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RUSSIA—A REPUBLIC. I In lOO-l-o, a secret correspondence was in .r ss between that precious pair of sc-i. Is. the Kaiser and the ex- Tsar. The letters now unearthed and published by the "New York Herald" in- clude one in which "Niki" expresses his horror at the idea of a Norwegian Re- public "as if we had not already suffi- cient Republics in the world. To-day the writer of that letter, is a prisoner and Russia" has been officially declared a Republic. A more dramatic transform- ation has never before been recorded in the history of the world. Little did the exTsar of all the Russias imagine when he was engaged in that unholy con- spiracy with the "All Highest" that in a brief twelve years he would be hurled from the throne which had been made infamous by generations of unspeakable tyranny. But what a grim commentary upon our boasted civilization that it should be possible for it whole Continent to be drenched in blood at the mere will of men like the Kaiser and the ex-Tsar. The revelations now being made throw a lurid light on the dangers of an irre- sponsible and unprincipled monarchy and afford complete justification for Mr. Wilson's momentous declaration No peace with Kaiserdom. What faith can be placed in the word of a perjured monarch and the military autocracy around him ? The world must be freed onco for all from hidden intrigues and secret conspiracies of this kind. The pacifists in this and other countries must know that before a stable, enduring peace can be established, sentence of out- lawry must be carried out in Germany as it has been done in Russia. THE SUBSIDISED LOAF. j The subsidised ninepenny loaf is now general, and purchasers, particularly in the poorer districts, warmly welcomed the red uction of 3d. or more on the price they have for many months been com- pelled to pay for their bread. It cannot be said that many customers gave a thought to the overthrow of economic doctrine represented in their pennies or to the £ 40,000,000 a year which it is estimated that the subsidy will cost the St;,¡t" if wheat prices remain at their prc- sent level. What they did realise was that the ive iction in cost meant some- thing like a shilling a week—in some cases more—in the weekly bread bill. 1 ne economics involved they left to the theorists. In ordinary times it is pro- bable that no person would be more strongly opposed to a state subsidy to keep down food prices than the present Food Controller, but Lord Rhondda and the Government were faced with the fact that the quartern loaf at a shilling was causing serious unrest, and a sub- sidy offered the only means by which a reduction could bo effected. The price of wheat is a matter over which the Government could not exercise any full control. They had to pay the price asked by the United States and the Argentine. Nothing could be gained by cutting down the baker's margin of profit, for expert opinion was against the idea that there has been "profiteering" in the sale of I hread. In order to reduce the price of the loaf, therefore, it was necessary to SO to the State for assistance. One view of the subsidy is that it gives hack some of the excess profits, upon which taxation has laid a heavy hand, to the people who provide them. The tax is collected from employers and business opeiators, hut in some measure at any rate it is collected from the consumer AMERICA WILL SEE IT THROUGH. There is a gy-owing volume of evidence that America is determined to see the «-ar through. Our great ally does not believe in half measures, and even the Pacific Mr. Bryan a few days ago, said, "I do not know how long this war will last, but I do know that the quickest waY out is straight through." In an -t ■tfnm—ciigrii miii—Hi imhihm jbi>i > in iimii— interesting historic parallel, a writer in the "Times" refers to the arrival of the first batch of American troops in this country as the descendants of "the suffer- ing band of pilgrims" who set out for the new world in the Mayflower. As be eloquently puts it, they come back ani- mated by the same principles which sent them forth on their Atlantic voyage— love of liberty, devotion to righteousness it is and justice; and it is interesting to see the marvellous power which these great principles still exercise upon the lives of the present representatives of the ancient pilgrims. America is what she is because the same principles have always been dominant; it is the presence of thesc, principles still at work thai makes her determi ned at .any cost to destroy Prussianism, to reduce to impotence the bully of the nations that would be the ruling tyrant of the world. It is truo the descendants of the Mayflower ,i1- grims are animated in some degree by an affectionate regard for the home of their forefathers and her free institu- tions, but the great moving power which has produced such mighty changes in so short a time in the national ways and habits of the States is to be found in her sincere conviction that Germany is the enemy of liberty, righteousness, and peace, and for their sake must be ren- dered impotent. THE SUBMARINE RETURN. The submarine Return for the past week differs but slightly from, that of the preceding week. The satisfactory feature in the statistics of our shipping losses was then the drop in the number of heavier vesse ls destroyed, and the con- tinuance of this drop is the encouraging; feature this week. That these figures will be disanpointine to the pnpn", ie ha- "-J .} .I.) .)'¡. yond a doubt, yet in this country we- must not allow ourselves to be unduly elated by them. It is on their promise that our hopes may rest. At the rate of loss which has rujpd for the two weeks I of Septemoer there is absolute certainty. that the victory so confidently antici- pated by the Germans earlier in the year cannot be achieved. Yet so long as the average weekly loss continues what it in it shows that the submarine menace is- not yet under control. Further, while the cumulative effect of these losses, par- ticularly in vessels of heavier tonnage continues to deprive us of shipping more- quickly than it can be replaced, the situation must be regarded as dangerous. Who. the necessary corrections have- been made it is shown by the figures of this v. eek s retvrn that the number of largo ships sunk was eight, which is the lowest yet recorded. In the preceding week the number was 11, and the pre- j Vious lowest figure in any one week was 11; the highest, which was registered in I April, was 40. t