Hide Articles List

25 articles on this Page



FIELD AND FARM. (From The Agricultural Gazette?) CALF-REARING. Veal calves pay as well (remarks Professor John Wrightson in his valuable seasonable notes) as milk. I consider that a well-bred calf will increase 10s. a week from birth. If he is estimated to be worth 10s. when first calved, he will be worth 20s. at a week old, and 10s. may be added for each week up to nine weeks old, when he should be worth £;5. A fatting calf may require two gallons a day, in which case lie would drink 14 gallons a week, which at 5d. is only worth 5s. lOd. If, however, two gallons is not considered sufficient, let us look at the calcula- tion from another point of view; 10s. is equal to 20 gallons at 6d., and I do not consider that a calf would consume three gallons per day. Hence, if this is the case, a calf will pay more than 6d. a gallon for the milk he consumes, and leave the manure too. There is no carting and little trouble. There is no outcry about germs and inspection. If the public hampers the production of milk, and insists on absurd tests, let us bring up calves and keep fewer cows. No greater encouragement could be given in the direction of growing early beef; for calves can drink milk and eat cake, and develop into beef at one year old. So also with reference to bull breeding. A well-bred Shorthorn bull will pay for milk quite as well as a veal calf, and milk cannot go to a better use than in growing a good bull calf. Milk has had its day, and we come back to steers and heifers tor grazing, which are by no means too cheap. That they cannot be produced without cows goes without saying, but milk has become a cheap stock food, and calves do on nothing so well as upon new milk. It is probable that pining, coyp consumption, or tuberculosis, is largely due to under feeding. Such is the case in human consumption, which is curable by hard feeding, and living in the open air. The bacillus dies. It cannot live in a plethoric body, and the patient recovers. As soon as a human patient begins to steadily increase in weight he is convalescent, and this is the most modern treatment. A bacillus must not be regarded as an incurable affliction. Bacilli are every- where, and only develep when they find a suitable nidus. If it were not so we should all succumb to them. If stock is well kept up it is more than half the battle. The late conference on tuberculosis at Berlin arrived at the conclusion that tuberculosis is due to unhealthy conditions, and that it is curable. The treatment, as already stated, consists in feeding and plenty of air, without much exercise, until the patient begins to gain weight. There is no despair, and nothing parallel to the idea of destroying infected stock. As to contagion, whoever imagines that consump- tion is contagious to anything like the same degree as measles or scarlatina. It is contagious, but chiefly to those who are predisposed to it, and certainly not from ordinary contact, to healthy people. Men and animals should be well kept up in a high state of physical health, and live as much as possible in the open air. The scare is wearing itself out by its own feverish excitement. We are now told that canary birds are dangerous inmates in a house, and that poultry carry infection. The poultry yard becomes a danger to the cows, and chickens bred up on pasture ground occupied by cattle, are, of course, liable to contaminate horned stock. It will probably be found that rooks are tuberculous as well as rats and mice. There is, in fact, no end to the danger, and no limit to the sources of contagion. Such announcements ought to steady us a little. They show the absolute impossibility of stamping out the bacillus. They, however, show the necessity of keeping up stock in such condition that they are able to resist the insidious approach of a score of diseases which attack the weakened body. I see that we are congratulated as to the healthiness of our stock, but this fits badly with the assumption I that 50 per cent. of our cows are tuberculous. That a large proportion might react is possible but what then ? I read in the latest Year Book of Agriculture published in the United States, that a herd ought to be tested every six months! It is no use to have them tested, and then rest satisfied that we are done with the horrid process. The animal tested and pro- nounced free to-day may be infected to-morrow. The man who will have nothing to do with any cows which are not pronounced free from tubercu- losis must not imagine that he is free; because intro- duction on to his premises may be sufficient con- tamination. The disease may lurk among his pigs, his poultry, or his vermin. That it may occur with- out any known contagion is as sure as that consump- tion may unexpectedly appear in a household where no such taint has existed previously. The more we reflect upon the subject the more it appears that the preservation of healthy conditions, and liberal feed- ing, are the only safeguards practicable. It is also extremely probable that when the disease had obtained a footing the same wise treatment will eradicate it. obtained a footing the same wise treatment will j eradicate it. POTTING BUTTER. I In the first place, the crock demands attention. It must either be absolutely new, or so well preserved that neither crack nor chip can be seen in the glazing. It must be carefully scalded with thoroughly boiling water the day before it is wanted, and then filled up with cold till just about to be used. It should then be poured dry and sprinkled round the sides with powdered salt. When the butter has been made in the usual way, or perhaps even more carefully than usual, to free it from the buttermilk add to it at least Joz. of salt, ground very fine, per lb. work this well in, using the wooden spoon or clapper, and put away till next day. Then with the butter-worker roll it till dry and well mixed, otherwise the salt is apt to make it streaky, and pack very firmly, putting in one or two pounds at a time according to the size of the crock, and running the finger round the sides at every filling to make sure of no air getting in. After filling quite to the top, let it stand a day or two days, then slice off lib. or 21b.; put this in a basin and stand it in the oven until quite melted. Allow the sediment to remain at the bottom of the dish (and perhaps some experienced and excellent buttermakers will be surprised to see how much there is) and pour the fine, pure, liquid butter on the top of the crock. Being freed from casein and other perishable constituents, this never goes rancid, and forms a fine top to the crock; keeping absolutely fresh and preventing the air getting to the butter below; a piece of thin muslin may be laid over to keep out the dust. HOUSING FARM HORSES. It is of the utmost importance that the stable should be roomy, well lighted and ventilated, and free from underground drains. The building should not be less than 18ft. wide inside; the height of the side walls should be 8ft. above the level of the floors. The roof covering may either be of slates or tiles, the latter for preference. These should be laid to a 6in. gauge, carefully and sufficiently torched inside. In cases where the covering is of slates, these should be laid on Rin match-boards, 4 to which the slates are screwed by copper or galvanised nails. There should be a 3ft. passage in front of the manger for easy access in feeding, and facility for keeping the manger clean. This passage should communicate with the food-preparing depart- ment. The best mangers are fire-clay troughs, specially prepared to pattern; a water trough of the same material is also provided. The water supply is self-acting, and so arranged that the water in the different stalls is maintained at the same level. On the same line as the manger a small hayrack is some- times placed, though it is not always necessary. The standings for full-sized horses are 6ft. 6in., with a bottom and front post of oak or pitch pine, eacb 7in. square; the latter of which is placed in a line with the outside of the manger. Into these posts are housed and firmly secured top and bottom rails, grooved to receive 1 Jin. boards. In front of the manger, and running through the posts, are two lines of lin. gas-pipe; these, when secured on each side of the posts by backnuta, make a substantial job. Before the standing posts are set and the necessary walls erected for supporting the mangers, the soil is removed to a depth of 15in.; the posts are then placed in position, and a layer of 12in. of hydraulic lime concrete spread over the entire surface, over this is spread a thin layer of fine concrete, consisting of Portland cement and fine granite chippings. If the work is well done, the entire area becomes one solid block. A grip is formed in the concrete having connecting surface channels to receive and carry and deliver the liquid drainage on a tapped cesspool some distance outside the building. The only objection to this kind of flooring is its slippery character, which can easily be obviated by slightly hatching the surface and radiating from the grip and carriers. Ventilation is another important consideration. Provision should be made for the admission of fresh air on the ground line. The orifice is regulated by a slide and hence is under control; sufficient access must be provided at the apex of the roof to ensure a continuous circulation. The stable should be well provided with light, this adds in no small degree to the health and comfort of the animals, but for the extra cost entailed we greatly prefer the use of boxes to that of stalls, because a hard-worked animal ha- more freedom and rests better.


[No title]





[No title]








[No title]









[No title]