker never came back no one would be a bit sorry. I hope Matt Walton isn't drowned." A good many people are hoping Walton hasn't been murdered." Eh Murdered ?" cried the builder, suddenly dropping his flippant manner. Murdered by Barker, you mean ? But why should Barker murder him ?" "You know Amy Clare, the widow Clare's good- looking daughter?" To be sure. Who doesn't ? Why, she's the prettiest girl in Whitmead." Yes. It has leaked out that Barker proposed to her a month ago, and was rejected. He then swore to her that no other man alive should marry her. He swore to her he'd kill any man she took in place of him. While he was with her he raved and ranted like a madman. He was always a bit queer, and now everyone says his brain is turned. Three or four days ago it got about that Walton was eagaged to Amy Clare. The day before yesterday Barker set off at five o'clock over Bleak Hill to fish the Heather Glen. At six o'clock Walton also went over Bleak Hill to fish the stream. No one has seen Walton since." It looks bad; but Walton followed Barker-not Barker Walton. How do you make that fit the notion that the man from the gas-house :meant mis- chief to the artist ?" Oh, people suppose it was by pure accident that the two men werat fishing the same day." And what does Barker say ?" That he never laid eyes on Walton." H'm That looks bad." It is almost a confession of the worst. You know the Glen, and you know it would be impossible for two men to fish the stream a whole summer's day without seeing one another." I own it seems very like murder." Hush!" whispered the landlord, raising his finger. "There he is." George Barker, a short, thick-set, sallow, awkward young man, was passing outside. He stopped opposite the door and turned towards it. He hesitated a moment and the# walked in. "I caught the word 'murder' from you, Mr. Fuller," said he, looking angrily at the builder. Considering what has happened, that is an ugly word for me to hear shouted out. May I ask you what you are talking of ?" He stepped up close to Fuller and posed defiantly. The word was not shouted." said Fuller coolly. Your hearing for that word may be sharper than most men's. The conversation between Mr. Staples and myself was a private one. You had no right to hear it, and you have no right to ask any question about it." Sir," said Barker fiercely, I have a right to defend my character from the slanderous accusations which are being made against it," If you could get only one single word spoken in your favour it would put you right." One single word in my favour I What word ?' demanded Barker, stamping and fuming. Any word at all spoken by Matt Walton would do." I'll make you smart for this yet, my fine fellow," cried Barker. He shook his fist in the builder's face, turned on his heel and strode out. » < Amy, the widow Clare's only child, was tall and shapely, with light hair and dark grey eye9. Although Mrs. Clare was poor, having only a very slender income left her by her husband, she held her head high. In the lifetime of her husband she had one of the best houses in the town. Now she rented a ten-pound cottage, kept no servant, and had to take mote care of the pennies than of the shillings long ago. She was a mild woman of fifty-five who never made a display of her feelings. All her thoughts in the present were locked up in her blithe and beautiful daughter, and she had no hope on earth save that she might live to see Amy happily married. She knew that George Barker had been paying at- tentions to Amy, and she shook her head. Amy told her that Matt Walton had proposed to hea. and that she had given him a favourable answer. Mrs. Clare took her daughter in her arms and wept over her, and whispered in a broken voice: "Heaven bless you, my child I I believe you did right. He is a fine young man. He looks kind and good. He is handsome, too, and I think he is worthy of you." Amy then told her of Barker's threats. They are no more, my dear," said the mother, than the rash words of an angry man." Now she was frozen dumb by this mysterious dis- appearance of Walton and the horrible thoughts his disappearance suggested. There was no room for hope that the artist had gone beyond the Heather Glen to any town or village beyond. On Tuesday, the day he set out, he had no class at the school, and as Amy was obliged to spend the day with her aunt at Welford, he had decided to go fishing. He and Amy were to be back to tea at the cottage that evening, and Wednesday was the busiest day of the artist's week. All the vivacity of Amy had left her, but she did not give way to despair. Matt will come back, mother—I know he will come back. I feel as sure of it as that I am alive." Mrs. Clare thanked Heaven that for the present her daughter was so hopeful, so confident. Of course," she thought, "she cannot keep up this state much longer but it is a mercy she does not just yet believe the worst. When she can no longer hopa she will in a way have got used to the thought of her loss." During Wednesday Amy kept her room, which was in the back of the cottage, on the upper floor. From it she could see Bleak Hill. She sat at the open window with a field-glass in her hand. He had gone over that hill away from her, and over that hill he would come back to her. She should see him when he reached the brow of the hill, and she should know him though the brow of the hill was a couple of miles away. Every now and then she swept the hill from end to end. The base of Bleak Hill was a little over half a mile from Whitmead. In the line between the town and Heather Glen the hill rose to a height of seven hundred feet. A little to the left it ended in a peak two hundred feet higher, and this peak was crowned by a strange looking building, known as Gordon's Folly, which, although not a hundred years old, was in ruins, had been in ruins for more than a whole generation. All else on the hillside was heather. Save for the ruin, the hill showed no sign that man had ever scaled its stony, inhospitable expanse. Towards the end of the last century, one Gordon' a rich man with a craze for solitude, erected at great cost a low, castellated building on the top of the peak, to find, when his house was finished, that he could get no water in the summer, and that in winter he ran the risk of being snowed up and starved. He lived there for one year, and then abandoned the place. From that time the structure received no care, fell into decay, and bore the name of Gordon's Folly. The earliest daylight of Thursday found Amy once more scanning the hill. Each time she took up the glass, her first glance was at the line over which her lover had gone, over which she was confident he would return. Then she swept the long line of the hill on the right; then the short line on the left, to where it rose into the ruin-crowned peak before it dipped abruptly into the plain beyond. Through that clear Thursday morning Amy watched at her window. At breakfast she said- I don't know how it is, mother, but I feel sure I shall see him coming through the heather to-day with his rod over his shoulder." As soon as breakfast was finished, she hurried back to her room. But from sunrise to sunset all that day, no one came over the hill from the Heather Glen. Towards one o'clock, while the girl was looking through the glass, she started and drew back as though affrighted. She took down the glass from her eyes, and stared about the room out of eyes that saw nothing. She put up the glass again and looked long, intently; rigid as marble. Then she put on her hat and jacket, and taking the glass with her, wen downstairs. Going out!" cried Mrs. Clare. "Is-is he com- ing ?" She asked eagerly, in faltering tones. Not yet," said the girl in a deep, low voice such as the mother had never heard from her before. I may be away an hour or two." But, my child my child, where are you going ? You seem dazed and strange." Do not be uneasy about me, mother but say a prayer for him," and she left the house. Although no one came over Bleak Hill from the Heather Glen that long summer's day, before the sun had dropped far down the sky, Matt Walton was sitting in Mrs. Clare's parlour with one of his hands clasped in both the widow's. "On Tuesday morning," he said, "when I got over the hill, I made out Barker on the bank of the stream below. I knew if we met there would be a fight, and as I'm bigger and heavier than he, I didn't want to fight him when there was no one by. So I turned aside, and never having been to Gordon's Folly, I thought I'd explore it. As I was walking along one of the low walls, I trod on a piece of rotten board. It gave way under me, and I shot down the short flue of a chimney. I fell on my feet and I was not hurt. The flue was a loose fit for me and as smooth as marble. What had been the grate was blocked up with great stones, which I could not get at with my hands and which I could not move with my feet. Escape at the bottom was therefore impossible. For hours I tried to scramble up the flue, but the cement with which it is lined afforded no hold for foot or hand, and I never succeeded in raising myself more than a foot or two. But from my head to the top of the flue was at least eight feet-as much out of my reach as the stars. Well, I won't bother you with an account of my feelings. You can imagine what they were. I shouted until I was hoarse. When it grew dark I ate half the dinner I had brought with me. Such sleep as I got I had to take standing. Wednesday passed, I don't know how. All I remembered is that I ate the second half of my provisions, shouted and scrambled, and gave myself up for dead. This morning I awoke half starved, parched with thirst, and almost stifled. I don't recollect anything until all at once it came into my head that if I couldn't make my shouting heard I might make a signal which could be seen. At the cost of enormous paitence and labour, I got off my coat, waistcoat, and shirt. I put the second splice on the butt of my rod, with my shirt on the end of it and, thrusting this flag of distress through the opening above, shook it from side to side. Amy saw something moving above the wall, and jumped at the conclusion that it had to do with my disappearance. She did not tell you what she hoped, lest there might be disappointment. As she got out of the cottage, she met Mr. Fuller, the builder. She told him what she had seen, and that she was starting for Gordon's Folly. He ex- amined the ruin with her glass, and immediately offered to accompany her. He took a rope with him and hauled me out of that living tomb. Ugh! I want to forget all about it. I want to forget all about it except that Amy saved me from the most horrible fate a man ever faced."
THE UNION JACK IN THE SOUTH SEA ISLANDS. The expansion of the Empire is an operation which is not always carried out in such happy and picturesque circumstances as those which charac- terised the annexation of the Cook Islands. The British cruiser Torch and the gunboat Ring- dove, says the Express correspondent at Sydney, have been engaged in hoisting the Union Jack on a number of small islands in the South Seas, some of which are still in the occupation of cannibal tribes. At Gower Island, in the Solomon group, the King" kept out of the way of tfan officers of the Torch, but the natives made no seesret of the fact that had the Britishers been unarmed they would have been cooked and eaten. At Howe Island they were more kindly received, and the King condescended to come aboard the sloop and be entertained, returning the compliment by inviting Captain Norman Macalister to share the hospitality of the Imperial Palace-a large hut made of palm branches, mud, and leaves. At Tasman Island, Fauro, the Shortlands Island, and Choiseul Island, the flag was hoisted without incident, but the brown-skins looked anything but friendly, and at the last-named island, where the crew of a trading vessel was killed and eaten some time ago, there was some show of hostility. At Tupua, in the Santa Cruz group, the landing of Captain Ayscough, of the Ringdove, was the signal for the general exodus of the natives into the bush, one solitary representative being left to receive the party and hoist the flag. At Santa Cruz the natives crowded round the ship, to barter bows, arrows, spears, shells, idols, fruit and poultry, for tobacco and pipes. The people are dwarfs, the tallest not exceeding 5ft. 4in. All are ringed through the nose with tortoiseshell orna- ments and shell rings, and wear from six to 12 or 14 ornaments in the lobe of each ear. They have a bad re- putation for treachery, but they stop short at canni- balism, which is at least one point in their favour.
THE SEA SERPENT AT THE ANTIPODES. The sea serpent has once more made bis appear- ance. Captain Thompson, of the steamer Nemesis, writes the Express correspondent at Perth, Western Australia, has reported to the harbour authorities that while on the way to Fremantle he saw "a kind of huge fish at a point between Vesse and Cape Naturalist. The monster was about 200ft. long, and its fins measured 30ft. It moved along the surface of the sea as a snake moves along the land, and travelled at a rapid rate.
FUSTEiUNG AFRICAN TRADE. In order xo enable British manufacturers to get into closer touch with the trade requirements of Zanzibar anfl East Africa, the temporary service of an official oi the India Store Department have been obtained by the Zanzibar Government. A sample bureau will be established in Zanzibar, to which traders of all classes and customers will have free access, and to which manufacturers who are in sympathy with the movement are invited to send illustrated official catalogues with current discounts And priced samples. The Government of Zanzibar will be glad to enter into communication with ajad to receive advice and assistance from manufacturers at home.
SIR A. SULLIVAN'S LAST WORK. The last completed work of the late Sir Arthur Sullivan was a thanksgiving Te Deum for the peace celebrations on the conclusion of the war. With the sanction of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's Cathedral, Sir George C. Martin approached Sir Arthur on the subject of such a composition. He took up the matter warmly, and a little over a month ago played the music on the pianoforte to the organist of St. Paul's. At the time of his death Sir Arthur Sullivan was engaged upon on Irish opera for the Savoy, The Emerald Isle." The finishing touches will be put to the work by another well-known composer.
I WAS raised in one of the best families," said the umbrella, but I had my ups and downs." WILLIE: Did you propose to my sister last night?" Peatherstone: "Eh-ahl Why, Willie?" Willie: 'Cause everybody in the house has been guying the life out of her." THIS life is but a game of cards, in which lovers sit and hold hands.
THE CHARGE AGAINST A BANK MANAGER. At the York Assizes on Saturday, before MI4 Justice Grantham, Edward Crosby, 38, clerk, on bail pleaded guilty to wilfully and with intent to defraud making a false entry in a counter-book belonging tc the York City and County Banking Company (Limited), showing under the date of October 6, 1900. the sum of £ 276 lis. lOd. as having been received by him to the credit of the account of J. E. and E. M. Furniss with the banking company, whereas the said sum had not been received by him, as he knew when he made the false entry. Mr. E. T. Wilkinson pro- secuted on behalf of the bank, the prisoner being represented by Mr. A. P. Longataffe. The prisoner was at the time in question the manager of the South Cliff branch at Scarborough of the above-mentioned banking company. Mr. Wilkinson stated that there were several instances of falsification and that the total deficiency for which the prisoner was responsible amounted to about £ 640. When before the committing magis- trates the prisoner admitted that he had embezzled the sum of £ 270. Archdeacon Mackarness, the vicar of St. Martin's Church, Scarborough, Mr. Travers Humphreys, barrister, who had come down from London to speak for the prisoner, and also Dr. Beverley, practising as a medical man at Scarborough, all spoke in the highest terms of him. Dr. Beverley stated that since 1891 the prisoner had suffered from serious and prolonged illnesses, and that, in his opinion, close confinement would probably bring about a breakdown of his health. From the speech of Mr. Longstaffe, who addressed the Court in mitigation of punishment, it seemed that the prisoner had been in the employment of the bank for many years, having commenced his service as a boy at a small weekly wage. Owing to his good conduct and popularity with the bank authorities he rose step by step until he was, about nine years ago, placed in charge of the branch in question at a yearly salary of e230. Shortly after- wards he married. Eventually, owing to small ex- travagancies and the expenses he incurred owing to his illnesses, he got into debt and, yielding to temptation, took money belonging to the bank to obtain temporary relief from his financial embarrassments. The prisoner had bsen a faithful husband and a good father, and not one penny of the money he had taken had been spent in gambling, betting, speculation, drink, or riotous or immoral living. The prisoner bad voluntarily handed over to the bank shares in the bank of the value of £ 220, which were to be transferred to an in- surance company which had given the bank a guarantee against any defalcations'by the prisoner. The case was not in any way pressed by the bank. The learned judge said the prisoner bad been guilty of a very grave offence, but that in the circumstances he felt justified in taking a lenient view of the matter. In the result his lordship sentenced the prisoner to six months' imprisonment with hard labour.