FIELD AND FARM. (From the Agricultural Gazette.") EARLY AND LATE WHEAT-SOWING. In raference to a controversy which is being waged as to the relative advantages of early and late wheat- sowing, it is interesting to notice that wheat was commonly sown a hundred years ago much earlier than it usually is nowadays. In the reports of the first B.ard of Agricultural there are repeated notices of September sowing, and a few enthusiasts of early work put the crop in even in August. In such cases there must have been a need of hoeing in the autumn, and the field would lie in very wet condition after that operation. Probably the controversy will last as long a? agriculture endures; for, as with other kinds of farm work "sauce for the goose" is not necessarily sauce for the gander." For some dis- tricts or soils early sowing, and for others late drilling, is recommended by the results of experi- ence. We have known light or poor land to be regularly sown early in a parish where the heavy land was rarely sown before the latter part of Octo- ber or the first hilf of November, the difference having "he sanction of the best farmers. But, apart from differences in relation to soil, the period of sowing which proves best in one season occasionally proves the worst in another. If there were any security that November would be a fairly dry month, and neither frosty, nor to be immediately followed by hard frost, many good farmers of beavv land would prefer that month to any other for sowing wheat but, as there is no such security, it is very risky to defer the commencement of the work longer than the middle of October. Thirty years ago, when a good deal of the wheat land of the country was more highly farmed than it is now, late sowing was much in favour in some strong land districts where the work is done earlier at the present time. The change has been brought about partly by wet Novembers, and partly by the removal of the fear of having wheat winter-proud, of which we have not heard much since the days of agricultural depression and close economy set in. THE REARING OF CALVES. A paper on "The Rearing of Heifer Calves for the Dairy" was recently read by Mr. W. F. Lawrence, of the C.C. Farm, Newton Rigg, Penrith to the members of the Northumberland and Durham Dairy Farmers' Society at Newcastle. Mr. Lawrence said that during the four and a-half years he had managed the Newton Rigg farm he had set himself, by careful experiment, to determine how calves could most eheaply be well reared and losses prevented. Of eighty-six calves which had been born alive only one had died, and that one suffered from internal haemorrhage from its birth. It was most important and desirable to keep the different calves separate from each other until they were two months old, as many losses occurred among young calves through being together. At Newton Rigg a calf was taken to a pen away from the cow-house as soon as it was born, got a good rub down with straw, and was well bedded and covered with the same material. In the course of half an hour or so the calf was fed with about a pint of its mother's first milk at blood heat. No medicine was given, the first milk containing all that is necessary both for feeding and as an aperient. Afterwards the following rules of feeding were ob- served First week: Its own mother's milk warm three times a day, commencing with about a pint and a-half at a time, and increasing to two quarts on the fourth day. Second week: Two quarts of warm new milk, not necessarily its own mother's, three times a day. Third week: Two quarts of warm milk, half new and half skim or separated, three times a day, with a half-pint of linseed soup to each quart of skim milk. Fourth week: Same as the third, with a handful of sweet meadow hay to nibble at. Fifth week: Two and a-half quarts of warm skim milk three times a day, a half-pint of linseed soup to each quart, and a little sweet meadow hay after morning and evening meals; to be con- tinued with gradually increasing quantities of hay till the end of the eighth week. Ninth week Omit the linseed soup, and after the mid-day milk give a single handful of broken linseed cake and a little pulped swedes grass instead of swedes in summer; hay as before. Twelfth week: Omit mid-day milk and give fib. of mixed linseed cake and crushed oats, and half a gallon of pulped swedes (grass in summer) at mid- day, continued morning and evening skim milk and hay as before. If necessary, milk may be entirely discontinued at five months old, and lib. a day of mixed linseed cake and crushed oats be given to each calf, with increasing quantities of hay and roofs, sliced or whole, but if skimmed milk be plentiful it cannot be put to better use than giving the calves one or two drinks of it each day up to the age of eight or nine months. To prepare linseed soup put two pints of linseed to soak over- night in four gallons of water, boil and stir the next day for half an hour, and five minutes before the boiling is finished add lIb. of flour (previously 2 mixed with enough water to prevent it being lumpy) to this quantity of soup to counteract the laxative tendency of the linseed. Side by side with linseed soup cod-liver oil has been tried at Newton Bigg as a substitue for the removed cream, and it has answered admirably—quite as well as the boiled linseed. Where the cow's first milk is not available for new-born calves, ordinary new milk may be made to closely resemble it by adding the white of an egg and a teaspoonful of castor oil previously whipped in a little warm water to about two quarts of milk. Young calves require dry, comfortable, and sweet beds, and where such conditions are absent scour is often the result. There was nothing better than well- broken moss litter. He had come to the conclusion that it was best to keep spring-born calves in for the first year, except, perhaps, for a few hours a day on a pasture during the best summer months. Autumn- born calves were turned out all the summer. FAULTY BUTTER. Those through whose hands any quantity of dairy produce passes know full well (writes L. J. Lord) how easily a sample of butter may fall short of perfection, even though to all outward appearance it is every- thing that could be desired. Bad flavour from unsuitable feeding may usually be traced to the use of turnips, frozen roots, or cab- bage, the peculiarflavour of these foods going through the animal's system, and being reproduced in the milk and butter, when they are given in large quantities er under wrong circumstances. The remedies in this instance, which are almost as well known as the fault, are either to withold these foods till after milk- ing, or to give the roots steamed instead of raw. It is also stated that the addition of a little saltpetre to the milk or cream will prevent the production of the turnipy flavour. Sometimes, however, butter will become distinctly tallowy in taste, and this may either be due to the feeding, as when the Cows get a good bite of young clover or tare supplied with musty oilcake, or to the treatment which the butter undergoes after being made. Butter which has been put in cold storage or frozen is very apt to go off in this way; and the same thing occurs if the butter is left to stand for 11 any length of time in a strong light. Foreign rolled butter, Italian for example, will deteriorate in this way; this would be butter containing some amount of preservative, presumably boracic acid, but whether this substance has any direct effect in de- veloping the tallowy flavour must remain an open question. One other thing will hurt the flavour of what might otherwise be good butter, and that is overheating the cream before churning. It is becoming an acknowledged thing amongst the majority of dairy folk, that butter should be made up of distinctly granular fragments closely pressed or kneaded together, but not in such a way that the granular structure is obliterated. Butter that is greasy in appearance, or flaky rather than granular in texture, has been over-worked, if it has not been made in such a way that the butter grains were worked in the churn into one huge mass almost as soon as they formed. Such a proceeding would be sure to result in butter inferior in texture, and also in keeping qualities. A good butter should be firm but not hard when made; of course, it may easily become either soft. or hard afterwards according to surroundings, but injudicious feeding will sometimes affect the butter in this way. Foods which contain a high percentage of oil, such as linseed cake, tend to make the butter soft, an exception being cottonseed meal and cake, which, if given to the cows in large quantities, result in a hard butter. The amount of free moisture in butter is controlled very largely by the way in which the butter is manu- factured. In order to keep the water percentage as low as possible, one must avoid churning, washing, and brining at high temperatures; above all, the grain must be kept small, never allowing the butter to mass together in the churn, and then it must be well drained before being worked and made up. With large quantities of butter, or in dairies where there are no conveniences for allowing the butter to drain for any length of time, it is advisable to use a de- laiteuse or butter dryer, in which the butter grains are deprived of excess of moisture by centrifugal force. To get the best results from using this machine, it is important that the butter is taken out of the churn while the grain is quite small and in good condition, and that the drying cylinder is not overloaded. Winter-made butter is often of a very pale colour, whereas there is seldom any difficulty in getting butter of a good colour in the spring and summer time. This suggests that the feeding of the cow has something to do with the colour of the butter, and certainly it is so, inasmuch as the milk obtained when the cows are living solely on fresh grass invari- ably, if the buttermaker is not at fault, gives nicely- coloured butter.
GARDENING GOSSIP. I (From" The Gardener.") I HCMEA ELEGANS should not be forced now, but kept gently moving all the winter, and good results next season are certain. SMALL baskets are very pretty on the table for dessert fruits, and the handles may be lightly dressed with autumn foliage if desired. BEITRRE D'AMANLIS is a nice, juicy Pear of good quality, but unless it is gathered directly it is fit the heavy fruits socn drop and are spoilt. W HElm fruit trees through constant snipping back have become unfruitful and cankered, try the effect of letting them have their head for a year or two, simply thinning the growth a little. To ensure buying good forms, Odontoglossum crispnm should be purchased in flower. CUPRESSUSES and Thujas usually transplant more safely in a large state than Austrian and similarly habited Pines. A LITTLE Cocoanut fibre may be placed over bulbs in pots before covering them with ashes, and the labels must also be allowed a couple of days to dry, or they will be illegible by the time the ashes are re- moved. THE Jersey Navet Turnip is proving a very useful root this season. THE Monthly Roses are fine subjects for keeping up a long-continued display or for cutting. A FINE GREENHOUSE CLIMBER. Amongst the most beautiful of all greenhouse climbers may be mentioned the old Tacsonia Van Volxemii. It has crimson flowers of great beauty, depending by a long string, very much like a Passion Flower, and bright green foliage. It flowers almost continuously when it becomes established, and it is always elegant. It is well adapted (" Q. Read writes) for a medium-sized greenhouse or & large conservatory, and it is one of the best of climbers for draping the roof of heated corridors. The Tac- sonias are not suited for pot culture, but should be planted out in a border corresponding with the size of the house or the space to be covered. The plants must be well drained, and the compost may consist of good loam, with sufficient sand to keep it open. During the winter the growths should be cut back freely, and any streamers suspended from the roof may be shortened to within one or two eyes of their base. Tacsonias should be freely syringed during the summer season, ample supplies of water must be given, and the border top-dressed with a little fresh soil in the spring. GREENHOUSE ORCHIDS. The greenhouse as usually understood is, perhaps, one of the worst possible places in which to grow Orchids, yet representatives of some trade growers persist in the silly notion that all cool house Orchids can be so grown. This or that species will grow well in an ordinary greenhouse, is a formula they are never tired of repeating, and inexperienced growers who buy the plants take them home only to see them eke out a miserable existence for a time, then get covered with insects, and finally die. I will ask readers (H. R. Richards remarks) just to take a common-sense view of the thing for themselves, and then form their own opinion. Say the plant is an Odontoglosilum of the crispum or Pescatorei section. These plants grow naturally in dense forests, where the atmosphere is almost always laden with moisture, and at a great altitude. Can it be expected that such a plant will thrive in a sunny house with a harsh, dry atmosphere, in company with Tomatoes and other crops that require totally different conditions ? To the amateur who shades his greenhouse and keeps it moist enough to grow Ferns and similar plants, I may say by all means grow a few cool Orchids. They will be a source of great pleasure and interest; but do not be led into spending money upon plants thac you have not convenience for, no matter what the traveller may say. CHRISTMAS ROSES IN POTS. Now is the best time (E. J. Castle says) to lift Christmas Roses, with a view to have a display of pure white blossoms during the dullest months of the year. Nobody possessing a few plants need be in the least afraid of trying their hands at forcing, for no plant yields more willingly to gentle pressure, and any place, even a sunny window in a dwelling-house, will supply its needs. The object at this time of year, when house room is precious, is to economise space as much as pos- sible, therefore do not over-pot, but carefully squeeze the roots into the smallest receptacle that will take them, and carefully fill up the interstices with soil. Lard or butter tubs, or small beer barrels sawn in half, make excellent receptacles for forcing the Christmas Rose, and it is really astonishing to see the number of blossoms a plant in such a contrivance will produce. As the flowers grown indoors are of the purest white, with good stalks and a capacity for retaining their beauty for three weeks when cut and placed in water, it does not require much argument to prove what a valuable addition they make to the cut flower repertoire. Helleborus niger angustifolius is the best to grow for indoor work, but all the numerous forms are useful; and providing they are liberally supplied with water, kept free from green fly, and not too quickly forced at first, success is practically as- sured. A succession to those grown in pots can be easily obtained by placing a frame or a few handlights over plants growing in the borders, as this will bring them on a little earlier, aud prevent the winter rains splashing mud over their white blossoms. An east border provides the best position for outdoor culture, and they should have a fairly stiff soil, with a good supply of water and a liberal mulching of manure during summer. Plants forced one year should be given a rest the following winter, while others take their places indoors. One winter's forcing, one winter's resting, should always be the rule, and then splendid results may be obtained. The Christmas Rose is a member of the Buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), and has two relatives which grow in our woodlands and hedgerows, and put forth their greenish yellow blossoms in early spring. These are H. viridis, the Green Hellebore, and H. fcetidus, .the Stinking Hellebore, both of which may be easily distinguished from other spring flowers by their large, leathery leaves. TO HIDE THE LEAFLESS STEMS OF WINDOW PLANTS. Araliaa and Indiarubber plants that have lost their lower leaves, and show a long, bare stem, can be made quite attractive by the aid of a few creeping plants. A root of Ivy planted near the stem, or a cutting or two of both green and coloured Tradescantia inserted close to the centre of the pot, will soon form a neat covering if trained to grow around the stem. Recently I saw an Aralia in a window, the stem of which was most effectively hidden by a rather strong- growing root of small-leaved Irish Ivy. It had been allowed to grow right up to where the leaves re- mained on the stem, and then the small branches had been permitted to hang down on each side in quite a natural manner. The whole was exceedingly pretty and attractive in appearance, the different shades of green of the Aralia and the Ivy contrasting very well. If around the sides of the pot one or two small Pteris Ferns can be planted, they will, in addition to hiding the soil in the pot, give to the whole a finished appearance. By the above means tall plants can be made to look well until spring, when the talles can be stem-rooted. The plants must not ba allowed to suffer for want of water, and they must be protected from frost. THE GOLDEN ROD. I Clumps of this old-fashioned plant are frequently seen in cottage gardens, where, at this time of the year, its wealth of golden blossoms is greatly appre- ciated. Though not to be recommended for beds or borders containing choice plants, yet an odd bit of ground or waste corner, where nothing flourishes, may well be planted with it.. Once planted it will look after itself, and yield quantities of its golden blossoms, which may be usefully employed where ei- tensive schemes ai decoration are carried out.
I A TELEPHONIC COMEDY. Dear Annabel," said Tom Macpherson "I am sure, as you say, that there is something more between your employer and mine than appears on the surface. Business may account for Miss Plugill's frequent visits to Mr. Mart; maiden ladies with large incomes do worry their lawyers regrettably-for their own pockets but even maiden ladies of wealth do not go to the length of having a private telephone wire between their own residence and the office of their solicitor, unless they wish to talk of something more than ordinary business. "Tom," sighed Annabel Sibley, "when Miss Prudence Plugill becomes Mrs. Mart she won't re- quire the services of a lady companion any more." "Then you really think that is going to happen ?" Straws show how the wind blows. Prim Miss Prudence has taken fright at her own daring. Pro- priety has whispered that her persistent visits to the lawyer's office will be truly construed by her inquisitive friends into love for the lawyer, and her fear of Mrs. Grundy has scared her to subterfuge and the tele- phone. Tom, dear, if Miss Prudence gets married, and I am out of a situation, where, unless I go miles away from this country town and you, shall I get another one T" Why, Annabel, we will just get married at once, and there you are But I have a contract with Miss Prudence that if I do not leave her, either to better myself or to get married, within ten years of the time of my appoint- ment, she will give me a bonus of iE5 a year. You see, she had been having companions at the rate of three a year, and was growing tired of changing so frequently. Of course, when I made the contract I bad no more thought of getting engaged to be married than I had of meeting you, Tom but as I have been with Miss Prudence for nearly seven years I see a prospective £35 bonus, and the prospect, to a homeless girl on the eve of matrimony, is an allur- ing one, Tommy. The thing is, how to make Miss Prudence hurry up and marry solicitor Mart and so release me and the P-35 bonus. Tom Macpherson, you're a solicitor's clerk solve the puzzle. And don't you think the puzzle will solve itself," warned Annabel. I know Miss Prudence pretty well by now, and I can assure you, Tom, that great as may be the desire of that elderly spinster to slip on the handcuffs of matrimony her fear at the ridi- cule of her friends and relations (especially those ex- pecting to benefit from her will) will override her desire, loves she old Mart never so wisely so unless something is done, Tommy, that projected marriage will end in smoke." We will both set our wits to work to prevent such a catastrophe," laughed Tom," and if anything occurs to you just ring me up on Miss Prudence's telephone any day between twelve and half-past. At that hour Mr. Mart invariably goes for a short con- stitutional, and I sit in state in his office. Dont forget! Any day between twelve and half-past." ? A clock on the mantel tinkled brightly. It was a quarter past twelve. Mr. Mart yawned drowsily. For the first time for many months he had been robbed of his midday con- stitutional, and the effect upon his mind and body was obvious. "I hope Macpherson will not be long," he yawned, I never have left the office to look after itself dur- ing hours; as sure as I do a client will call; but if Macpherson-yawn-does not soon return I shall— yawn-be compelled to Ah! Prudence tinkling at the telephone." Mr Mart's inertia vanished, and he was across the room with his mouth at the speaking tube in a moment. I am here," he gaily replied. "WhatiaitP" Is that you, Tom ?" Yes, dearest." This afternoon at three o'clock, I shall be in the Bracken Glade." Alone ?" Of course." Three o'clock in Bracken Glade. I'll be there, dearest." At the other end of the telephone wire Annabel Sibley nervously hung up the tube and skipped hastily from the room as Miss Prudence returned from her morning shopping, disappointed that she had not caught the usual glance of Mr. Thomas Mart on his constitutional. More than a glance (in pubic) and a sedate bow of recognition, Miss Prudence never dreamt of giving to her betrothed. Mr. Mart meanwhile rubbed his hands gleefully and marvelled at the unprecedented boldness of his modest Jtancie at making an appointment with him at so public a place (public insomuch as it was open to all comers, who were few and far between at that time of the year) as Bracken Glade, and indulged in the hope that it presaged greater publicity to their en- gagement and a possibility of an early union. We are neither of us what Macpherson would call I chicks, reflected Mr. Mart, "and every day wasted in single blessedness is a day lost to wedded bliss. I shall put the case clearly before Prudence this afternoon, and impress her with the necessity of-" I have returned, Mr. Mart. They kept me at the jourt till twenty past twelve." Very good, Macpherson, then I will go 'out at once. I have been yawning my head off for a breath of fresh air." Tom Macpherson, watching over the wire window blind, saw the solicitor disappear along the street; then he went to the private telephone. "From the old chap's manner Annabel hasn't telephoned," he muttered, which is rare luck." It was a strange misfortune that he should hare been sent out during the one half-hour of the day he could depend up on being alone in the office and on the very day after he had asked Annabel to telephone to him. He had been on thorns of anticipation ever since twelve o'clock had found him detained at the Sessions Court, and he had hastened back prepared to find that Annabel had telephoned to him and been answered and discovered by the solicitor. Which had actually occurred, with the notable exception of the discovery. It's late," he muttered, as he stood by the tele- phone, but I don't think Miss Prudence gets home from her morning walk till past one so here goes. I'll ring Annabel up and ask her to meet me this afternoon and hear the grand scheme I've evolved for hastening on Miss Prudence's wedding." The answer to his challenge came quickly. I am here, Tom, dear. What is it ?" Tom, dear!" Of course he was talking to Anna- bel. Did you ring me up between twelve and half past?" he inquired. No, love." That's all righc. You know the pretty glade in Bracken Woods ?" Yes." Meet me there this afternoon at-let me see, this is Wednesday; we close at two-say three sharp." "Alone ?" Of course." A short pause, then came the rather reluctant reply- Very well, dearest. I will be there." Perturbed with misgivings as to the propriety of the tryst (which resolved itself into fear of her meet- ing with Mr. Mart being witnessed by a third person) Miss Prudence left the telephone and went to lunch. Tom Macpherson took an exceedingly uninteresting legal volume from the shelves and-thought of Annabel and the pretty glade in Bracken Woods. The glade-some three parts of a mile from the town-was a small clearing in the thick woods where the bracken, now brown and drooping, grew in great luxuriance. In the centre of the glade stood a big oak tree, around the base of which ran a narrow, wooden seat. Several footpaths, intersecting the woods, gave on to the glade, and at a quarter before the appointed hour three figures circumspectly picked their ways along three separate paths towards the trysting place circumspectly, because the bracken and bramble, that clustered beside the footpaths and struggled across them, were sodden with autumn dews. Mr. Mart was the first of the three to sight the gladt, but while he stood at the edge of it intently regarding so much of the back that was visible of a still, small figure seated on the further side of the old oak tree. Miss Prudence also reached the edge of the glade, twenty yards further round, from which a side view of the fair occupant of the wooden seat was obtainable, and saw-Mr. Thomas Mart with his eyes riveted upon the back of her lady com- panion's head. Miss Prudence went cold with a terrible appre- hension, and receded a step in such a position that, seeing, she was yet unseen. Why did Mr. Mart cast such an aggressively affec- tionate stare at the back of her lady companion, un- Wa Mr. Mart had made the appomtment through the telephone. Had the solicitor thought he was speak- ing to Annabel Sibley ? Was that the real intent of the telephone's presence at her house, to enable the solicitor to carry on a flirtation with Annabel Sibley? and was his pretended affection for her merely a pretext for the presence of the telephone, a blind, a subterfuge ? Stealthily tiptoeing over the dead leaves and throught the dripping bracken in a direct line with the oak tree, against the other side of which leaned the objecive of Mr. Mart's catlike movements, stole the tall, angular, hard-featured man of law, while Miss Prudence translated his every thought with the bitterness of a woman suddenly awakened to the deceit of the being in whom she has reposed her trust. That the girl on the seat-the resemblance of whose figure to the slight outlines of her own did not once occur to Miss Prudence-remained in appa- rent unconsciousness of the lawyer's approach (even though she was reading) did not allay the watcher's suspicions one instant. It was, no doubt, part of young minx's studied affectation; in the eyes of the the base mankind who approached her, an added charm. Mr. Mart had reached the oak tree. Placing both hands for support against the broad trunk, that now quite concealed the uususpicioas little figure on the other side, he slowly bent the upper half of his body to one side of the oak, his eyes brimming over with the ardour of his youthful joke. Miss Prudence mastered herself for the inevitable climax, her teeth clenched, her hands wrung together in sympathy with her mental agony. Bo!" said Mr. Mart, with his beaming face craned around the oak tree. Annabel leapt to her feet. Why, Tom-" she cried; then she retreated a pace, dumb with astonishment. Miss Prudence liberated her feelings in an ear- splitting skriek and would have fallen to the earth if Tom Macpherson, who had witnessed the entire scene and was bursting with laughter, had not dashed forward and caught her. Feeling a young man's arms around her waist Miss Prudence scrambled out of her faint and stood erectly indignant. "Young man-" she began but the sound of Mr. Mart's blundering apologies stopped her. My dear young lady," he was saying to Annabel, pardon me, I beg. I give you my word of honour that I took you for Mks Prudence Plugill." At which Miss Prudence shrieked again for very modesty that her affectionate relations with Mr. Mart should thus be publicly exposed. But the ice was broken, and no amount of indigna- tion could mend it, so Miss Prudence bowed to the inevitable and, everything being explained and for- given, began to glory in what, hitherto, she had sup- pressed-the publicity of her engagement to the well- esteemed solicitor. Macpherson, I quite overlooked the fact that your name is Tom," said Mr. Mart. And I, sir, that yours is Thomas," replied Mac- pherson. I ohall soon get my bonus, Tom," joyfully ex- claimed Annabel when the two were alone and she did. She is now busily selecting her trousseau, Mrs. Thomas Mart superintending.
THE NEW CENTURY. I SPECIAL SERVICE IN ST. PAULS. Up to the present no definite movement has been set on foot for a general celebration of the commence- ment of the New Century. But in St. Paul's Cathe- dral, there will be a service arranged with distinct reference to the thankfulness with which we should regard the closing, and the hopefulness with which we may look forward to the opening, century. Dec. 3], next will not witness a revival of midnight devotions, but upon that day, at the hour of seven p.m., there will be religious observances appropriate to the occa- sion. Archdeacon Sinclair stated the other day that the details have still to be completed, but the solemn office will be of an impressive character, and there will be a'sermon by'a distinguished preacher, possibly the Bishop of St. Andrews. For the day following, at ten a.m., a special celebration of Holy Communion has been appointed. It may be mentioned here that a memorial service for our gallant soldiers and sailors who have fallen in South Africa is to take place, probably on Dec. 19, within the same walls. A like tribute was paid last December to the courage and patriotism of those who died earlier in the campaign, when the pathetic service was attended by the Lord Mayor, the Sheriffs, and other official notabilities. It is in- tended by the Cathedral authorities that the forth- coming memorial shall be of the same character as on that occasion. Whether or not the advent of the New Century will be specially marked at Westminster Abbey has so far not been decided. The venerable Dean, Dr. Bradley, courteously informed our representative, when ap- proached on the subject, that he had as yet not con- sidered the question. There were, he remarked, difficulties in the way of a watch-night service, and a celebration of that kind would not be in accordance with precedent at the Abbey.
LtJCK IN KLONDYKE. A family of poor Polish Jews, who in 1898 emi- grated via Liverpool, travelling steerage on the Gallia, have had the reward of their toil. After working on an unprospected piece of ground in the Klondyke for some time, they have struck an old river-bed, and are taking out gold to the value of E400 or P.500 a day by the primitive method of rocking." The lucky folk, whose name is Gunzberg, have refused an offer of F,50,000 for their property. There are other people in Klondyke who are not doing so well. The Indians along the Yukon are dying in great numbers. Prospectors have found whole villages depoputated. As for Dawson City, although the number of steamboats visiting here with merchandise is five times as many as last year, provisions are almost as dear. Potatoes are Is. per lb., sugar Is. per lb., butter 4s., milk 2s. per tin, and eggs 6s. per dozen. The barber still charges 2s. for a shave, 4s. for a hair-cut, and the same for a bath. The Canadian Government has at last ordered the gambling houses to close. It is quite a common sight to see several thousand dollars won or lost- generally lost-in an hour. One prominent official lost 0000 one night last week. The gambling saloons will be closed next spring.
"AGONY COLUMN" TRAGEDIES. Few foreigners are aware that the insertion of personals or agony column advertisements in Russian newspapers is strictly forbidden by law. This regulation has just led to a love tragedy in- volving the loss of two lives. The lovers were a Mme. Oskaia and an engineer named Finkelstein. Their romance lasted for a con- siderable time, until rumours reached Finkelstein which excited his jealousy. He picked a quarrel with Mme. Oskaia, which caused an immediate rupture, and the engineer left Russia to seek forget- fulness and quiet abroad. After rambling through various parts of Europe he began to feel the loss of the lady's society. Ac- cordingly he wrote to her asking her forgiveness and imploring her to let him know through the medium of one of the St. Petersburg dailies whether he would be allowed to return. The widow, who had equally regretted the rupture, went to the office of the Novoe Vremya and handed in an advertisement assuring Finkelstein of her forgiveness and asking him to telegraph his address. The advertisement, however, was curtly refused, and a few days after the unfortunate engineer, taking the silence of his beloved for a refusal, committed suicide at Nice. Unaware of the tragedy, Mme. Oskaia, after much effort, succeeded in getting the advertisement inserted but on the very day it appeared she heatd the news of her lover's death. Broken-hearted at this calamity, she also took her life by swallowing poison.
THERE was a period of over a 1000 years in the his- tory of this world when doors had no keyholes, and a citizen could be seen feeling all over the door with- out, exciting the least suspicion against his social standing. A LITTLE borax put in water in which scarlet napkins and red-bordered towels are to be washed will prevent them from fading. BRIGGS: "The doctors say I am suffering from a complication of diseases." Griggs: "How many of them have you seen?" II Seven." "The trouble with you is that, you are suffering from a complica- tion of docloii."
THE LONG PULL." f As the result of the abolition of the long pull in Birmingham, the trade at many tied houses in the city and district has declined to such an extent that one brewery firm is stated to have changed the management in no fawer than 32 of their houses, the complaint being that profits were unsatisfactory. On the other hand, the managers complain that with the abolition of the long pull the customers, finding there was no advantage to be gained by continuing their patronage, visit public-houses where the beer is more to their liking.
IMPENETRABLE ARMOUR. Some important experiments are being made at ITerr Krupp's works at Essen, Westphalis, with a new armour shield, which, it is claimed, is impene- trable. A new metal, lighter, and of softer con- sistency than steel, is joined, or soldered, to a plate of steel. Fired at with the two plates held firmly together by screws, or with the two metals soldered together, and the steel face turned to the attack, the missiles penetrated easily, making clean-cut holes. Fired at, however, with the two metals soldered together, but with the new metal turned to the attack, the missiles failed to do anything but spread and break themselves over the surface of the outside softer metal. Various distances were operated from without effect, the combination of metals being im- pregnable. The inventor of the amalgam is an Englishman, aud he has been occupied for years in bringing it to its present state of perfection, that has now proved it effective.
AGES OF CABINET MINISTERS. How does the new Cabinet compare (asks the Daily Chronicle) with the old in point of age ? Of the ancients Lord Cross, 77, and Mr. Goschen, 69, have retired, and of the younger men Mr. Chaplin, 60, and Sir M. White-Ridley, 58. There still remain three of 70 years or more. Lord Hals- bury, 75, Lord James of Hereford, 72, and Lord Salisbury, 70, and six who have turned three score. The Duke of Devonshire, 67, Mr. Chamberlain 64, Lord Ashbourne 63, Sir M. Hicks Beach, 63, Mr. Ritchie, 62, and Lord Cadogan, 60. Then there is an eleven" who may be regarded as comparative youngsters. Lord Lansdowne, Lord G. Hamilton, and Mr. Hanbury, all 55. Mr. A. J. Balfour, 52, Lord Balfour of Bur- leigh, 51, Mr. Akers-Douglas, 49, Lord Londonderry, 48, Mr. Gerald Balfour, 47, Mr. Long, 46, Mr. Brod- rick, 44, and Lord Selborne, 41. Thus of the five new members only one-Mr. Hanbury-is over 50, and Lord Selborne displaces Mr. Long as the baby of the Cabinet. The burden of years on the old Cabinet was 1168, giving them an average of just 61J. The new, in 2 spite of its enlargement, only totals 1139, or an average of 57. The holders of cabinet rank are now exactly divided between the two Houses, the recent changes having given the Lords an additional seat. When the average ages of the Peers and Commoners composing the Cabinet are compared the difference is very striking. The figure of the one is 60, and the other 53.
POTTO AT THE ZOO. A queer little beast has just arrived at the gardens of the Zoological Society of London from West Africa, and has been placed in the monkey-house. The potto, as this creature is called, is a nocturnal animal, with large round wondering eyes, no tail, and two pairs of hands, its feet being as good for climb- ing as its real hands. As it sleeps so much, one would imagine that it had become an adept at that gentle art; but no I The potto selects the most uncomfortable way imaginable of courting slumber. It attaches itself by both pairs of hands to a tree trunk or to the bars of a cage, and then converts the rest of its body into the nearest re- semblance to a ball that it can manage. The potto was made known to science so long ago as the year 1705. It is still not very well known.
A CELEBRATED MESMERIST. The death is announced at Paris of M. Alfred d'Hont, better known as Donato, once a celebrated mesmerist. Born in 1840, Donato was undoubtedly the precursor of the real or supposed developments of hypnotism and suggestion which occupy more than ever the worlds of spiritual research and scien- tific inquiry. His career was disturbed by conjugal troubles raised by Mme. d'Hont against the profes- sional intimacy of her husband with his medium, Mile. Lucille. Until recently Donato gave some startling hypnotic stances at Salpétrière, under the auspices of Charcot and other specialists of his school.
A MAN OF NO COUNTRY. Robbed of his nationality and disowned by the land of his birth, Christian Christiansson left Yar- mouth last week (says the JJaily Express) in his own vessel without the papers necessary to prevent his ship being summarily confiscated and he himself put in irons by the first man-of-war that hails him. Should anything of this sort happen him no nation will raise its voice upon his behalf, for, to use his own words, he is an outcast," a pariah among men, a man of no country. Christiansson a fortnight ago arrived in Yarmouth and bought the Alarm, a vessel formerly belonging to the now defunct Short Blue fleet, intending to refit her and convert her into a coasting trader. The new owner not being of British nationality Was, perforce, struck off the registers of this country, and subsequently, on Consular application for papers of registration under the flag of Sweden, of which he claims to be a subject, Christiansson made the startling discovery that neither he nor his ship can possess any nationality; both are pariahs. An Express representative met this unfortunate man on Yarmouth Quay-a sturdily-built man, dark complexioned, and with an intelligent, open face, upon which sunshine and storm had left their mark. In fluent English, and with that ingenuous air that characterises the man of travel, he told his story. He was born in Southern Sweden, and when a lad of 17 emigrated to New Zealand. He followed a seafaring life intermittently in the Far East for several years, during which time he obtained a master's certificate in the Norwegian merchant navy. Eventually, however, he settled down in the Colony, where he wooed fortune successfully. Naturalisation would have been comparatively aasy, but, as he had a desire to spend his latter days in the land of his birth, he neglected to take the necessary steps to become a subject of the Queen. He returned to Sweden after an absence of 21 years, and up to the present nothing has occurred to raise the question of his nationality. I am an outcast," he said bitterly. Sweden, the nountry of my birth-the land:of my fondest recollec- tions—will not own me. I am told I have been too long away. I could sail a Norwegian ship, and yet Norway refuses to recognise me as a subject, although she shows me more consideration than Sweden. "Yes. I'could be a subject of England—and proud I should be-but they tell me it means many for- malities and much money. "I had bought a cargo of herrings to freight my ship, as I expected no difficulty in registry, but as I belong to no country, nobody will grant me the necessary certificates of ownership that must be produced by all merchant ships clearing from any port for foreign parts; and I have been compelled to sell the cargo at a big loss. "I have been to London, where your Customs officials were very kind to me, but they could not help me. Every course shows breakers ahead. My only way to legally leave England is to sail as a fishing-boat, when I need not clear; and I have de- cided to do this, shaping a course for Norway, and, risking a challenge for my papers by a man-of-war, throw myself on the mercy of the Norwegian Govornment.1 It will be interesting to watch what treatment will be meted out to this victim of extraordinary expatria- tion in the Land of the Midnight Sun.
ON reading Count Waldersee's dispatches detailing the doings of Major Graham's" column, one must not be misled by the name into thinking that the German Field-Marshal is referring to the opera- tions of any British contingent under his command. For Major Graham, though a Scot by origin, as his name implies, is a Prussian by adoption, and commenced his military career as a lieutenant in the 4th Foot Guards at Spandau, having received his commission from the old Emperor; and owing to his knowledge of English, in addition to his fine soldierly qualities, he was by the present Kaiser posted to the command of the 1st East Asian Battalion of Infantry for service in China.
"m .c THE WOMAN'S WORLD. HALF an ounce of glycerine and half an ounce of olive-oil mixed is excellent for chapped hands. PINCHING the ears till they tingle and glow will fre- quently prevent the nose getting red. WHEN removing grease stains with benzine, always rub towards the centre of the spot to prevent it spreading. FoR the complexion bathe the face occasionally in camel borax and hot water. Camphor is too severe. IT is of the greatest importance that mothers should realise how delicate babies are, and that their brains are as undeveloped as their bodies. For the first few months a baby's life should be that of a little animal merely, and it should be spent as much as possible in sleep. To eat and to sleep form the business of the baby's life, and the careful mother will see that he is fed with the greatest care, and that nothing interferes with his proper rest. If she be wise she will not let her little child be woke up from his sleep to see even the most important and importunate of visitors, and as for waking him just because he is so sweet, and she wants to see him smile, why, she will scorn the very idea. FEATHER beds should be shaken every day, and turned let the bedroom window be wide open while you perform this operation; turn mattresses once every three weeks-not later than once a month. MARRIAGE means the gaining of freedom, the direction of a household, the spending of an income, the maintenance of a position, the life of enjoyment, the change from a position of comparative insignifi- cance to one of authority-ay, and more than that. It is the fruition of life. and not until the plant has reached maturity should there be blossom and fruit. The time in the home, the growth and development at the school and at college and in society, these are the preparation. Then comes the blossom when the receptant period has become productive, when from being a learner one becomes an actor, when one takes up life for herself and realises the responsibilities of existence. This is the period before which one should not marry, but after which, if she so wishes, she may do so safely and happily. For what is marriage ? A linking of two lives for good or evil, a conscious and continuous exercise of influence upward or downward, and if the heritage of children is theirs, the instilling of principles and the formation of character which will bear fruit in the ages to come. Mucn of the beauty of English women lies in their proud carriage, the delicate erectness of their figures, and the fine poise of their heads. The aristocratic carriage is within the reach of any girl who takes the pains to have it; it is only the question of a few years of vigilance, never relaxing her watchfulness over herself; and, sitting or standing, always pre- serving her erectness and pose, the result being that at the end of that time it has become second nature to her, and she never afterwards loses it. This in a great measure preserves the figure, because it keeps the muscles firm and well strung, and prevents the sinking down of the flesh around the waist and hips so common in women over 30, and which is perfectly easy to escape. Another thing to avoid is a bad habit of going upstairs, which most women do bent forward, with the chest contracted, which, as well as an indolent, slouchy manner of walking, is injurious to the heart and lungs. IF you have to have anyone to help you with your children, be very careful to choose someone who speaks without accent" and nicely, is healthy, and who has nice personal habits. Never find fault with her or reprove her before the children. You cannot expect her to have authority over them or them to respect her if you do. Watch the children's manners with her very carefully; if they appear in the least over shy or frightened by her, be sure, however plausible and kind she is before you, there is something wrong. Children will suffer much and long from roughness and cruelty and never make a complaint. A PRETTY table decoration fancy is to place before each guest a tiny silver, china or glass basket filled with flowers. Mirrors are also used for table contre surrounded by flowers and plates of dubinty sweets. A CORK or rubber mat shonld be kept in every bathroom. Woollen mats are useless. They absorb the moisture and become unhygienic. A place should be found on the wall for a mirror-a plain one with a black frame will answer the purpose admirably: the longer it is the better, and it should be placed where there is a good light. Two wire trays should also be fastened to the wall beside the bath, and low enough to be within easy reach of the person using it. These are to hold the sponge and flannel and soap when not in use during the bath. Also shelves should be made and placed upon the walls of every bathroom. These may be of plain deal, enamelled any colour that is liked. Upon them may be placed cold cream, shaving soap, a bottle of ammonia, pumice stone, and all the little accessories used in the toilet. Plenty of soap should always be pro- vided, and towels in abundance, and with all these little comforts the daily bath will be indeed an un- mixed pleasure. THE woman who is pretty usually avoids extremes of all sorts, takes care of her health, wears becom- ing gowns—and then she is. HERE are some of the chief characteristics of the haadgear for the coming winter: Gold and silver braid, ribbon, cord or thread embroidery. Pale hued cloths and felts. Shapes turned back from the face, to show the hair. Ostrich plumes and tips. Velvet flowers. Lace, embroidered with chenille, pearls, and other jewels. Tissues, embroidered with gold and silver. Taffetas and satin, as well as velvet, for hat- making and trimming. A PRETTY boudoir is finished on a pale blue ground having old tapestry effects, with the patterns worked out to resemble puffed silk, the depressions shaded down in self tones of blue and bringing out the high lights with the richness of actual upholstery. With this treatment there should be no attempt at ceiling decoration or frieze, the wall being pannelled simply and the ceiling finished in a plain ground tint. THE bolero coat of velvet and the skirt of very light cloth has (says the London Journal) caught on, and one of the most striking costumes seen this week shows a skirt of pale blue cloth with a velvet bolero that combines an Eton and blouse effect. The large flaring collar and three revers are faced with gold thread brocade, and across the front the little jacket of velvet is slashed to show the gold vest beneath. The stylish woman for whom this has been made is most lavish in her display of artificial flowers on her new evening gowns. The flowers are of the huge style that denotes the latest arrivals, and they trail down the left side, and almost invariably turn off towards the train at the back. How flat or bunchy these floral decorations should be is left to every individual figure to decide. DON'T make any giggling remarks about being so nervous Either control your nerves or don't play. Pause a moment ere beginning a piece to recollect the key, time, and the composer's meaning. Don't loftily pass by the marks of expression and adopt your own. Probably those intended af better than any original effort. If you are asked to play, and can do so in a moderately pleasing manner, comply at once witnoufc waiting to be implored. pable of being Never essay anything you are not capable or being able to perform correctly. -n « j Learn both parts of a duet—yo« J, many people prefer to play base or treble, as the case may be. t I Sit up straight on your music-stool and don't wriggle.. Should anyone be about to sing and you know you can accompany them, offer to do so in an unaffected W&Be sure and take off your bangles before beginning Lo play, and see your music is safely settled on the Suit your music to the audience. Don't disdain dances because'your own taste is all for the classics— you want to please. An injudicious use of the loud pedal is a common and most distressful fault. Unless otherwise marked, the pedal must be at rest at the end of each bar.