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BY s-iAMO OH BY BRAIN." We are moving towards real demo- cracy in -Treat Britain. Last week saw the pub" 1 of the new draft sclieme f the La bour Party, for broadening the basis of that body by bringing it into close and direct relationship with the con- ftituencies. That scheme may be altered in detail here and there, but substantially ic is likely to be adopted unaltered. Its adoption will mark an epoch in our politi- cal evolution. In future Labour will have its political organization in every con- stituency and will compete directly for the support of the electorate, just as in the past Liberals and Conservatives have done. The term "Labour" has been widened to embrace brain workers as well as workers by hand. 'It is expressly stated in the new constitution that the party aims at promoting the interests of all producers "by hand or by brain" with- out distinction of class or occupation. A FAP.-REACHING CHANCE. Thus, simultaneously with the broaden- ing of the basis of Labour, there is to be a wider and truer conception of what Labour connotes. The result of this double change will be far-reaching. Hitherto the Parliamentary Labour Party has confined itself to the promotion and protection of the interests of manual workers. It was far too contracted a policy. One result of its restrictive character was that the Labour members of Parliament consisted almost entirely of trade union officials, all of them very estimable men, but the majority indis- pc-ied to interest themselves in anything outside the. trade union boundary. As a consequence the Labour Party in Parlia- ment, by reason of its particularism, did not exercise the influence which properly belonged to it. All this, narrowness will vanish under the new model. The in- clusion of brain workers with manual workers means that the old foolish pre- judice against tli;it ti?e olkl foolish pi,e- so hampered the Labour Party in the past has been consigned to limbo; and in future there will be opportunities for men f intellect who are not hand workers to represent Labour in the House of Com- mons. Tlus will be an immense change, and one wholly T _>r the better. For the lirsfc time we a" lace to face in this country with pfo.spcct cf a true People's Party, which, if ifc becomes a reality, will play havoc with the Liberal a:ul Conservative organizations in the .l,l,t. '0' c. ..0, (.. '1 L' U 6\ (- 13- .1 constituencies. j THE CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT. Concurrently with the publication oi new constitution of the Labour Party, "J -0. ,) j l -oiL\. (.t.L 0.1' cornrs the news that the Co-operative movement has decided to adopt a scheme for special ParUatti-nin:y representation of co-operaloj i' interests. Here again possibilities of a sweeping change are opened up. The co-operators will not merge* themselves in the Labour Party: they are a very poweiful body with dis- tinctive interests of their own. But they have much in common with Labour, and co-operatlvo M.P/s would almost in- variably vote in the same Lobby as the Labour M.P.'s. A political union of these two forces would become an influence of first-class importance in our political af- fairs. Provided they eschew wild-cat pro- jects, the Labour Parly plus the Co- operators may before many years go by become the dominant force in Parliament. They arc certain to win many seats at the next general election, for they will not only have the support, of their own people, but that of a vast number of independent electors who believe that the war, which Las brought Europe to the verge of ruin, is due to the tragic incompetence and blind folly of the governing classes in j German}-, Ras.,ia, Fiance and England. SUBMARINE LOSSES. Ibe Prime Mini^t^r on Monday warned I us in rc?rd to the ,submarino campa??  | tb?it ?h'?'e are Huct?t?OR'") ?P? ??''? -ité:o'L..r-ç-" downs, good weeks and lad weeks, nnd this is evidently one of the bad weeks so far as losses are concerned. The Official Return shows that 17 ever 11,GOO tons, and eight of light, r tonnage have "'en sun]- winch makes the gross total of all British vessels sunk during the week 25, ns compared with 16 in last week's return. As compared with the average weekly loss in any of tlm-- earlier months, we must go back to June, to find a parallel. It is curious and perhaps not without significance that in the same week the losses have increased there has also been an increase in the number of ships unsuccessfully attacked, which is nearly double that of the previous week, and that the traffic returns of all ships are higher than they have been before during this month, and have nearly reached at a bound the average for Sep- tember. The Prime Minister has been in- sistent lately upon the increasing failure of the German submarine campaign, and it must be obvious to every one outside of .Germany who has given thought to the matter that tho campaign has not been the success which was anticipated. Our monthly los.s in tonnage, said Mr Lloyd George, is now not much over one-third' of what it was in April last. The Prime Minister also stated at the Albert Hall on Monday that the losses of German sub- marines during the 10 months of this year were more than twice what they were during the whole of 191G. By next year our output of shipbuilding is to be foul' times what we turned out last year.. In each case the advantage is relative. As regards tho submarines accounted for,, we do not know how many were destroyed in 191G, during the greater part of which year the campaign was not. of the inten- sive character it has had since February. What is known is that both the Prime Minister on August lG, and Sir John Jellicoe since, have stated that the num- ber of submarines engaged in the under- water warfare is increasing. It may be presumed, therefore, that while the- measures for meeting the menace have met with. more success, further improve- ment in this respect is still necessary.


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