FIELD AND FARM. (From The Agricultural Gazette?) CALF-REARING. Veal calves pay as well (remarks Professor John Wrightson in his valuable seasonable notes) as milk. I consider that a well-bred calf will increase 10s. a week from birth. If he is estimated to be worth 10s. when first calved, he will be worth 20s. at a week old, and 10s. may be added for each week up to nine weeks old, when he should be worth £;5. A fatting calf may require two gallons a day, in which case lie would drink 14 gallons a week, which at 5d. is only worth 5s. lOd. If, however, two gallons is not considered sufficient, let us look at the calcula- tion from another point of view; 10s. is equal to 20 gallons at 6d., and I do not consider that a calf would consume three gallons per day. Hence, if this is the case, a calf will pay more than 6d. a gallon for the milk he consumes, and leave the manure too. There is no carting and little trouble. There is no outcry about germs and inspection. If the public hampers the production of milk, and insists on absurd tests, let us bring up calves and keep fewer cows. No greater encouragement could be given in the direction of growing early beef; for calves can drink milk and eat cake, and develop into beef at one year old. So also with reference to bull breeding. A well-bred Shorthorn bull will pay for milk quite as well as a veal calf, and milk cannot go to a better use than in growing a good bull calf. Milk has had its day, and we come back to steers and heifers tor grazing, which are by no means too cheap. That they cannot be produced without cows goes without saying, but milk has become a cheap stock food, and calves do on nothing so well as upon new milk. It is probable that pining, coyp consumption, or tuberculosis, is largely due to under feeding. Such is the case in human consumption, which is curable by hard feeding, and living in the open air. The bacillus dies. It cannot live in a plethoric body, and the patient recovers. As soon as a human patient begins to steadily increase in weight he is convalescent, and this is the most modern treatment. A bacillus must not be regarded as an incurable affliction. Bacilli are every- where, and only develep when they find a suitable nidus. If it were not so we should all succumb to them. If stock is well kept up it is more than half the battle. The late conference on tuberculosis at Berlin arrived at the conclusion that tuberculosis is due to unhealthy conditions, and that it is curable. The treatment, as already stated, consists in feeding and plenty of air, without much exercise, until the patient begins to gain weight. There is no despair, and nothing parallel to the idea of destroying infected stock. As to contagion, whoever imagines that consump- tion is contagious to anything like the same degree as measles or scarlatina. It is contagious, but chiefly to those who are predisposed to it, and certainly not from ordinary contact, to healthy people. Men and animals should be well kept up in a high state of physical health, and live as much as possible in the open air. The scare is wearing itself out by its own feverish excitement. We are now told that canary birds are dangerous inmates in a house, and that poultry carry infection. The poultry yard becomes a danger to the cows, and chickens bred up on pasture ground occupied by cattle, are, of course, liable to contaminate horned stock. It will probably be found that rooks are tuberculous as well as rats and mice. There is, in fact, no end to the danger, and no limit to the sources of contagion. Such announcements ought to steady us a little. They show the absolute impossibility of stamping out the bacillus. They, however, show the necessity of keeping up stock in such condition that they are able to resist the insidious approach of a score of diseases which attack the weakened body. I see that we are congratulated as to the healthiness of our stock, but this fits badly with the assumption I that 50 per cent. of our cows are tuberculous. That a large proportion might react is possible but what then ? I read in the latest Year Book of Agriculture published in the United States, that a herd ought to be tested every six months! It is no use to have them tested, and then rest satisfied that we are done with the horrid process. The animal tested and pro- nounced free to-day may be infected to-morrow. The man who will have nothing to do with any cows which are not pronounced free from tubercu- losis must not imagine that he is free; because intro- duction on to his premises may be sufficient con- tamination. The disease may lurk among his pigs, his poultry, or his vermin. That it may occur with- out any known contagion is as sure as that consump- tion may unexpectedly appear in a household where no such taint has existed previously. The more we reflect upon the subject the more it appears that the preservation of healthy conditions, and liberal feed- ing, are the only safeguards practicable. It is also extremely probable that when the disease had obtained a footing the same wise treatment will eradicate it. obtained a footing the same wise treatment will j eradicate it. POTTING BUTTER. I In the first place, the crock demands attention. It must either be absolutely new, or so well preserved that neither crack nor chip can be seen in the glazing. It must be carefully scalded with thoroughly boiling water the day before it is wanted, and then filled up with cold till just about to be used. It should then be poured dry and sprinkled round the sides with powdered salt. When the butter has been made in the usual way, or perhaps even more carefully than usual, to free it from the buttermilk add to it at least Joz. of salt, ground very fine, per lb. work this well in, using the wooden spoon or clapper, and put away till next day. Then with the butter-worker roll it till dry and well mixed, otherwise the salt is apt to make it streaky, and pack very firmly, putting in one or two pounds at a time according to the size of the crock, and running the finger round the sides at every filling to make sure of no air getting in. After filling quite to the top, let it stand a day or two days, then slice off lib. or 21b.; put this in a basin and stand it in the oven until quite melted. Allow the sediment to remain at the bottom of the dish (and perhaps some experienced and excellent buttermakers will be surprised to see how much there is) and pour the fine, pure, liquid butter on the top of the crock. Being freed from casein and other perishable constituents, this never goes rancid, and forms a fine top to the crock; keeping absolutely fresh and preventing the air getting to the butter below; a piece of thin muslin may be laid over to keep out the dust. HOUSING FARM HORSES. It is of the utmost importance that the stable should be roomy, well lighted and ventilated, and free from underground drains. The building should not be less than 18ft. wide inside; the height of the side walls should be 8ft. above the level of the floors. The roof covering may either be of slates or tiles, the latter for preference. These should be laid to a 6in. gauge, carefully and sufficiently torched inside. In cases where the covering is of slates, these should be laid on Rin match-boards, 4 to which the slates are screwed by copper or galvanised nails. There should be a 3ft. passage in front of the manger for easy access in feeding, and facility for keeping the manger clean. This passage should communicate with the food-preparing depart- ment. The best mangers are fire-clay troughs, specially prepared to pattern; a water trough of the same material is also provided. The water supply is self-acting, and so arranged that the water in the different stalls is maintained at the same level. On the same line as the manger a small hayrack is some- times placed, though it is not always necessary. The standings for full-sized horses are 6ft. 6in., with a bottom and front post of oak or pitch pine, eacb 7in. square; the latter of which is placed in a line with the outside of the manger. Into these posts are housed and firmly secured top and bottom rails, grooved to receive 1 Jin. boards. In front of the manger, and running through the posts, are two lines of lin. gas-pipe; these, when secured on each side of the posts by backnuta, make a substantial job. Before the standing posts are set and the necessary walls erected for supporting the mangers, the soil is removed to a depth of 15in.; the posts are then placed in position, and a layer of 12in. of hydraulic lime concrete spread over the entire surface, over this is spread a thin layer of fine concrete, consisting of Portland cement and fine granite chippings. If the work is well done, the entire area becomes one solid block. A grip is formed in the concrete having connecting surface channels to receive and carry and deliver the liquid drainage on a tapped cesspool some distance outside the building. The only objection to this kind of flooring is its slippery character, which can easily be obviated by slightly hatching the surface and radiating from the grip and carriers. Ventilation is another important consideration. Provision should be made for the admission of fresh air on the ground line. The orifice is regulated by a slide and hence is under control; sufficient access must be provided at the apex of the roof to ensure a continuous circulation. The stable should be well provided with light, this adds in no small degree to the health and comfort of the animals, but for the extra cost entailed we greatly prefer the use of boxes to that of stalls, because a hard-worked animal ha- more freedom and rests better.
I GARDENING GOSSIP. I I (From "Gardening Illustrated") I I CONSERVATORY. I Hard-wooded plants will be better out of the con- servatory now, except those which are in flower. For the most part, Azaleas are over, and those which were pushed into flower early have completed their growth, and should be cooled down to harden the wood before planting them outside. Azaleas are not difficult to manage when the conditions of success are understood. The principal causes of failure are in watering and potting. The roots are numerous and hair-like, and should be firmly fixed in good fibrous peat, freely mixed with clean, sharp sand. The drainage also must be perfect, and the person who uses the watering-pot must be methodical, and never miss a day without examining the plants to see if they require water. The safest test is to tap the pots with the knuckles and judge from the sound, which is always sufficient to guide gthoso who have had any experience at all. A "Geranium" or soft-wooded plant may be left till dry enough to wilt the foliage. I do not say (observes Mr. E. Hob- day) the plant will not suffer, but it soon recovers but the hard-wooded plant which has been dried to excess would lose all its small feeding roots and would probably die. Epacrises and winter-flowering Heaths that were pruned back after flowering will be ready for repotting, should a shift be necessary. The yellow-flowered Heath (Erica Cavendishi) and the pink-flowered Ventricosa are now in good condition, and good specimens will be very attractive in the conservatory, but they should not be left long in a stuffy atmosphere, and the watering should have very careful attention. It will take several years to get up a handsome specimen Heath, but in careless hands the plant may soon be ruined, and this refers to Boronias, Eriostemons, and other hard-wooded things. Oranges in tubs or large pots will do better outside as soon as the weather gets warm, but it will not be safe to turn such things out till June is well advanced, and the same remark applies to Palms and other foliage plants which are placed out in sheltered places in the grounds in summer. A little air may be left on all night now. OUTDOOR GARDEN. The bedding out, except such things as Coleuses and Alternantheras, should be quite completed now. At the best the season is a short one. Perhaps the most satisfactory part of it is the introduction of foliage beds, as the plants for the most part may be raised from seeds, and will be available [the same season. There is room in many gardens for more variety of treatment than is commonly met with. Castor oil (Gibsoni, the bronzed -leaved variety) planted thinly on a good sized oval or circular bed, and the groundwork either white flowers or foliage, has a pretty effect. The Gulden-leaved Abutilon (Thompsoni), planted thinly among dark-flowering Heliotrope, has been another success. Scarlet Lobelia Victoria planted over Harrison's Musk looks well; and when one is in doubt as to what to plant on any particular bed one can scarcely do wrong to make a mixture of it. Such things as Gladiolus and Hyacinthus candicans can be used pretty freely among bedding plants. They give a special feature during the time they last. It is quite safe to plant Dahlias now, and everything possible should he done to encourage growth. Shake and tie Carnations. As we grow them chiefly for cutting, we do not thin the buds, but larger individual flowers may be had by thinning. The same remark applies to Roses. Liquid-manure will help Roses now. VEGETABLE GARDEN. I There should be more winter Spinach sown in autumn. It will be as well to make a note of this for next August. The crop this season has been most valuable, as the spring Cabbages have been so late in turning in. It is always advisable to have a good patch of an early kind, of Cabbage on a warm border, planted thickly, and the stems pulled up as soon as the Cabbages are cut. Coleworts, which are simply young Cabbages, may be sown now for winter use. Make a sowing of the Green Windsor Beans for late use. Sow also plenty of good Marrow Peas. The old British Queen, where there is plenty of room and tall sticks can be had, seldom dis- appoints. Ne Plus Ultra should also be sown now. Tomatoes may be planted in any sunny spot. If planted in beds trained to sticks do not crowd. The rows should not be less than 3ft. apart. Tomatoes indoors will require almost constant attention now in disbudding and training. A mulch of manure will be useful when the bottom trusses are set. Main crops of Carrots, Beet, and Parsnips must be finally singled out. Onions also if fine bulbs are wanted must be thinned freely. Sow Horn Carrots for draw- ing young. Thin Parsley to 6in. of9in. Sow French Breakfast Radish in rich land and keep moist. Fill spare frames with Cucumbers and Melons. Sow Canadian French Beans and white-seeded Runners. Plant main crops of Brussels Sprouts and Autumn Giant Cauliflowers. Keep down weeds with hoe and fork. FRENCH BEANS AS AN ODD CROP. Many people who have a little plot of ground to spare have much trouble to find a suitable crop. They do not want Cabbage. Peas are very often unsuccess- ful. What shall we plant ? After a long experience of them (says a correspondent) I can strongly recom- mend Dwarf Beans. I can say I have never had them fail. They are less trouble, and require less attention than almost and other vegetables. I have generally grown the Canadian Wonder variety. As nearly everyone likes French Beans they should be a very popular crop especially to the Dovie e. All they require is to be put into the ground about 3in. deep, and let them have plenty of water from beginning to end. Many people after once trying them, say they are no good, and so tough and poor, which is simply because they have let them get dry. With plenty of water they are as succulent and tender as can be desired. I had a friend the summer before last who spoiled a dozen rows by lotting them get dry, then blamed the Beans. Of course the more the ground is prepared the better the crop will be. A garden cannot In dug up too much. Still these Beans will give a very fair crop with the smallest amount of cultivation, so that those who have but little time to spend in their garden can grow a most acceptable dish. Last ysar I was able to gather till the end of November indeed, I sur- prised a friend who prides himself on his garden to see what a fine dish of Beans I had at the end of that month. When the Beans are about 6in. high pull the earth up round them, and a tool need not be used on them after. They will do very well in dry weather if watered three times a week. The above few words are to the amateur, who does his own gardening, but in no way advising him not to prepare his beds beforehand. To make digging as easy as possible get a good tool. A fork is not so hard to work as a spade. I use a small fork, for a good sized garden, and it is surprising how much ground can be got over without being tired. The earth does not stick to the fork as to a spade, which required scraping every half-dozen spits, more or less according to the nature of the soil. The amateur hand will find a D-shaped handle much better to work with than a T, which often rubs between the fingers. Of course, one cannot do every- thing with a fork, and a spade is necessary as well. Moreover, the little fork does not turn out Potatoes as well as the flat prong Potato fork. Most amateurs make a great mistake in going into a tool shop and buying any sort of tool that is offered them; but a good, well selected tool will do much towards making work a pleasure. And when you have a good one always clean it after use; if put away for any length of time rub it with sweet oil and paraffin.
MADAME MELBA, the famous Australian cantatrice, who is just 34 years of age, is a comparatively new singer, having only made her debut at Brussels in October, 1887. Very lowly was the way she started in Melbourne. When she wished to enter upon a singing career, her father somewhat unreasonably opposed. The plucky girl, however, engaged a hall, and proceeded to invite all her friends, and when her father heard of the affair he was so angry that he proceeded to dissuade all the friends from going, and so uphold the parental authority. The result was, when the singer made her first public bow,'she found herself before an audience numbering-two t Now that she receives E40,000 for a South American tour of a few months, Madame Melba can afford to smile as she recalls these times of struggling. Her father's name is Mitchell.
NERYIE'S LESSON. AN AMERICAN IDYLL. Now hit wer lowed by all as my Mandy and me has ther prettiest gal in Shady Holler. Our Nervie can't be beat. Thur's the lily on her brow, the rose upon her cheek, an' ther vilet in her eye, an' she's good as perty," said Lige Bennett to an old friend whom he had met by accident at the Cross Roads store. But my Mandy ain't 'nough human ter take ther credit ter herself. Hit's God's gif', Lige,' she seys, an' hit ought to make us more humble, seeing as how he is favoured us more'n other.' Hit's wonder- ful the 'ligion my Mandy's got, being as ther preacher don't git to our parts but twict a year; but my Mandy 'lows hit ain't ther lot of seed sowed as alius brings ther biggest crop, but ther ground hit's in. She sez yer can measure the 'mount of 'ligion by how they'uns are arter doin' good or harm one anuther." And Lige Bennett shouldered his sack of goods for which he had come, and wended his way with slow tread along the mountain road toward his home in Shady Hollow, which well deserved its name. It was a narrow valley, or gulch, lying between two precipi- tous mountains, grand and furrowed, shutting in almost perpetual shadow the Holler," the sun only at noon chasing away the mountains' sombre frown, the shadow of evening creeping early upon it, as a crouching beast upon- its helpless prey. Mandy sat in the cabin door, her work done up," waiting, with new expectancy in her eyes, for the appearance of Lige, who soon came in sight along the rugged path. A gaunt man, with the stoop in hit broad shoulders which told so plainly of his life of toil, the bearing of heavy burdens, the stooping to the ploughshares o'er the rock strewn patches." Back, Lige ?" That I be, and thankful uv." Nervie has gone fur water," said Mandy. What's the news, Lige?" 'Taint me as has ther news, Mandy. Anything up?' He had taken in the unusual in her manner with one sidelong glance. Hit's Nervie's news, Lige." "Hit's a caillpin' set as has pitched ther tents right m the Holler," said Nervie, returned from the spring with a bucket of water steadied on her head by a ihapely bare arm. Life was so monotonous in Shady Hollow that any kind of news was as welcome as early greens." She had just come from the spring, where she had met two of the camping party, and could describe them in glowing colours. "An'law! mam, they uns want to git milk and cow butter and aigs of yer, an' some brilers, an' I sed I knowed as yer could let un." The young men had looked at her with undis- guised admiration, and asked her name. Nervie," she had answered. Minerva! Ye gods, what a figure-what glorious colouring-what unique blending of simplicity and stateliness! A perfect Parthenia for my new picture," she had heard one young man remark to the other. Praise is exhilarating. The flush on her cheek grew deeper, the sparkle in her eye brighter, her step more elastic. She is as graceful as an antelope. I must get her to pose for me." So Nervie, who was but human, was finally per- suaded and flattered into compliance with the artist's request, much to the annoyance of her lover, John Graham. He needn't be grumping 'roud as if he owned me," she said defiantly. Hit's time 'nough when I'm his'n." Nervie had had some "schoolin' Habit is stronger than culture, however, and not easily eradi- cated even by strictest of rules. Still, John Graham, who noted every change in her, knew that she dropped some of her provincialisms after the comin' of them campers," who made the wood ring with their shouts, laughter, guns and dogs. John's good 'nough for any gal, Nervie," said her father. I haven't said nothing 'ginst him, pap." 'Peers like you have dropped him, Nervie." I was never a toting him, pap, an' he's dry as bone these times." Bones kin ache." Has John been a tellin' of you uns 1" Yer know that ain't John's way, Nerv The girl looked abashed. They uns'll be gone afore ther next new moon, Nervie, an' John yer kin count on fur all yer life." They uns is coming back next summer, fur thej seys ther is somethin' in the spring water as tones 'em up." True to their word the hunting party had several cabins built, and the next summer mothers and sisters were rusticating in them, enjoying the cool of Shady Hollow, drinking-the chalybete water, and admiring Nervie's beauty. Nervie was much impressed by their style and manner, and in imitation showed great adaptability of nature, not to the satisfaction of either the artist or her lover. However, the former entered into the project (Df giving her work in town. He wished to display his Parthenia." Nervie thought of how bleak' it was all winter in Shady Hollow, and how little sunshine lingered to gladden the sombre grandeur, and how nice it would be to become a lady. Then everybody had money in the city, and she could send some home to her hard-working father and ailing mother, and make life brighter for them, and perhaps by-and-by they might come to her-and John-and live in the sunny outer world of which she had long dreamed. John Graham set his teeth hard together, but had never a word to say. Not so Lige he warred in his wrath even to the extent of dislocating some of the j'ints of the chairs by rough handling. "Now, Lige," said Mandy, "don't you know our Nervie ain't no common kind ?. If hit's a lady ther Lord 'tends her ter be, let her go her way an' see how hit will come out." It was a sad day when Nervie said goodbye to the Hollow. Mandy required all her Christian fortitude to bear it. John hid his feelings under the stolid exterior which is so characteristic of mountain people, but his heart cried out: They uns have took my little Nervie, that I have toted about since she was knee high, an' I ken never hope ter have her a caring fur a rough feller like me agin." But no one heard the plaint. That winter seemed to lay a burden on Mandy, and she bent J beneath it, almost to the breaking of the strong resolve to see Nervie a lady. Yet no com- plaint came. She said she had extra rheumatism this winter, and did not feel like going any, so she sat with her Bible on her knee, spelling out its promises in her patient, plodding way, trying to make Lige feel their meaning. Lige oft shook his head. My Mandy hain't right," he said helplessly, "fin she's givin' me 'ligion'alapath, and she knows I can't take hit more'n home'path. She hain't well, but she won't give in and send fur Nervie, an'that's what will ever do her eny rail good." When Christmas time drew near Mandy's resolve weakened. Nervie wrote often, and almost as often sent money, which never came amiss in that humble home. She must be prosperous, therefore but there had been of late something in her letters that spoke to the mother heart of disappointment and sorrow. "Lige," said Mandy one day, I want yer ter go an' see Nervie fur me, an' take her some things I has fixed up fur her Christmes. Be sure and not tell, her, mind, that her maw is down with rheumatis in her j'ints, or how she's a pinin' to sot her eyes on her. Tell her hit's been mighty bleak here all winter, an' hit's well she missed hit. Ther's a shadow in ther Holler, but ther's sunlig ht on ther hill. An' if she's happy an' comf'able, jest let her be. Ef she hain't Well, Mandy ?" Bring her home with yer, Lige-oh, bring my gal home!" cried the mother, breaking down at last. John would send no message. She knows I'm waitin' fer her, and won't look at another gal, Lige; but I'll not stan' in her way. If she comes back, well an' good; I'll never ask her to." Long before Lige Bennett came to the dwelling which Nervie claimed-he did not dream she was only a servant in it-he began to scrape his boots on the pavements. He was uneasy in the Sunday suit and stiff collar, the buttons of which he fre- quently fumbled over with great rough fingers "ter see if ther durned things had come unhitched." Arrived at the door he sought, he waited I what seemed to him an interminable time, but which was in reality only a few moments, before a tall pale young woman, neatly but simply dressed, responded to his summons. At first be did not recognise her. Then he cried: Nervie I My little gal I". In a moment her anus were around his neck, hef fane was laid aeainst, hi a Oh, pap, I'm so glad you've come I Is maw well P" She's sent you uns lots of things, Nervie." And she is well ? Oh, she is sick, an' yer tryin' ter fool me!" she cried with a half sob. Now don't, Nervie, chile I She said as I must not tell yer nary word 'bout hit, fur we uns don't want ter stan' in ther way o' you bein' a lady." "A lady!" she repeated with scorn. Are you satisfied 'thout me, pap ?" "Naw, Nervie, I'se bound ter tell yer 'bout hit. Maw's jest pinin' fur a sight of yer an' I'm cravin' for yer back agin. But we uns dent want ter hinder yer, fur hit 'peers like things is nicer here, an' you mout be happier long with 'em." "Is the wild bird happy in a cage? I've been a thirstin' fer you uns same as a landed trout fur hits mountain stream. My heart's been a turnin' ter yer, same as old Flossie turns ter home in ther evenin' but I were a waitin' fer yer ter say the word as yer needed me. I was 'shamed to let yer know what a fool I'd been in my ignorance and conceit, thinkin' I, a pore gal who can't even talk proper, could be equal with folks that have money an learnin'. I'm only fit to cook their vituals and do their washin' for 'em, paw, an' I'm tired of that. An' thought p'raps you'd rather have some of the money I earnt than me, so I jes staid on an' fretted for the dear old Hollfer." She did not tell him that in her heart had been the hope that young Vincent, the artist, would say all his eyes had said, but in a month after persuading her with buoyant words to leave her home, he had married a woman of his own station. Thinking of this her heart went back to its old allegiance, and she asked shyly: An' John ?" Is a waitin' fur yer, Nervie, as is all on us. What do we care for the money, child ? It is you we want, and only you." A great joy flooded the white face with colour. Oh pap, I don't deserve sich love, but if yer'll take me back I'll never leave yer again-never, never!" she sobbed. "I hain't fit to be a lady—I'm only yer own lovin' Nervie, an' I'll be that as long's we uns live." On her wedding day, Nervie decorated the humble cabin, which was home to her in its dearest sense, with evergreens growing in Shady Hollow.
NATIONAL RIFLE ASSOCIATION". I The annuul rifle meeting of the National Rifle Association will be held at Bisley from July 10 to July 22. The annual competition for the following prizes, challenge cupfc, &c., given by the association, will take place on the days named The Royal Cam- bridge ChaHenge Shield, July 22; the United Service Challenge Cup, July 14; the Brinsmead Challenge Shield, July 16; the Evelyn Wood Prize, July 10. In addition to the above, which aro team competi- tions, a large number of prizes will be open for com- petition on each week-day, from July 11 to 22 in. clusive, to individual members of the regular army.
THE RED CROSS AT SEA. I HOW NAVAL WARFARE MAY BE AMELIORATED. I The text of the scheme drawn up by Professor Renault and submitted to the Red Cross Sub-Com- mittee of the Peace Conference, for humanising war at sea by adapting to it the provisions of the Geneva Convention, may be summarised as follows 1. Hospital ships built and fitted out by States solely for the purpose of taking help to the wounded, sick, and shipwrecked, and the names of which shall have been previously communicated to the belligerent Powers, shall be respected and cannot bo captured during the period of hostilities. 2. Hospital ships fitted out by private persona shall have equal privileges if the belligerent Powei to which they are attached has given them an official character and has previously notified their names to the hostile Power. 3. All hospital ships shall take help and assistance to the wounded, sick, and shipwrecked without dis- tinction of nationality. 4. During and after a battle they shall act at their own risk and peril. Belligerents may control and visit them and shall be able to reject their aid, order them away, oblige them to take a given direction, and even detain them, should circumstances require it. 5. Military hospital ships shall be painted white outside with a horizontal green band about 4ft. broad. Other hospital ships shall be painted white with a red horizontal band of the same breadth. 6. All hospital ships shall hoist the Geneva flag. 7. Vessels other than warships carrying the sick, wounded, and shipwrecked of the belligerents may not be captured on account of this transportation. 8. The religious, medical, and hospital staff of all ships captured shall not be made prisoners of war. Sick or wounded soldiers and sailors on board ship, irrespective of nationality, shall be tended and protected by their captors. The probable date of the conclusion of the Con- ference is set down for the middle of July. It is calculated that the Governments, which have been kept posted up with the work as it proceeds, will re- quire about 10 days to deliberate and give their final decisiou as lo whether their delegates shall be empowered to sign a definitive document embodving the conclusions of the Conference.
THE MARLBOROUGH GEMS. I The immediately forthcoming sale of the Marl. borough gems in London will be the most important of its kind held in Ergland since June, 1875; and that sale was the sale (says the Daily Mail) of the same collection. On that occasion they were put up to auction in one lot, the reserve being fixed at £ 35,000. Sir William Agnew (he was then plain Mr.") promptly offered 35,000 guineas, and, there being no other offer, the collection was knocked down to him, to the acute disappointment of the large crowd of gem- lovers who had hoped that the collection would be offered in several lots. The real purchaser was Mr. David Bromilow, of Bitteswell Hall, Lutterworth. Mr. Bromilow main- tained the collection in its integrity. Now that he is dead, the gems, which the third Duke of Marl- borough spent the best part of his life in gathering together, come again into the market. There is no chance of another dramatic surprise, inasmuch as the lots are to be offered separately. It is urged that some of the choicest examples should be purchased for the British Museum, but this is no more than a pious hope. The museum probably lost its last chance when, nearly a century ago, Lady Betty Germain offered a portion of it to them for £ 10,000. Although the sum was much less than cost price, the offered was declined. The Marlborough gems are cameos and intaglios, and every gem has its pedigree. Most of them belong to the centuries between the reign of Augustus and the end of the Antonine period. The best are of the Hadrian period, and the collection is said to be free from spurious imitations. Included in the collection obtained from Medina, the Leghorn Jew, is a gem once given by an Emperor to a Pope. A cameo 8fin. by 6in., representing a pair of imperial heads with emblems, ranks as one of the most impor- tant cameos known, by reason of its size, its exquisite workmanship, and the evenness of the deposits of sard. Most of the gems are chalcedony in one or other of its forms. Then come the garnets, the amethyst, the beryl, the sapphire, the peridot, and the emerald. The chalcedonic minerals were the favourite material, both for their hardness, which yielded readily to the diamond and emery dust of the wheel, and for their toughness, which enabled them to resist the tooth of time. There are 10 chal- cedonies to one of any other material. The Arundel part of the collection reached the House of Marlborough by a tortuous path. From the Lord Arundel who gathered them they descended to the seventh Duke of Norfolk; from the duke they passed to his divorced duchess; from the duchess to her second husband; from the husband to his second wife; from the second wife to her great-niece, who married a brother of the third Duke of Marl- borough and from her, by a family arrangement, to the duke.
THE greatest variation of the thermometer in the United States has been noted at Fort Buford, N.D. In 1883 the mercury rose to 107; in 1888 it fell to 49 below zero. This is a variation of 156deg. EXTENSIONS to the British Art Gallery at Millbank, S.W., the gift of Sir Henry Tate, have been made from designs by Mr. Sydney Smith, F.R.I.B.A. They comprise 10 additional rooms, two of which are to be devoted to sculpture; the extensions are larger than the original building itself. It is expected that some pictures by modern British artists will be transferred from the National Gallery to that at Millbank.
THE CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE DAME. Although a cathedral, Notre Dame is in one of the smallest parishes of Paris, and has one of the smallest revenues. The emoluments of the Cure of the Cathedral, although he has the title of archpriest do not exceed 12,000f. per annum (remarks Augusta Latouche, in the Paris Magazine). The reason is that within a radius of about 500 yards from the church stand the Hotel-Dieu, a hospital, the barracks of the Cite, the Prefecture of Police, and the Palais de Justice, which together occupy a considerable area. Thus it is that the parish of Notre Dame numbers exactly 4000 inhabitants, while there are others in Paris which number as many as 55,000 souls. While it is exceedingly honorary, therefore, the Cure of Notre Dame is by no means lucrative. For the most part the Archbishop prefers to nominate to the office some fpriest already in possession of private means of his own, or else he places some of the numerous resources of the Archbishopric at the holder's disposal. This will explain why the faithful are rare at the services, except on days of great festivals, when the Cardinal himself officiates. On such days people come from every quarter of Paris. During Lent there are also the celebrated sermons for men in the evenings. To these Lenten sermons roe" come in crowds if the preacher is popular, or if he is a great orator. In the time of the Pere Lacordaire the seats were all occupied two hours in advance. He at once attracted audiences by the breadth of his ideas and the novel turn of his preaching. The sanctaury was invaded by atheists and scoffers, men who went with minds made up to insult the priest, and conspiracies were even formed to prevent him from speaking. But his dignity and assurance disarmed all such plotters, and even those who had come to hiss him had to be begged by him not to applaud. He was succeeded in the pulpit of Notre Dame by the Father de Ravigan, Father Felix, ex-Father Hyacinthe (Loyson), who abandoned Catholicism in 1870 Father Monsabre, Father Ollivier, Monsignor d'HuIst, and to-day by Father Etourneau. Apart from these exceptional services, however, the Cathedral of Paris produces an impression of neglect and abandonment. It is visited only by strangers who come to hear the excellent renderings of plain chant, and by a very small number of parish- ioners, so that at one of the ordinary Sunday services one is disagreeably surprised to find oneself isolated in the immense and almost deserted nave, to which neither the singing nor the tones of the organ, not- withstanding their solemnity, succeed in communicat- ing that warmth and life which is shed around them by souls united in prayer.
EXPEDITION TO MOUNT KENIA. We learn from the Times that Mr. H. J. Mackinder, reader in geography at the University of Oxford, has just left England in charge of an expedition, the object of which is to make a thorough study of Mount Kenia, in British East Africa. The expedi- tion is partly subsidised by the Royal Geographical Society, though a very considerable portion of the funds is contributed by Mr. Hausburg, one of the members of the expedition. Mr. Mackinder is also accompanied by two competent Swiss guides and two taxidermists and collectors. The expedition is well equipped with instruments, cameras, and other means of carrying on scientific work. Mr. Mackinder and his party propose to camp at a height of abouf 16,000ft., and from this as a base they hope to make a good map of the whole moun- tain, ascend to its summit, and make ample collec- tions of animals and plants.
BOER NAMES FOR THE BRITISH. In connection with a telegram sent by the Cape Town correspondent of the Daily News, who says that the chief danger there is considered to be the genuine belief of the old Boers that fighting the rooincks will mean a bloodless victory, our con- temporary, quoting from Mr. Bryce's "South Africa," quotes the Boer names for the British. Their usual term, when they talk among themselves, for an Englishman is rotten egg.' The other com- mon Boer name for an Englishman is red neck,' drawn from the fact that the back of an Englishman's neck is often burned red by the sun."
TICKETS TO MATRIMONY. I The law recently adopted by the State of Wisconsin withholding marriage licenses from eloping couples has not left them long without a Gretna Green. Their new refuge is across Lake Michigan, at St. Joseph, where marriage licenses, which will not be published, aro now obtainable for a dollar apiece. A company at Chicago is fitting out two handsome steamers, which will ply regularly between that city and St. Joseph, and a single coupon ticket entitles a passenger to transportation to St. Joseph and to marriage there by a clergyman of any denomination.
ALIEN IMMIGRATION. The usual Parliamentary return issued by the Board of Trade shows that the total number of aliens who arrived from the Continent at ports in the United Kingdom during the month ended May 31, 1899, was 12,124, of whom 6263 were not stated to be en route to America or other places out of the United Kingdom, and 5861 were en route to America or elsewhere. The total for the month of May, 1898, was 8828-namely, 5605 who were not stated to be en route for America, and 3223 who were en route for America. The total for the five months ended May 31, 1899, was 42,465 (of whom 23,324 were not stated to be en route for America, and 19,141 were proceeding there), as compared with 34,540 in the same period of 1898 (made up of 20,205 who were not stated to be going to America, and 14,335 who were).
BATH'S HISTORIC HOUSES. The Corporation of Bath have just placed a com- memoration tablet upon the house in Lansdown- crescent, once occupied by William Beckford, one of the strangest characters who ever spent his declin- ing years in the renowned city of the hot springs. His tomb and monument are such conspicuous objects on the heights of Lansdown that the most casual visitor can hardly avoid becoming familiar with some of the eccentricities of this great dilet- tante. Beckford, who is best known as the author of the Arabian tale Vathek (written in one sitting of three days and two nights), claimed descent from the Saxon Kings. He inherited vast wealth and expended it in the most lavish fashion, building a wonderful house at Fonthill, in Wiltshire, which cost a quarter of a million. Presently the evil days came-vast sums lost in Jamaica through depreciation in the value of his estates and lawsuits resulting therefrom led, Beckford to sell FonthiU at a ridiculous price, and to retire to Bath broken in health and fortune. Here he spent the rest of his days a recluse, shut up with his books and fancies.
DEAD OR ALI YE—WHICH ? Some time ago it was reported that the ex-Princess Chimay, who left her husband for Rigo, her gipsy lover, was dead, and the newspapers published the usual obituary notices. The report was speedily con- tradicted. It is now announced that Eigo has died of the plague at Cairo. The Standard says a dispatch has reached Vienna from Cairo to this effect. The Mail's New Yoi spendent, however, tells a different story Thus: "A Journal dispatch from Cairo, Egypt, states that ex-Princess Chimay is the happy mother of twin boys. Rigo, her gipsy lover, is with her."
"I THOUGHT you advertised home fare I" said the summer boarder, indignantly. Wal," replied Farmer Corntossel. That's what you're gettin'- canned peaches, canned tcmattusses, canned corned beef, and condense milk, the same as you're used to.' FRIEND: What style of architecture did you say your house WitS to be?" Ma Selfmade: "Italian reminiscence is what the architect calls it. 'n A SCHEME for erecting artisians' dwellings on Willow Holme, Carlisle, has been approved by the Local Government Board, and it is at present pro- posed to erect 40 two-room and three-room tene- ments two storeys high, divided into two rows, and separated by a 40ft. street, which is to be called Bar- wise Nook. Every row will consist of five blocks, each of which will have a back yard containing two washhouses and water-closets. The back yards of the different blocks will be separated by unclimable iron railings carried upon a low parapet wall. The two-room tenements will be let at 2s. 6d. a week, and the three-room tenements at 3a. 6d. The cost of the buildings is estimated at 95700. .A -¡,
I THE QUEEN'S LEVEE. 7 By command of the Queen a levee was held on Monday afternoon, at St. James's Palace, by the Prince of Wales, on behalf of her Majesty. Presen- tations to his Eoyal Highness were, by the Queen's pleasure, considered as equivalent, to presentations to her Majesty. The Prince, attended by his Gentlemen- in-Waiting, was escorted by a detachment of the Royal Horse Guards from Marlborough House to the Palace, where he was received by the Great Officers of State. The Grand Duke Michael of Russia was present, attended by Monsieur A. de Stoeckl. The Royal circle also included the Duke of Connaught, the Duke of York, the Duke of Cambridge, and Prince Christian of Schleswig Holstein. The members of the Royal households were in atten- dance, and the Gentlemen-at-Arms and the Yeomen of the Guard were on duty. In the diplomatic and general circles there was a numerous attendance, and the number of presentations was very large. Most of the Ambassadors, Ministers, and Attaches just now in town were present, and among others who attended were the members of her Majesty's Government, Sir Frank Lascelles (Ambas- sador at Berlin), Sir Charles Scott (Ambassador at St. Petersburg), Sir Condie Stephen (Minister at Saxe- Cobiirg-Gotha), Mr. John Kennedy (Minister at Bucharest), Sir George White, V.C., Sir Evelyn Wood, the Bishop of Oxford Viscount Kilcoursie, the Earl of Haddington, Viscount Galway, and a large number of officers of both services, as well as many clergymen.
I EXPLOSIVES BY POST. At the General Post Office, Edinburgh, on Satur- day night, a small tin case containing a brass tube and detonator filled with some explosive mixture became ignited while lying with other packages in a hamper in the sorting department. The sorter dropped the hamper, whereupon the machine, which resembled a sardine tin, exploded, setting fire to its brown paper covering, but doing no damage to the other packages. The noise of the explosion re- sembled a pistol or rifle shot. The sorter took the burning parcel out of the hamper and stamped on it with his foot, extinguishing the fire and destroying the box. The police are endeavouring to find the sender.
ASCENSION DAY. Tuesday was the 62nd anniversary of her Majesty Queen Victoria's accession to the Crown, that event having taken place on June 20, 1837, on the death of her uncle, King William IV. The only other Monarch in this country whose reign at all ap- proached this length was King George III., whose sway over the kingdom lasted 59 years three months and four days. Her Majesty is happily in excellent health, and all her subjects will earnestly pray that her auspicious and beneficent reign may continue for many years. In celebration of the anniversary of the accession of her Majesty to the throne a special ante-communion service was held on Tuesday at St. James's Palace.
FIFTEEN CHILDREN DROWNED. A collision took place between two passenger steamers on the Oder at Stettin, and one, the Bliicher, was sunk, many on board being drowned. The catastrophe was all the more terrible that the passengers of the ill-fated boat were mostly women and children, there being so few men on board that help was not available. Some of the more stout- hearted ones amongst the passengers threw some of the children on to the deck of the other vessel, the Politz, before they tried to save themselves in boats, which had hurried to the spot. The affair was witnessed by hundreds of people on the banks. The whole crew of the Bliicher were saved, the captain clinging to the funnel, which remained projecting out of the water about 18in. The work of rescue was made more difficult by the fact that an awning covered the deck, and also because many women and children were in the cabins, the doors of which could not be opened after the collision. The number of children drowned is stated to be 15.
BRITISH MUSEUM'S GIFT. The trustees of the British Museum have inti- mated that they desire to present to the National Library in Paris about 30,000 duplicates of docu- ments connected with the history of French revolu- tions.
MR. CECIL RHODES, "D. C. L." A letter was addressed to the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University on Monday, expressing regret that the name of Mr. Cecil Rhodes was included in the list of those to receive the degree of Doctor of Civil Law honoris causa at the Commemoration, as he was selected for the honour in 1892, before there was anything to cause any important difference of opinion as to his actions. The letter was signed by 94 members of the University, including the Master of Balliol. The Vice-Chancellor said the document was unofficial.
GOLD IN A MATTRESS. A Paris working man, living in the Rue Perceval, has been the victim of a disagreeable misadventure. Unknown to his wife he had economised, after 10 years of saving, nearly 9600. To put this sum, as he thought, in safety, he had sewn it up in a cloth bag, and then hidden the bag in a mattress. His wife, who was unaware of the existence of the hoard, decided that the mattress needed cleaning, and to this end undid it at both ends preparatory to taking out the stuffing. She hung the mattress thus opened out of the window, with the result that the precious bag fell into the street. It was picked up by a little girl, who, ignorant of the value of its contents, was induced to part with it to two young rogues to whom she had confided her find. For three days the boys were busy spending the unex- pected windfall as fast as they could, but the work- man, who had at last learned what had happened, told the police of his loss, and the two lads were arrested.
THE WRECK OF THE LOCH SLAY. Interesting details have now come to hand regard- ing the loss of the ship Loch Slay, of Glasgow, which on April 24 was wrecked on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Twenty of those on board, including six passengers, were drowned, and there were only four survivors-an apprentice belonging to Tobermory, two seamen and a passenger. The apprentice, in a letter dated May 10, to his father, gives the following particulars regarding the disaster: We were wrecked on Kangaroo Island about 30 miles from Cape Corda Lighthouse. Four were saved and 20 drowned. It was simply awful. I and one of the survivors, who was a sailor, reached the lighthouse the day before yesterday (May 8). We were wrecked on April 24, and left for Cape Corda on the 27th, arriving there on May 8. You can imagine what we suffered when we took 11 days to walk 30 miles. The other sailor managed to reach the opposite side of the island, and it was he who gave first information as to the disaster. The fourth survivor was a second cabin passenger, and he preferred to remain beside the fresh water while we went to look for help. This passenger's body was found long after by the search party near where he was left. My companion and I had only small pieces of cloth with which to protect our feet from the rocks and scrub, but they w^re nevertheless terribly cut up. We lived on shell fish, penguins, and herbs, and always found plenty of water. The lighthouse people telegraphed to Adelaide for a tug to take us there and some newspaper men came down in her. You cannot know the delight with which I enjoyed my first cup of tea and sub- stantial fare along with it."
IT is confirmed that there will be no grand man- oeuvres in France this year. A DISASTROUS hailstorm in Russia has killed two shepherds and a whole flock of sheep. AN autograph letter from Queen Victoria to Napoleon III. was on Monday sold for £2 2s. RIOTS are reported at Montserrat (Jamaica), aris- ing out of tbA faction of the Excise duty. AN Eastbourne blacksmith was on Monday com- mitted for trial on a charge of fraud and polygamy. TilE wife of Dr. Tanner, M.P., on Monday sued for a divorce from her husband on the ground of alleged cruelty. IN the Divorce Court, on Monday, Mrs. Fanny Michael successfully petitioned for a divorce from her husband, a well-known cyclist, on the ground t his misconduct.