FIELD AJN1) FARM. (From" The Agricultural Gazette.") WHEAT. The plant is less vigorous than last year, and straw will be both shorter and thinner on the ground. The yield, according to straw, may, however (remarks Professor John Wrightson, in his seasonable notes), easily be better, as the blooming or flowering season is very favourable. A g )od rain during shooting is always beneficial, especially if quiet, and accompanied with genial warmth, and not too clear nights. Seldom have wheat ears appeared brighter and better formed. If the setting is as good as the conditions appear to warrant us in expecting, the yield from the machine may be very good. SPRING CORN I find patchy, full of charlock, and in general inferior to last year. Some of the oats would be as well cut with the charlock, and converted into fodder before harvest. So far as feed in concerned there would be little loss, as oat hay is a good fodder, and the land, being early cleared, could be sown with mustard or even late turnips. ROOT CROPS. The prospects for all root crops is excellent, so far as I can judge, owing to timely rains. Last year, and in fact, for some years past, we enjoyed a better season for corn than for roots; but this year we must hope that the general result will be assisted by good root crops and better grazing on pastures. The price of sheep will probably advance if we have more rain. The later grass crops will also benefit. At the pre- sent moment an overcast sky and the rich notes of thrushes and blackbirds singing gaily outside the window seem to indicate a further fall, and, as the clover hay is almost all well secured we may hope for the fulfilment of these anticipations. Summer rain ts often disappointing. It threatens to fall and clears away it rains, and just as we are beginning to rejoice it stops suddenly, and droughty conditions again prevail. LAST YEAR'S WHEAT CROP. Having now completed threshing, I can report a good all-round crop, averaging 40 bushels all round. The poorer land, owing to close folding, produced as much as the richer land. It all yielded from one or two sacks more than it was valued at before harvest, and this is some consolation against the extremely bad prices. THE CONDITION OF AGRICULTURE. The Morning Post has published particulars of an interview which its representative had with Sir J. B. Lawes. Besides his connection since 1843 with the famous Rothamsted experiments, Sir John Lawes has had 65 years' experience of practical agriculture, so that for the better part of a lifetime he may be said to have actually combined "practice with science." The chief result of the interview is to show that with the almost unique knowledge of the farm- ing industry which he possesses, Sir John Lawes is able to controvert decidedly those persons who are now asserting that farming has at length reached such a pass as to be threatened with extinction. Nor does he rely upon any new and universal panacea for imparting new life into the industry, and restor- ing it to the position it once occupied. A return to protection he regards as undesirable as well as impossible, and he is sure that the remedy does not lie in what is called higher cultivation." In many instances," he says, agriculturists have farmed quite as high as they dare, and some of them are finding it out. It must be obvious, I think, to anyone that increased crops cannot meet the root of the evil-lower prices." The pro- blem of the labourer and his relation to the land Sir J. B. Lawes regards as one of the most serious in the whole agricultural situation, and he believes that the provision of allotments has done very little to keep the labourers in the rural districts. The older men, of course, appreciate them, but to the younger ones, especially those of them who have been smart at school, a pastoral life presents no attractions. Sir John himself has let off freely, yet the migration town wards goes on unchecked. He confesses he knows of no remedy. Sir John admits that some good may be achieved by co-operation among farmers, partiu'arly in the matter of the collection of their produce and its transit to the consuming centres. Milk, cheese, eggs, poultry, vegetables, and so forth, might be made to yield a better return under the application of co-operative principles. But on the whole the only means of alleviating the pre- sent condition of things lies in a policy of greater alertness, and of increased adaptability to special con- ditions and circumstances. RUSSIAN FOWLS. There is (observes Mona") a breed of fowls known as the Black Russians, which are bred to some extent in the United States of America. Very seldom, however, have any like them been seen in England, though there is no doubt that fowls of a somewhat similar character are to be met with in the east of Europe. It has been stated that those found across the Atlantic have been simply manufactured, and the name Russian given to them for want of a better. This may or may not be so, but if it is the producer has come remarkably near the real Russian. In other quarters the origin of the breed is attributed to the Cossacks of Central or Southern Russia. In plumage they are of a glossy green black, very thickly feathered, especially about the head and neck. The comb is double or rose, fitting close to the head, and small wattles nearly hidden by the beard. The breast and body are full and deep, the skin yellow, and the legs dark lead colour, shading to yellow. These Russian fowls endure rigorous winter weather, and the hens are stated to be the best winter layers of all domestic poultry, as well as good mothers. They are of medium size, weighing from six to eight pound, and excellent table fowls, with a Ole very pleasing carriage. SILKIES. The peculiarity of the silky fowl is that the feathers do not web, and have a loose, soft, silky appearance, more like hair than feathers. They are gentle, and especially suitable for ladies' pets, make admirable mothers, and are content with modest quarters in respect to size of run. They partake largely of the Cochin character in shape of body, and that variety is to some extent liable to silky feathering. Silkies should be quite white, with a nice globular crest, have five claws, feathers on the legs, but no sign of vulture hocks, and a short tail. The combs are small, round, and knobby, and black or purple in colour, with turquoise blue ear-lobes. They are good layers, and the flesh is of excellent eating, but being of a deep violet colour the birds have a dirty appearance on the table when cooked, and consequently they cannot be sold as table fowls. But for a natural prejudice against flesh of this colour they would be regarded as good for the table. SULTANS. Another variety of fowls often seen at shows is the Sultan, which comes from Turkey, and is there known under a name of which the English cognomen is the literal translation. It is nearly 40 years since specimens were first brought to this country, and though never very numerous, they are always to be found. They are abont the size of the Polish fowl, and evidently of the same family, but are perfectly white in plumage, and have far more profuse feather- ing. Their crest is large, and the beard flowing. Unlike the Polish the legs are feathered, and they have very heavy vulture hocks. In fact, there is no other fowl so extensively furnished as is the Sultan, and good specimens are handsome indeed. They are capital layers and very docile, do not sit, but require well kept grass, or the foot-feather becomes bad, which soon spoils their appearance. YOKOHAMA FOWLS. This is the name given in this country to various fong-tailed Japanese fowls which have been im- ported during recent years, but they are sometimes known as Phoenix. The proper names by which they are known in their own country are Shinowara- tao and Shirifuzi. The great peculiarity is in the long tails, which trail far behind them, and when ex- hibited they require double cages. It has been stated that in Japan these tails only moult once in three years, and that they have been known to grow to the length of 17ft. The birds are kept in cages high and narrow, and sit on a perch covered with straw rope, without room to turn round or get down. The food and water are placed at either side of the perch, and they are carefully lifted down three times daily for a little exercise. It is only by this treatment that the tails can be obtained to the length named. They are very handsome, and, of course, in this country can only be kept by the few. SOIL TEMPERATURE. At a recent meeting of the Royal Meteorological Society, at the Iastitution of Civil Engineers, West- minster, Mr. H. Mellish, F.R.Met.Soc., read a paper on I; Soil Temperature," in which he discussed the observations from the thermometers at various depths in the- noil -which feave been made at the stations o the Koyal Meteorological Society. It appears that in nearly all cases the annual temperature of the soil at a depth of 1ft. is slightly higher than that of the air. In winter time the air and the soil at lft. have about the same temperature, the soil being often a little warmer till about the end of January, after which, for the next two months, the air has a small advantage; but in the summer mouths the soil at lft. is generally warmer than the air, the difference exceeding 3deg. at several stations. Mr. Mellish shows that on the mean for the year the light soils are Ideg. warmer than the air, while the strong ones are only 0'2deg. warmer and he is of opinion that near the surface we may expect to find wider extremes of temperature in light soils than in strong ones, but that the heavier soils are better conductors of heat, and that conse- quently the extremes are propagated to greater depths in heavy soils than in light, ones.
I GARDENING GOSSIP. I (From "Gardening Illustrated.") I CONSERVATORY. Climbers in a roomy house should (Mr. E. Hobday says) be a special feature. Tacsonias are lovely now. Jasminum grandiflorum, Plumbago capensis, Sol- anum jasminoides, Sollya heterophylla, Rhyncos- permum jasminoides, Mandevillea suaveolens are all beautiful climbing plants, and are now, or will be shortly, wreathed with blossoms. The variegated variety of Cobsea scandens has beautiful foliage, and is well adapted for a cool-house, where there is room for the young shoots to hang and festoon about. Room also may be found for Fuchsias, Tea and Noisette Roses, Ivy-leaved Geraniums," Heliotropes, and the double Scarlet Geraniums." Raspail Im- proved are bright things on walls or pillars, and will furnish abundance of flowers for cutting. A good deal may be done with baskets. Achimenes, Tro- paolum Coolgardie (beautiful golden blossoms), Ivy Geraniums," Petunias, Lobelias, Harrison's Musk, Sedttm carneum variegatum, will make a nice selection for basket work, with Ferns for shady corners. One of the best Ferns for a basket at this season is Nephrolepis exaltata. Phle- bodium aureum is a good companion for it. Both should be started in a warm-house i nd moved to the conservatory for the summer when well established. Many plants which require heat in winter will do in the conservatory now. Bougainvillea glabra, that was at. one time regarded as a warm-house climber, will do well in the conservatory. In making borders for climbers the drainage must be right, as plants will not thrive if there is any stagnation at the roots. Most plants will grow and flower well in good yellow loam, enriched a little with leaf-mould, with all the bits of stick, Beech Nut husks, and everything likely to breed fungus sifted out of it. Water- ing now requires careful attention. Every plant when dry must have a thorough soaking, a-id it will be necessary to look over pot plants twice during the twenty four hours. The evening is a good time for watering, as then the con- dition of the plants can be better ascertained. But during such dry weather as the present a plant watered in the evening will require it again before mid-day on the day following. No glass-house ex- cept the warm stove) should be altogether closed in very hot weather, and shade either from climbers or something on the glass is absolutely necessary, if the foliage and blossoms are to be kept in good condi- tion. Hard-wooded plants may be taken to a coal- ash bed in a sheltered spot outside, and besides care- ful watering, must be syringed twice a day. This refers chiefly to plants which have completed their growth. STOVE. I Acalypha Sanderiana reminds one of the old- fashioned border annual Love-lies-bleeding. It is distinct from most warm-house plants, and will do in the conservatory in summer. I do not think it will make an ideal market plant, but as it is easily propagated we shall soon know if there is money in it for the market grower. Caladium argyrites is a charming little plant for table decoration, and will last well in the rooms. Cyperus alternifolius varie- gatus is a light and elegant table plant, and if it only came true from seeds there would be a run upon it. Coleusis seem to have gone out of fashion, but they are useful for those who cannot grow better things. To get colour in the foliage they must be grown in strong light. Himantophyllums, or Clivias, as they used to be called, are among the most useful plants for the small grower, as they are very accomodating as regards temperature, and when old make grand specimens in tubs or large pots. Shade must be used now, but as far as possible I regard shade to glass- houses as a necessary :evil, to be dispensed with as much M possible. RENOVATING OLD VINES. I There are cases where it pays to renovate old Vines instead of rooting them out and planting young ones. If an old Vine is healthy then mere age should not be used as an argument against its retention. If en- couraged to gradually renew itself by making new rods, cutting away the old rods as the young ones ex- tend, there is no reason why, if judiciously supported and nourished, a Vine should be worn out at thirty years. I am inclined to think that Vines with roots altogether inside wear out sooner than when they have a healthy root-run] outside in addition to the border inside, I always find the advantage of mulch- ing the inside as well as the outside border with some- thing good to encourage the surface roots, especially before the hot weather sets in. FRUIT GARDEN. I In many gardens the fruit crop will be a thin one if we except bush fruits, which are fairly plentiful. Strawberries are later than usual, and the drought is telling upon them. Of course small patches may be watered, but on a large scale irrigation becomes expensive when hand labour has to do the work. But irrigation is the simplest thing possible where the supply is plentiful, and elevated sufficiently to distribute itself. The expense of running a few iron pipes about a place is not great, with taps at suitable intervals to which a hose can be attached. When fruit-trees are grown in the garden round the edges of the vegetable quarters do not plant anything nearer than 4ft. of the stems, and keep the spade that distance away. Stone fruits should have a firm root run, but the roots should be well nourished. A tree that is making luxuriant growth does not want manure, but when the right season comes round (October) check the roots. It is the free bearing :tree that should be manured, and always on the surface. Peach-trees may be pruned any time, so far as the removal of useful wood is con- cerned. There are naked branches which are no good to the tree, and would be better removed. This is specially true of trees in pots. VEGETABLE GARDEN. I Discontinue the cutting of Asparagus and dress the beds with artificial manure, to be watered in, unless there is a liquid-manure tank available. Sow Parsley and Horn Carrots for winter use. Sow second early Peas. Scarlet Runners may be planted for a late and Horn Carrots for winter use. Sow second early Peas. Scarlet Runners may be planted for a late crop. Plant Broccoli and other winter Greens as fast as ground becomes vacant. Keep the hoe going con stantly in fine weather. Transplant Beet if more is required, and thin seedlings to nine or ten inches. An early kind of French Bean should be sown in preference to a late one now. Draw a little earth up to the stems of Beans, Peas, and all green crops of the Cabbage tribe. Sow main crop of Turnips. If the weather continues dry, soak the drills with liquid-manure, and sow the seeds on the damp soil. Look over Cucumbers and Tomatoes often under glass to stop and regulate the growth. Any Tomato plants not yet planted should go out at once-every day's delay now acts prejudicially. Things are later than usual this season, and every encouragement should be given to the Tomato crop. An occasional dose of liquid-manure and a forkful of mulch will add to the strength and consequent productiveness. Make up Mushroom-bed behind a north wall. Plant plenty of Celery. Sow Endive ¡ and Lettuces. I A. caOICII PINK Dianthus callizonum is among the choicest of the Pinks, and worth special care to make it a success. In point of size it may be compared with the more tufted D. alpinus or D. neglectus when these are of large size, and of richer colour than either. The large solitary blossoms, however, are produced on leafy stems that are 3in. or 4in. long, the tuft of leaves decidedly more spreading than in the other kinds named. A patch of this covered with its hand- some flowers would form a charming picture, and joining as a close succession to other species invests it with additional value.
THE body of Charles Cooper, a hosiery hand, who disappeared from his home at Market Harborough, has been found in the canal. Cooper had lost his employment, and is believed to have committed suicide.
THE AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS ACT. PROPOSED AMENDMENTS. I A deputation has waited on Mr. Long, President of the Board of Agriculture, from the Central Chamber of Agriculture, for the purpose of urging the introduction during the present session of a bill to amend the Agricultural Holdings Act. The depu- tation consisted of 53 delegates, representing not only the Central Chamber, but local chambers throughout the country. Mr. A. F, Jeffreys, M.P., introduced the deputa- tion, explaining that it came there in consequence of a resolution passed by the Central Chamber. About 30 chambers were represented. They did not wish any great change in the Act, but a simplification of its provisions. He alluded to the beneficial effects of the Diseases of Animals Act. Mr. W. Lipscomb (Yorkshire) reviewed the legis- tion of the subject. The present Act had failed from the ignorance of those who administered it. He handed the president a report made by the Special Committee of the Chamber, and suggested that the amendments should take the lines of that report. Mr. Channing, M.P., said the Act should define more clearly the rights of landlords and tenants as regards tenants' improvements. The change in methods of agriculture also made it necessary that amendments should be affected. He suggested that the bill should be introduced early, so that agricul- turists could fully discuss it. Mr. Clare Sewell Read (East Anglia) said they did not expect the bill to pass this year it would be suffi- cient if it were introduced. Mr. C. Middleton (Yorks Cleveland), Mr. W. W. Berry (Kent), and Mr. S. Kidner (West Country), also spoke. Mr. Long, in reply, said he was glad to hear the health of the country was so good, and that the measure which had brought that about was so much appreciated. The difficulties which had faced them had occurred in other countries, and had been there found insuperable, but these had been removed in this country, and he believed permanently removed. As a rale, a Minister could feel nothing but gratitude when', a Deputation came to him to strengthen his hands. On the present occasion his satisfaction was very much tempered, because of their recommendation being limited in its effect to the introduction of a bill that session. A large number of members of Parlia- ment believed that would be fatal to the bill, and, though favourable to the proposed legislation, did not agree that the bill should be introduced at this late period of the session. The work of the Government was carried on by agreement among the Ministers, who arranged what legislation should be proceeded with. He was doing his best for agriculture, and he challenged them to point to a Government which had done more for agriculture than the present one in the last four years. He was, there- fore, a little disappointed in regard to some of the expressions which had been used. They had, however, exercised their discretion in press- ing that on him. They wished, in the first place, that there should be legislation to amend the Agricultural Holdings Act, and next that it should be introduced this session. He must say that he had never made a speech dealing with the general subject of agriculture without stating, in the most precise and definite terms that he knew how to command, that it was the intention of the Government to deal with that question, and that he had studied it and had a bill ready to be introduced. When he found speakers doubting if such statements had been made, it made him feel that no explicit terms were enough. He could not be more explicit than he had been already. He had long been familiar with the admir- able report which had been handed to him that day. They had studied and digested it and appreciated its great value. They would deal with the whole ques- tion shortly, and, they hoped, in such a fashion as to render further legislation unnecessary. He did not think that more criticism was needed than they already had in the Chamber's Report. He had believed that agiculturists were inclined to be pessi- mistic, but there was no sign of that in their sugges- tion that the bill would be a non-controversial mea- sure. There was no subject which was likely to be so controversial as any question of land tenure. He felt that the fault in the existing Act was due to the methods by which it was applied rather than to any failings in the Act itself. There were, however, faults which did require removing, and the Act gene- ratly brought up to the modified condition of things. But he could not see his way to introduce the bill this 'session, as it would only lead to useless contro- versy. He considered his colleagues and he were pledged to deal with that question, and he hoped to do so next session. If they had not already dealt with it, it was because they considered other matters should come first.
SIR EDWARD HULSE'S WILL. I The will of Sir Edward Hulse, of 47, Portland- place, London, and of Briemore House, near Salis- bury, who died on June 11 last, aged 90 years, has been proved. The testator made no further provi- sion for his eldest son, Sir Edward Henry Hulse,who is otherwise well provided for, but he bequeathed the family diamonds to be held upon the same trusts as if they had been included with other heirlooms in a deed of settlement made between himself and his son and Sir Edward Levy Lawson. The will also states. In order to enable my wife to make any memorial or other presents or gifts to any persons she may think fit, and to or for the benefit of any mission churches or charitable or religious societies or institutions with or in which I shall be or have been connected or interested, but without in any way fettering her discretion or imposing upon her any enforceable trust or obligation, I give to her the power to appoint by deed or will, out of my residuary trust estate, to any person or persons, including herself, any sum or sums not exceeding in the whole £ 10,000, but I direct that, unless my wife shall otherwise direct, no such appointed sum shall be paid until the sums directed to be primarily raised after her death out of my residuary trust estate for the benefit of my four younger children shall have been paid in full." The testator ordered that after the death of Lady Hulse the trustees should raise for his son, Major Charles Westrow Hulse, 420,000; for his son Hamilton John, £ 50,000; and for his two daughters, E25,000 each; and that further sums of E50,000 each should then be raised for his said two sons, and that the ultimate residue should be in trust for two of his sons and his two daughters. The whole of the late Sir Edward Hulse's estate has been valued for probate at E1428 9s. lid.
WASTE OF BREAD BY SOLDIEPS. In drawing attention to the terrible waste of bread that is so prevalent not only at Aldershot but else- where, Sir Redvers Buller has put (remarks a con- temporary) his finger on a crying evil. The Army and Navy Gazette, writing on this subject, points out that the evil is one which experience shows is very difficult to remedy. If Sir Redvers Buller, says our "Service" contemporary, can solve the problem he will have accomplished a great reform, but dining- rooms on the ground floor and near the cook-house seem to offer the best chance of success. The secret ties in the power to prevent more bread from reach- ing the hands of any man than the quantity that he actually can eat at the time.
POSTPONEMENT OF A ROYAL I WEDDING. The Berlin correspondent of the Standard men- tions a rumour that the marriage of the Crown Prince of Montenegro and the Duchess Jutta of Mecklenburg-Strelitz will be postponed, owing to the delicate health of the Prince, who was ill two years ago, and, after a serious operation, has only partially recovered. He recently consulted a Vienna phy- iician, who prescribes a systematic and rigid treat- ment before his marriage.
TnE tomb of Lunalilo, the" Barefoot King of Hawaii," was recently opened, and it was found that the remains bad been removed, and that the metal casket contained only portions of the grave-clothes. GREAT BRITAIN is reported to be at present abso- lutely free from cattle disease of every kind. Not for .,years have the cattle of the kingdom presented so clea-a a bill of health. A CHTJJTCH parade of Kent cyclists will take place at Canterbury Cathedral on Sunday, July 16, when there will be a service, at which Dean Farrar, him- self the president of the Cantuar Cycling Club, will preach. Cyclists are to be allowed to stable their jaMAinM in the cloisters for the occasion.
A FIGHT THAT FAILED. General Sir Redvers Buller, V.C., is maintaining the best traditions of Aldershot camp. There is un- remitting and thorough training for officers and men, and no glossing over blunders that might have been avoided by a display of alertness and good judg. ment. The headquarters' remarks on field opera- tions are usually valuable contributions to the litera. ture of military criticism on tactics and strategy. On Friday of last week there was an important lesson set two opposing forces, Northern T. Southern, near the Tunnel-hill. The Northern general was ordered to ensure the safety of an important convoy" to be despatched via Frimley-green and Pirbright to Woking. It was to be protected by cavalry, guns, and infantry. The Northern Commander was further informed that the convoy, represented by 16 Government service wagons, would occupy one mile of road, and that the enemy were somewhere near Normandy, a village not far from Tunnel-hill. As for the Southern leader, with a squadron of cavalry, a battery, and five batta- lions of infantry, he was directed to intercept and if possible capture the convoy. The experience sought to be gained was valuable, but the result was "a fight that failed." The mistakes are clearly set forth in Sir Redvers' remarks On both sides there was infirmity of purpose. In the case of the Northern force the bulk of the in- fantry were kept with the convoy, instead of being on high ground on the exposed flank, where they could most effectually have protected the convoy during its passage through the defile. In the case of the Southern force there was a want of determination in the advance, and no defi- nite objective. Had the infantry, which were checked in the wood just south of Tunnel-hill, been properly supported, three-quarters of an hour would have been gained time was the chief factor in the opera- tion. When support did arrive it did not move to the best tactical situation for effecting the objects. The disposition of the Woking force was good, and the guns were well placed but the infantry might have been handled with more energy, so as to divert the enemy from advancing towards the con- voy."
OPERATIONS ON SALISBURY PLAIN. The military operations at the Bulford and Per- ham Down Camps assumed a much more important character on Monday, when the militia forces under canvas were augmented by the arrival of the regular infantry. In consequence (says a Times correspon- dent) there was again a busy time at Ludgershall and Porton railway stations, where the eight regiments arrived by eight special trains over the London and South-Western and the Midland and South-Western Junction Railways. At Porton the first came from Brookwood conveying 15 officers, 418 men, eight horses, one gun, and two wagons of the 3rd Coldstream Guards. Next arrived 17 officers, 493 men, and three horses of the Royal Marine Light Infantry from Gosport; while a little later came 23 officers, 828 men, nine horses, one gun, and two wagons of the 1st Royal Berks Regt. from Portsmouth. Later in the day a fourth special, from Shorncliffe, arrived with 17 officers, 667 men, 10 horses, one gun, and two wagons of the 2nd Dorset Regt. At Ludgershall the first special to arrive was one con- veying 21 officers, 743 men, nine horses, one gun, and two wagons of the 1st West Riding Regt., these coming from Dover. Then came, from Chatham, 19 officers, 502 men, 10 horses, one gun, and two wagons of the 2nd Scots Guards while just after midday there arrived from Devonport 18 officers, 577 men, 10 horses, one gun, and two wagons of the Highland Light Infantry. Lastly followed 21 officers, 762 men, eight horses, one gun, and two wagons of the 1st Suffolk Regiment, these coming from Dover. Thus, Major-General Sir W. F. Gatacre's second division of infantry at Bulford has been increased by considerably over 2000 regulars, and Major-General Sir H. M. A. Rundle's first infantry division at Perham Down by over 2500.
AN ARTIST'S WILL. A question under the will of the late Mr. Edward Armitage, R.A., was before the First Court of Appeal, on Monday, at the instance of the Artist's General Benevolent Society. Mrs. Armitage having left £10,000 to this institution, the trustees of her husband's will did not propose to make any further gift, and Mr. Justice Kekewich supported that view. The Society, however, contended that regard must be bad to the declaration of the testator, when he left E10,000 for distribution among charitable institutions or hospitals, that the Con- sumption Hospital at Ventnor, and the Artists' General Benevolent Society should benefit more largely. The Court reversed the decision of Mr. Justice Kekewich, holding that the two institutions must not be left out of the distribution, and that each must have something more than any other in- stitution.
AUTHORS' CLUB, Sir Evelyn Wood was a guest on Monday night at a dinner of the Authors' Club in London, and, re- plying to the toast of his health, he alluded to war correspondents, who, he said, were as intrepid as they were able, brave, and conscientious, and deserv- ing of the highest admiration. He expressed his per- sonal preference for civilian rather than soldier cor- respondents as being more impartial, and urged that the commander of a force must have a free hand in dealing with war correspondents wherever there should be any necessity for him to resort to drastic measures, though he believed the occasion for the exercise of such a power would seldom arise.
MELODRAMA AND REALISM. I During the performance of the drama "When London Sleeps," at the Broadway Theatre, Deptford, on Monday night, an unrehearsed incident of a sensational character was witnessed by the audience. The play is being produced by Mr. Lester Collingwood's touring company, Mr. Collingwood himself enacting the villain of the piece. When the performance had reached the point at which the villain attempts to strangle the girl whom he has wronged, and drown her child, someone in the gallery, carried away by the scene, threw a knife at Mr. Collingwood as he stood in the centre of the stage. Fortunately for the actor, the weapon missed its aim, but it struck the musical director, Mr. Woodville, in the back of the head. Woodville staggered from his seat in the orchestra, and proceeded under- neath the stage, where his injuries were attended to. He was not able to resume his duties as director during the evening, but his condition is not serious. The sensational incident paesed unob- served by the actors, but was noticed by the audience. The person who threw the weapon—a large clasp knife—has not been arrested. The knife was picked up within the orchestra rails.
SIR H. CAMPBELL-BANNERMAN was asked on Mon- day by a deputation to support a bill for compelling railway companies to extend and improve their work- men's train services to London suburbs. He declined to pledge himself, but agreed that the zone system of an equal fare for equal distances was desirable on suburban lines. THE Royal Niger Company has issued a statement to its shareholders on the transfer of its territories to the Imperial Government, which was discussed in the House of Commons the other night. The council of the company are satisfied that the amount of compensation ( £ 865,000) is as much as the Government can be induced to give. They point out that the Treasury cannot be expected to take much account of the risks the shareholders ran, since those risks have been long since forgotten and they add that the shareholders must console themselves by re- membering that they have added a vast and populous province to the Empire. The company will either be liquidated or carried on as a financial and industrial concern. The council are in favour of carrying it on. IT is reported that Prince von Bismarck is to receive a high diplomatic post from the German Government. THE second meet of the Coaching Club was held on Saturday afternoon on the Horse Guards'Parade in London. AT Stratford on Saturday a labourer named Res- tell was committed for trial on a charge of abduct- ing a girl under the age of 18. MR. Jomr HALL, shipowner, of Newcastle, has be- queathed 4:100,1)00 for the erection of an infirmary, and 210,000 for a bishopric fund. A PAUPER inmate of Islington Workhouse was sen- tenced to imprisonment for six weeks with hard labour on Saturday, for refractory conduct.
I THE MANACLES ROCKS. At the time of the loss of the Mohegan on the Manacles, and still more strongly on the recent occasion of the stranding of the Paris, the suggestion was put forward that there was some magnetic attraction in the neighbourhood which had drawn the ships out of their course, or had affected their compasses. The idea, however, of a ship being drawn bodily so far out of her course was (says the Morning Post) generally scouted, as it would have required a mountain of loadstone to accomplish the feat, and it was said by those who ought to know that there was no magnetic ore nearer than the Northern part of Portugal. The theory of any magnetic influence having been exerted on the compasses by local causes was also generally received with ridicule, but, strange to say, the experience of the Channel Fleet when leaving England on its last cruise appears to lend some countenance to it. When at no great distance from the English coast a number of the ships noticed the needles of their compasses jumping in the most lively manner for some seconds, and of this occurrence no explanation has been forthcoming. A special report on the subject was made to the Hydro- graphical Department, and more will perhaps be heard of it. Meanwhile the Army and Navy Gazette tells the story of an occurrence that seems to bear on the subject. A coasting steamer on arriving at Brisbane reported that in passing through Torres Straits he had discovered a shoal which affected her compass. A local surveyor proceeded to the spot, and his incom- plete examination appeared to confirm the statement. A naval surveying vessel was then sent, but did not satisfactorily determine the position of the shoal, and the officers rather pooh-poohed the notion of its existence. Thereupon the local surveyor started again with a proper equipment, and eventually verified the original reports both as to the existence of the shoal and as to its magnetic action. It seems worthy of investigation whether masses of magnetic ore in shoal water are capable of exercising a dangerous influence on compasses.
I SERVANTS' WAGES. I The Board of Trade has issued a Report by Miss Collet on the money wages of indoor domestic ser- vants. It appears that one-third of the occupied female population of the United Kingdom are en- gaged in domestic service. In some remarks on the Report, Mr. H. Llewellyn-Smith, Commissioner for Labour, observes The result of the inquiry is to show that the average money wages of indoor domestic servants is B17 16s. in London, j215 lOd. in the rest of England and Wales, £ 17 6s. in the three principal Scottish towns, while for reasons stated in the Report it has not been found possible to state a general average for Ireland, although particulars are given for various Irish towns. The above figures merely represent the money wages paid exclusive of allowances. Though a large amount of information has been furnished concern- ing allowances, it has been found impossible to classify such allowances or to reduce them to a money equivalent. As in the case of tips, Christmas boxes, and perquisites generally, these allowances can- not be dealt with statistically, though the fact of their prevalence has to be borne in mind in estimating the total neL. advantages of a particular occupation. The statistics again do not include any allowance for board and lodging." Taking Mr. Charles Booth's figures, showing that of the London mistresses of households 59 per cent. employ only one servant, and the servants they em- ploy form 33 per cent. of the servants employed in London, Miss Collet observes: In these one-servant households can be found the greatest variety of con- ditions in striking contrast with the general uni- formity in wages. At the top, the want of pro- fessional' training alone disqualifies the most, effi- cient general servants for promotion to the h ouse- holds employing many servants and paying higher wages while, at the same time, the thoroughly good general servant can secure for herself such warm appreciation from the family she serves, that her 'privileges and freedom quite outweigh the attrac- tions of better paid service in richer households. At the bottom, the young slavey' of the lodging-house or the coffee-shop has to work harder and under more unfavourable conditions perhaps than any other class of the community. The rough-mannered servant girl accustomed to service with rough-mannered employers has little before her as she grows older. As soon as she reaches an age when she wants more than a very small sum in wages, she Is dismissed and replaced by another j young girl. Her previous experience is against her amongst mistresses looking for older servants, and the customs of well ordered, or at least convention- ally ordered households, often do not attract the girl herself. This class of girl in very few years dis- appears from the ranks of domestic servants, and in doing so, is generally in a worse position than the factory girl in the same grade. Above this class, come the mass of servants and mistresses who are per- petually playing at 'general post' with each other, and who by constantly giving or receiving notice ( create vacancies without really altering the supply or the demand. The effective demand for servants is much exaggerated by counting each vacancy as an additional one, and the demand for domestic servants is frequently regarded as sufficient to absorb all unemployed women and girls, if only they were willing to supply it. Given better relations between mistress and servant, and the number of vacancies would be much reduced; fewer girls could enter service without training for it, while on the other hand fewer would leave it except on marriage. Tha absence of any system of training forgeneral servants is a serious defect in our social organisation. At pre- sent the good general servant, like the good mistress, is unfortunately born, not made, and is consequently rare, although the successful experience of house- wives, who have taken in hand and trained girls brought up in very rough surroundings, is sufficient to prove that, under good teachers, good servants can be made out of very unpromising material. Next to general servants in numerical importance come housemaids, whose wages, between the ages of 21 and 25, average in London, 117; in England and Wales (excluding London), £ 16; in Scotland, £ 17; and in Ireland, E13. With regard to cooks, the average wages in London is S18 between 21 and 25 years of age, and S23 between 30 and 35 years of age. In England and Wales (excluding London), the wages average £ 17 between 21 and 24 years of age; E20 between 25 and 30; 4:22 between 30 and 35, and £24 between 35 and 40. The wages of cooks are higher according to the number of servants in the household. Thus in London households employing two servants, JE19 is paid; three servants, £ 21; four servants, £ 25; five servants, E27 six servants, E33 over six servants E41. Parlourmaids in London receive from E14 at 16 years of age to B24 at 40 years: and in the country from £17 at 19 years of age to £21, at 30 years. Nurses in London receive £ 10 at 17 years of age, and the amount increases to £ 30 at 35 years. Ladies' maids average from £ 22 at 21 years of age to £ 30 at 35 years. The average wages of butlers is given as £ 58, footmen £ 26, men servants with duties undefined £ 38, boys £ 10, and men cooks, £ 128. Miss Collet, in conclusion, remarks: In confining this Report to the question of the money wages of indoor domestic servants, it is clearly recognised that some of the most .important of the conditions of domestic service have been excluded from considera- tion. The relations between mistresses and servants are very little affected by the rate of money wages agreed upon. The active competition of employers and the free movement of domestic servants secures for the latter the full market rate for their services, with little bargaining on either side. The quality of the food and lodging provided, the amount of work to be done, the household organisation, and the efficiency and personal characteristics of both mistress and servant are the important factors in de- termining the advantages or disadvantages of a situa- tion."
AS most people are aware, Belgium is a great country for homing pigeons, there being altogether about 2000 clubs in that country for the encourage- ment of this hobby, the number of pigeons owned by the members being something like 5,000,000. It is customary to send these birds away to great distances and allow them to race home for prizes. The birds are usually conveyed to France, where there is a duty of something like a penny on every imported pigeon. Now, England is a free country for pigeons, and a scheme is on foot among the Belgian societies to run their races from this country instead of from France as heretofore, since the annual duty paid at present amounts to about £ 20,000. It is also said that the birds will get from this country to Belgium more quickly than from France, since for some reason or other they can fly better in a southerly than a. northerly direction.
I LONDON'S POOR. Tiie census of Metropolitan paupers (exclusive of lunatics in asylums and vagrants) shows the following totals: Second week of June, 1899, indoor, 62,911 outdoor, 34,891 total, 97,802. Second week of June, 1898, indoor, 63,374; outdoor, 35,897; total, 99.271. Second week in June, 1897, indoor, 61,412 outdoor, 35,357; total, 96,769. Second week of June, 1896, indoor, 61,387; outdoor. 36,359; total, 97,746. The vagrants relieved in the Metropolis on the last day of the second week of June, 1899, were: Men: 556 women, 176 children under 16, 23 total, 755. The number of patients in the Fever and Small-pox Hospitals of the Metropolitan Asylum District on the last day of the week was returned as 3498 in 1899 5254 in 1898, 3520 in 1897, and 3445 in 1896.
PRESENTS TO THE QUEEN. It is stated that the Emperor Menelik of Abyssinia, as a mark of his deep respect and regard for Queen Victoria, has presented her Majesty with two very fine specimens—male and female-of Grevy's zebra. This species, which is peculiar to Abyssinia and very rare, was named by the French scientist, Onsto- let, who was the first to describe it, after M. Grevy, then President of the French Republic. The two specimens for the Queen were sent down to the coast by Menelik with an escort, and instructions that the greatest care was to be taken of them. They have arrived at Aden in good condition, and at the request of the Foreign Office the Zoological Society has undertaken their transport from Aden to England.
I THE UGANDA RAILWAY. Sir Guilford Molesworth's report upon the Uganda Railway is highlv satisfactory. The difficulties of providing animal transport have hitherto been almost insuperable while the railhead was still in the deadly tsetse district. This has now been passed, and a large transport camp has been established beyond it. The mortality among the animals was enormous, as may be seen from the following figures; Of 63 camels, all died: of 350 mules, 128 died of 639 bullocks, 579 died; and 774 out of 800 donk, ya. In one caravan of 121 donkeys despatched from Mwachi (mile 17) to Kibwezi (mile 193), in December, 1896, only one returned alive in the following April. Over 13,000 coolies are employed, and the rations average 21 tons daily. Up to the end of last October, when the 225th mile had been reached, the amount ex- pended was 91,038,600.
CAPTURED BY CANNIBALS. Mr. P. A. McCann, a trader and explorer in the West of Africa, thus graphically describes in the Wide World Magazine the horrors and torture of the night following his capture by a tribe of cannibals. He was tied to a tree and hourly expected to die a horrible and painful death. My sufferings during that fearful night I can- not attempt to describe; they were beyond words. Of escape or rescue there was not the most remote chance. Days would elapse before the news could reach the traders at Ningue Ningue and about another week would pass before it reached the French authorities at Gaboon. So in this direction I had no hope whatever. What had become of the crew I knew not. Seeing me captured, they would probably jump overboard, swim ashore, and make their escape into the bush if they could. If they had not got off before the natives boarded the schooner, then their early careers were surely finished. In the village, quarrels and angry altercations went on all through the night over the distribution of the plunder, until within an hour or so of day- break, when all grew quiet, and the stillness was only broken at intervals by the shrill shriek of the screech owl, or the discordant cry of a sloth from an adjacent bush. With the break of day the village was soon astir, and through the open doorways of the Banje house I could see the people collecting for the pur- pose of a palaver. Far up the street I could discern, as the people moved to and fro, one end of a tier of cases containing gin, and the distribution of these was evidently the topic under discussion. The evil-looking deputy-chief was at the head of the proceedings, assisted by his head men, and among these I noticed the burly form of the savage who had been the means of decoying me. Bitter regrets filled my mind at the sight of this fellow, and I deeply deplored my imprudence in leaving the schooner. If I had been attacked on board the craft, I would at least have had the satisfaction of making a vigorous defence, and giving my assailants a warm time of it. By slipping the anchor I would have had a chance of getting away but to be seized and tied up like a sheep for slaughter, was horrible beyond expression. In other villages from time to time I had seen bodies cut up and cooked, and little dreamed then that a fate like this would ever befall me. The uproar and confusion in the village seemed to increase, and from the angry manner in which knives were drawn and guns handled, it looked as if a fight were going to take place. Things quieted down however, and I heard the chief's iron gong sounding to call silence and attention. The people then formed themselves in rows on each side of the street, while the deputy chief and his head men sat upon stools in the middle, near to where the cases of gin were stacked. With various degrees of uproar and interruption the palaver went on for hours, and the sickening anxiety I endured was horrible beyond words to express; for I felt that with the termina- tion of the palaver my end was at hand. Suddenly the chief's gong sounded again, and its dull clang went through me like a hot iron as it seemed to knell my last moments. A cold sweat broke out over me as, unable to restrain my feelings, I groaned aloud with bitter anguish." Mr. McCann was ultimately saved by a faithful black servant.
TRANS-AFRICAN TELEGRAPH. Colonel Frank Rhodes has been appointed manag- ing director of the African Trans-Continental Tele- graph Company. An iron telegraph pole, made in two sections, and weighing together 901b., has been constructed, and the question of its adoption is now being considered. The original poles weigh 1801b., but this weight was reduced to 1121b., and the newly- constructed pole is thus 221b. lighter than that now in use. The line, which is now near'Abercorn, will be pushed on with all speed to the next station, which is to be Ujiji, on the east bank of Lake Tanganyika.
I REMARKABLE LIKENESS. The likeness of Mr. (chamberlain a face, seen in profile, to Pitt's has often been commented on- sometimes sarcastically. Here is a parallel case: A remarkable likeness between Sir Robert Peel, as represented in his statue in the City, and Mr. J. H. Choate, the United States Ambassador to this country, has been observed (says the Daily News) by Mr. Norman Shairp, who remarks: The likeness can be equally easily traced in the engravings of Sir Robert Peel at Kensington Palace and other places. I daresay others have noticed this resemblance, but I have not seen it pointed out anywhere."
SOME months ago an influential committee was formed with the object of collecting funds for the erection of a memorial to the late Sir George Grey in London, as the centre of the Empire, for which he did such great work. About E550 has now been subscribed, and further contributions are expected. Double this sum would no doubt have been collected by this timo but for the fact that the colonies in which Sir George was best known are paying separate tributes to the memory of The Great Pro-Consul." The secretary of the fund is Mr. Pember Reeves, the Agent-General for New Zealand, and to him scriptions should be sent. A PARLIAMENTARY paper has just been issued show- ing the number of experiments performed on living animals during 1898, under licences granted under the Act 39 and 40 Vict., c 77, distinguishing painless from painful experiments. Nearly all the experi- ments made under the certificate which dispenses with the obligation to kill the animal before recover- ing from anaesthesia have been inoculations made (under anaesthetics upon rodents) with the object of diagnosing rabies. During the past three years the number of experiments other than those of the nature of inoculations, hypodermic injections or similar proceedings has shown little variation 1516, 1462, 1511), while those of that character have increased (5984, 7360, 7640). Many of these latter experiments are performed in the course of profes- sional duty for the diagnosis of disease, the prepara- tior of antitoxins, the testing of water, and so forth. During the past year 43,000 doses of diphtheria anti-* i to* have beea issued from two institutions