BREST LITOVSK I EVACUATED. I "-KV;. PLANNED RUSSIA* RETREAT, CONTINUES-. (Press Association War Service.) I PETROGRAD, Thursday. To-night's official commumque Bays .— There is no change in the Riga region. To the south-west of Friedriehstadt, in the region of Schoenberg-Radzivichki, dur- ing the 24th and 25th inst., the enemy, f f enk,e an d sevele reinforced, resumed t c offensive and severe and stubborn lighting ensued. In the direction cf Dvinsk, in the region |>f Qnikchty, on the Ri?er Sventa, we drove the Germans. In the direction of Vlna, our troops hold- mg up the enemy durh? Aug-t 24th and 26th on the posit-ions belore E6, are gradu- ally falling back alongooth banks of the On the middle Niemer end the front be- tween the Upper Bobr and the Pripet, our armies, in conformity with instructions received, are retiring towards the east. The enemy is only pressing our troops in certain directions, having on August 25th j concentrated his principal efforts against Bi?iystok and on the ioads running cast- wards kom the BieJsk-Kiestcheli front. DURING THE NIGHT. I YERSION IN THE GERMAN I REPORT. 1 (Press Association War Special ) I i | AM^iiiKUAAi, imutuiiv. 7 The offic?al Berlin CO-ilque states: — ? The report from the Eastern theatre of ? war says — Army Group of Marshal von Hindenburg. -iNeaT Bowsk and bchoenberg and south- east of MitaJu skirmitshes developed. East and south-east of ivopno fighting is pro- ceeding. Before Olita, our troops are approaching the enemy advanced positions between iSejney and Merscz. On the Nie- men the enemy has been repulsed. In the wood eâst of Augustowo part of the troops of General von Eichhorii have advanced eastwards. Further south fighting is pro- ceeding. In the Berzowka sector our van- guards have reached Bf-alystok. The army of General Gallwitz has ejected the enemy from the Orlanka district north and south-east of Bielsk. The Army Group of Prince Leopold of Bavarda.—The severely defeated enemy has 11 ed into the interior of Bialowiecka Forest. South of the forest district and south-west of Camienic Lytovsk the enemy is sAlII resisting. The Army Group of Marshal von Macken- sen.—-The fortress of Brest-Listovsk has fallen. While the army corps cf Marshal von Arz, after fighting in the afternoon, took two forts on the west front, the Bran- denburg reserve of troops stormed the for- tifications on the north-west front and entered the inner fortifications during the night. The enemy thereupon surrendered the fortress. Along the entire front of the army group from the Bialowiecka Forest to the marshy district of Pripet, south-east of Brest- Li/tovsk, the pursuit is vigorously progress- ing. REICHSTAG REJOICES. (Press Association War Speciai.) AMSTERDAM, Thursday. A Berlm telegram states that at the be- ginning of to-day sitting of the Reichstag the President said — "I have just now received the news that! BreA.-Litov*k,has fallen. (Great applause.) We-iajute our brave soldiers and officers, the Army leaders, and our Allied Aastro- Hungarian Army-(stommy,applause on all eides)-who in the last week& and »r< nths have accomplished such almost incredible deeds. Their performance is tro -;n.d, by the iali of Brest-Laiovsk." (Stormy ipo-Uu^e )
II ACCORDING TO A FRENCHMAN. GERMANY'S AWFUL FINANCIAL PLIGHT." (Press Association War Special.) fARlo, Friday. M. Thery, editor of the" Economiste 1 European, writing in that paper on the siibject of Germany's finance, says:- "It is evident the ultra-optimistic declar- ations of Dr. Helfferich, the Imperial Secre- tary for Finance, in the Reichstag, were only made to conceal from the foreign na- tions the awful economic situation weigh- ing upon the country and to make the Ger- man people themselves, who are already suf- fering cruelly from this situation, believe the power of resistance of enemy nations will fail before theirs. This enabled him to de- clare with pride that the German Empire did not beg, thus forgetting that the means which he is adopting to drag out of his com- patriots the last few marks they possess con- stitute one of the most colossal of begging JL.4, ft efforts.
I BELGIAN R,AILS FOR THE EAST. I GERMAN OPERATIONS f AGAINST RUSSIA. ROTTERDAM, Thursday. It is reported from the frontier that the 1 German authorities have officially an- nounced that 800 kilometres of rails from the light railways of Belgium are to be taken up for use in the operations tn Russia. This means that practically one-fifth of the whole network of the light railways of Belgium will be destroyed. In connection with this it has been dis- covered that one part of the system belongs .to -an international company, and is con- tinued over the Dutch frontier. Imme- diately the German announcement was made official representations were made by Hol- land and the Germans have given an assur- ance that this part of the railway shall remain intact.—("Daily News and Leader.") I,
LOST 3.000. GERMANS HARD HIT AT SOUCHEZ. I (Press Association War Special). PARIS, Friday. Tht Ai-ras correspondent of the, "Petit Parisiejj," in a message dated the 24th iiist., says In ooe of the last attacks delivered by the .Germans against Souohez, one of their 1 rigades (4,000) lost three-quarters of its strength.
"NO GERMAN MUST REMAIN." IRIL LLOYD GEORGE AND PEACE TERMS. PARIS, Thursday. Senator Charles Humbert, who for a long time has been carrying on an active cam- paign in the "Journal in favour of in- creasing the output of munitions, has just returned from England, where he was re- ceived by Mr. Lloyd George, who declared to him — As long as there remains a single Ger- man soldier on the soil of France or Bel- gium no Englishman will ?ver consent to ?).eMB of peace."—(R?uter.?
SUBMARINE SUNK I « £ I BY BRITISH AIRMAN. GREAT FRENCH RAID I ON GERMANY. I PRiESS BTJDEAU, Thursday, 6.20 p.m. The Secretary of the -Admiralty an- nounces: SQUADRON-COMMANDER ARTHUR W. BIGSWORTH, R.N. HAS. DE- HAS. DE- STROYED, SINGLE-HANDED, A GER- MAN SUBMARINE THIS MORNING BY BOMBS .DROPPED FROM AN AEROPLANE. THE SUBMARINE WAS OBSERVED TO BE COM- PLETELY WRECKED, AND SANK OFF OSTEND. It is not the practice of the Admiralty to publish statements regarding the losses of German submarines, important though they have been, in cases where the enemy have no other source of information as to the time and place at which these losses have occurred. IX THE CASE REFERRED TO ABOVE, HOWEVER, THE BRILLIANT SEAT OF SQUADRON-COMMANDER BIGSWORTH WAS PERFORMED IN THE IMMEDIATE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE COAST IN OCCUPATION OF THE ENEMY, AND THE POSITION OF THE SUNKEN SUBMARINE HAS BEEN LOCATED BY A GERMAN DE- jSTROYER. HIT ZEPPELIN. Another Notable Feat Recalled. This is Squadron-Commander Bigsworth's second great achievement.. On May 17th, when a Zeppelin attacked Ramsgate, he dropped four bombs from 400 feet above and ne-ly accomplished wthat the late Sub- Lieut. Warneford, V.C., did some time later near Ghent. A long train of smoke was sqjai to issue from one of the compartments of the Zeppelin, which, rising to a great height (11,000 feet) with her tail down, disappeared severely damaged. For this brilliant work Bigsworth was promoted from flight-com- mander to squadron-commander, and it is not unlikely the coveted Victoria Cross will be awarded for smashing this submarine under the nose of German batteries on the Belgian coast. GREAT RAIDS. ALLIED AIR SQUADRONS BUSY. HEAVY DAMAGE TO GERMAN DEPOTS. PARIS, Thursday, 11 p.m. The following official statement is issued During the day of the 25th our aero- planes bombarded in the Woevre the Ger- man cantonment at Vaunes and Vaussant, causing a fire. The railway stations and the German bivouacs a.t Grand Prix, Chatel Gernay, and Fieville, in the Argonne, the station of Tergnier and the aviation parks of Vitry in Artois, and the railway station at Boisleux were also bombarded by our machines. A bombardment by aeroplanes of the French, British and Belgian armies and the French and British navies acting Ï91 concert—60 aeroplanes in all-was effected against the forest of Houlthulet, where several fires broke out. All the aeroplanes returned. During the night of the 25th one of our air squadrons dropped 127 bombs on the station of Noyon. (Note.—DMingen is on the Saar, in Rheniiah Prussia, between 60 and 100 miles from the nearest point on French territory horn which the airmen might have set out. The raid is about the most considerable one jet made. It will be remembered that on the 10th imt. the French made a ra.id some- what further south on Saarbrucken with 32 aircraft described as bombardment aero- i/anes, escorted by other aeroplanes for pur- poses of protection and pursuit, which were chiefly engaged in keeping off nvcatiks. On that occa-sion 164 bombs were dropped on an important munitions factory and other mili- tary establishments.) THE PREVIOUS AIR RAID. Durang the 24th one of our aeroplanes bombarded the station of Offenburg, an im- portant junction m the Grand' Duchy of Laden. Yesterday a flotilla of four detachments of aeroplaaes, 62 'in number, flew over Dillingen Ironworks, a shell and armour- place factory north of Saarlouis, upon which vi ere thrown with precision over 150 bombs, including 30 of large calibre. RECORD FOR THE WAR. I Formet Air Swoops on Germany Recalled. The raid on Dillingen is by far the most considerable of the whole war, as far as the number of airmen engaged in it its con- cerned. The largest previously* was carried out by 40 British naval aeroplanes and sea- planes on the Zeebrugge and Ostend' dis- tricts on February 16th, the assistance of edght French airmen bringing the total of the attacking force up to 48. Three days earlier 34 British machines had bombarded the same area. Since then the most notable air raids have been carried out by the French, who have developed highly efficient bombard- ment squadrons, protected by numbers of battle-aeroplanes, which dtuve off any attackiiijg German aerial force. Twenty-three aeroplanes bombed Karls- ruhe on June 16th with 130 projectiles, doing great damage and causing a wild panic. In May a raid of even greater mili- tary importance was carried out by 18 machines at Ludwigshafen on the Rhine, where most of the poison gases used by the enemy were then being manufactured. More recently, on August 9th, 32 bom- bardment aeroplanes, escorted by battle- aviators, attacked the station and factory of Saarbrucken, dropping 164 shells with considerablo effect.
ONE OF A. SERIES." IALLEGED SYSTEMATIC RAIL- i I WAY THEFTS. CHARGES AGAINST LLANELLY I SHUNTER. At the Llauelly Police Court on Wednes- day, Frederick Albert Coles, Westbury-street, a shunter on the G.W.R., was charged with a series of thefts from the company extending over a period of some months Mr. T. R. Ludford prosecuted, and Mr. W. Davies de- fended. Detective-Inspector W. H. Morris proved arresting the defendant and finding a quan- tity of cloth at his house. The man admitted taldiig a quantity of soft collars. He pro- duced the pieces of doth found in the house, also some dresses and a brown coat, all un- finished. Mr. liUdford said Oole would first be charged with stealing four dozen collars, value lis. The defendant had been employed by the company for 14 years and came from Exeter. During the time the man was at the station numerous complaints were made, and the company came to the conclusion tl,.Te were systematic thefts at Llanelly. This was only one of a series of casos. The man was charged to-day with stealing: goods of the value of EIO. but I Many were the charges that could be made against him. It was not a matter of a sudden temptation on the part of the man, but a, systematic series of thefts. A large number of witnesses from all parts of the country were called to identify the stolen goods. Defendant was sent for trial.
TO BE WARNED flRSTI ON TIRPITZ TO CLIMB I DOWN. J REPORTED ASSURANCE I TO AMERICA. 1 (Press Association War Special.) I ?', ? 'IT 1-11?1 1 + -J.4.aJ. Count Bemstorff yesterday informed Mr. Lansing that the former's statement on Tuesday was intended to imply that sub- marine commanders had been ordered to attack no more merchantmen without warm- ing Mr. Gerard, United States Ambassa- dor in Berlin, reporting the substance of a conversation with Herr von Jagow, said Germany, before sinking the Arabc, had adopted a policy designed to settle the entire submarine problem. Mr. Gerard's despatch has not been published. While officials here are inclined to be op- timistic regarding the settlement of the situation, President Wilson and Mr. Lansing are awaiting some definite declaration from Berlin. It is understood Germany will an- nouaiee the suspension of its warfare agajaist passenger-carrying ships. BUTTERING THE 8TATES. GERMAN CHANCELLOR PAVES WAY FOR REPUDIATION OF YON TIRPITZ. BERLIN, Thursday. Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg on Tuesday evening received the correspondent of the Associated Press and briefly discussed the Arabic case. The Chancellor authorised the correspondent to make the following state- ment "As long as the circumstances regarding the sinking of the Arabic. are not fully cleared up it is impossible for me to make a definite statement. So far we have received no report about it. "Up to now we do not even know whether the sinking of the ship was oaused by a mine or by a torpedo fired from a German submarine, nor do we know in this latt-er, case whether the Arabic by her action per- haps justified the proceedings of the com- mander of the submarine. "Only after all these circumstances have been cleared up will it be possible to say: whether the commander went beyond his in- structions, in which case the Imperial Government would not hesitate to give such complete satisfaction as would be in con- formity with the friendly relations existing between both Goverinaerts."—("Daily Mail.") DISPATCH FROM BERLIN. WASHINGTON, Thursday. Mr. Lansing has received a dispatch from lir. Gerard, the United States Ambassador in Berlin, but he declines to say whether it contains advices from the German Govern- ment.—(Reuter).
"NOT A GERMAN, ARE YOU?" ABERAYON BENCH AND I CHILIAN SEAMAN. At Aberavon on Thursday, Gwilliam E. D. Steenbacker, a young Chilian, described as a. Beam-mi, appeared on two charges, viz, with failing to register himself as an alien and with giving a false name to the boarding- house keeper. P.S. Swafiield said on Tuesday, the 24th mst., he met defendant in Water-street, and charged him with being an alien. He subse- quently took him to the police station. When charged defendant replied, "I have regis- tered myself at the boarding-house." Eleanor David?on, Victoria-road Boardiag- house, said that defendant came to the lodging-house Oil the afternoon of the 3rd inst. He registered himself under the name of "E: D. Gwilliam" on the book, and wit- ness told him to go to the police station to register himself as an alien. The Chairmaai: How long have you been in this country? Defendant: Three weeks. I came from the Continent on the sailing ship County of Lin- lithgow. -Clerk- Yo uare not a German, are von? I)efeuclant: No; J am a Chilian. He waa remanded in custody for a week.
SUED FOR TWOPENCE.! SIR JNO. BRUNNER FINDS IT ] EXPENSIYE. Sir John Branner, chairman of Brunnet, Mond, and Go. (Limited), described as of the Reform Club, Pall Mall, was summoned at Bow-street Police Court on Friday by John Morgan, a taxi-cab driver, for the recovery of twopence, the balance of a cab fare. Mr. Martin O'Connor, who supported the summons, said that on August 12 the cab- man drove Sir John Brunner from Euston Station to the Reform Club. The meter re- gistered Is. 6d., which Sir John paid, but he declined to pay another 2d. demanded by the driver for a portmanteau which was carried outside the cab. Defendant did not appear, but wrote a letter to the magistrate saying that only I Is. 4d. was registered by the meter. Complainant said he called the attention j of a hall porter and a commissionaire at the club to the amount shown on the meter. The Magistrate made an order for the payment of the 2d., with £ 2 2s. costs. I
=- ENTENTE'S OFFER TO BULGARIA. DARDANELLES ARMY FOR SERBIA! I According to the Sofia correspondent of the Near East," a Bulgarian paper, the Duma," which i8 Anglophile in its ten- denciea, claims to have learnt the nature of the offer made by the Entente Powers to Bulgaria in the identical Notes of August 3rd. The Duma" sayg We learn' from a trustworthy source that the new proposals of the Quadruple Entente were exhaustive, and contained the maximum coaoessions that a reasonable Bulgarian. politicia,n could have asked for. The main point of the rewards promised to Bulgaria is that they are not made conditional on the compensations that our neighbours expect to get. The Entente informs us that Anglo- French troops will occupy Salomica and the railway line to Ghvgheli in order to secure direct communication with Serbia, and this will guarantee us from any attack in the rear. In the third place, the Entente would undertake all responsibiJ ;ty of placing us in possession of the promised territories. In the fourth place, we should be allowed to oocupy all the territory east of the River Vardar on the dav we move against Turkev. The Dardanelles Army's Destination. Finally, the Entente Powers promised ,ilso tnat we should ocoupy Western Macedonia before the summoning of the Peace Congress, As soon as Constantinople falls the Anglo- French troops set free are to join up with the Serbians after passing through Mace- donia, which will be handed over to our troops." The Italian newspapers told us on Wednes- day last that the Serbian Premier has stated in Parliament that. Serbia accepts the arbitration of the Quadruple Entente for the settlement of territorial questions"; but no more definite news with regard to Serbia's j decision has yet been received. i
"ONLY TWO NDURSI LONGER" ^——I.I1 I WERE WANTED AT ANZAC, GRAPHIC STORY OF COLONIAL DASH. I ALEXANDRIA, Aug. 14 (received 26th). Olice again the Australian and New Zea- laad troops have coverai themselves with glory-this time in a magnificent attack on the famous Sari-Bahr hill, generally known as Hill 9 (1. "If only the night had been two hours longer," said a wounded Austral- ian officer, we should have had all tn. Turks off that hill, but when day dawned we were 600 yards distant from the foot, and the enemy rained down a merciless fire upon us, and we were forced to entrench." Wounds aeem nothing to these men so long as the objective is reached. It is said that before the landing opera- tions in April the German officers told the I Turkish soldiers that the Australians and I New Zeaianders would probably be ai-rayedi, against them, and they were warned that I these wera I Not ordinary men, .L .,1 I- I I out very aevus lor ngui-iug. ins lanaing on April 25 confirmed the truth ..)f tha warning to the Turks, and it will be a last- ing regret that there was not sufficient troops to loliow up the great initial success of uie Overseas forces. The Turkish position had been undoubtedly turned they were on the run everywhere, but the Colonials had to fall back on Gaba Tepe, and for three months they had been marking time, wait- ing until the moment should be propitious for a new offensive. Here in Egypt we had watched fresh troops pouring in practically day after day. The camps in Alexandria had extended and extended until they stretched as far distant as Aboukir, where men from the Lowlands of Scotland gazed upon the scene of the famous na.val conflict between Neiion and Admiral Breuys 120 years ago. The streets of Alexandria were almost impassable with troops, and one would witness in the Mo- I hammed Ali-square scenes hitherto undreamt of, and for kaleidoscopic effect almost with- out parallel, save perhaps in the actual theatres of operations. Australians, New Zealanders, and Maoris; French piou-pious, Senegalese, Zouaves, and Chasseur's d'Afri- que; Pathans, Sikhs and Gurkhas French, English and American sailors; and last, but I not least in numbers, the British Tommy. The Entente had never been better exempli- fied than in the nightly spectacle of English and French troops arm-in-arm I waiKing through the streets singing iip- perary. Describing the soeii-es at the Anzac ad- vance a wounded officer said "What an extraordinary sight would have been presented to the eye if a limelight had suddenly been turned on that great ad- vancing mass of humanity I Th&usauds and thousands of men, -1. I troni Anzac to ouvia DdY, eroepuig nuuLign scrlbb and wending their way through the guillies, peering through the da.r'kness for a sign of the enemy, knaves and bayonets ready to despatch anyone who attempted to I arrest them in their path. Everything de- pend-ed on our surprising the en.emy and working the greatest execution while night lasted. Unfortunately, our guide had taken the wrong path after branching off from the coast, :? we had been obiged to retrace our steps for som-e distance, thereby losing valua-ble time. Eventually we struck the right course and pushed on as "swiftly as we could through the gullies. After a while we sur- prised a detachment of Turks, who offered little resistance; any who resisted were soon despatched with the bayonet. The night was very dark, and sometimes it was diffi- oult to distinguish the forms of our own men. Occasionally we could hear that strange erureriiraj; sound that indicated that the Curkha was using his kukri. ?- I,- I .I -?.- Not a shot was nred; it was all silent knife and bayonet work. "By dawn we had reached a point some 500 or 600 yards from the hill, having up to that time met with no serious resistance. We had surprised the Turks everywhere. In one case, just before dawn, we came upon one party of Turks bivouacking, and they j were altogether too astonished to do any- thing. A handful of our men jurL went for- ward aaid bagged the lot, taking them down to the beach. In another ease we captured a Germaai ofifcer, whom we found fast asleep under a tree. Prisoners admitted that they ziever anticipated an attack on the hill from the direction in which we ma-de it, and j they had no sautries posted. "On my way to the dressing station, after I was wounded, I passed several Gurkhas j Mtting here and there nursing a wounded haaid or arm, but yoa may be quite sure! that each man had acoounted for more than one Turk. The Gurkha, rushing at a Turk, j wards off the bayonet with his left arm, 0; grips it with his hand, and then, bringi,? hili kukri quickly round with his right, des- patches his man in trice. j Turns w no rf eipea. I The Otagos, in rusrilig one position, came up against a diidcult ascent, but to their great astonishment the Turks entrenched above learut over and helped the New Zea- ianders up, kissing their hands as they did so. They then surrendered in a body. The fight ior a -ovest on a portion of the Sari-1 Lair position was very keen indeed. The Turks were strongly entrenched, and their numerous machine-guns were well concealed in the scrub, but here again our troops were not to be denied, and although many a brave fellow was kilhxl the enemy was dislodged from his strongly-held, positions after magni- ficent charges with the bayonet, and the crest occupied, the Turks noting down the opposite slope. The gallantry and dash of1 the troops in this fighting wa-s beyond all; praise. One officer who had been bayoneted through the leg by a Turk, closed with his L assailant in a desperate struggle. As he clasped the Turk round the neck the latter 121anaged to embed his teeth in the officer's left hand, but the Briton succeeded in getting a knife from his pocket, and with his right hand stabbed the Turk through the heart. On the crest a dying Turkish officer begged a drink of water from a Britsh private, who immediately gave him his water bottle. The officer, in token of his gratitude, offered the private his gold watch, as well as £8 in Turkish money. Fail, Fighters. Ml the wounded men speak very well of the Turk. They s-y throughout he has fought very fairly, and has shown that, he bears no animosity against the British. They take the greatest care to avoid hi..ing our dressing stations or hospital bases, and there have been further instances of Turks dressing our wounded men and carrying them into our own lines.-(Reuter's Special Service). MORE DARDANELLES "ACTIVITY" CALLED FOR. (Press Association War Special). ) rAU-L;s, k,riday. Discussing the eventuality of an atack-en- maJfle against Serbia, or even of a descent upon Bessarabia, in order to isolate and elrike at Koumania, the "Matm" is of opinion this is a contingency which should .always be seriously considered. The be&t preventative, the "Joiirnal" thinks, would be the "renewal of activity" in the Dardanelles in order to take Constantinople, and thus leave the Ger- mans no objective whatever on the Black j Sea. == •;
THE WESTMINSTER GAZETTE." In connection with the reference in some newspapers on Friday morning to the fact that Sir Charles Henry, M.P.. was one of the original directors of the "Westminster Gazette" syndicate, the Press Association is aeked to say that Sir Charles Henry resigned bib directorship in January last.
FIGHT ON THE I FRONTIER. ——— ——— TASK BEFORE ITALY. THE GEOGRAPHICAL. I DIFFICULTIES, I Three months have passed since Italy declared war against Austria (says a "Mcrii- ing Post correspondent). The intervening period has been devoted by the Italians to a systematic- course of action designed to overcome e disadvantages of the frontier against Austria defined by the Treaty of Prague at the close of the war of 1866, in \\hich Italy was allied with Prussia. Among the various fictions which seem to fin-d favour in connection with the present war none "8 perhaps more fallacious than that which pretends that fronti?ra have no sig- ninGs.nc3 in war. Far from this beii?g the case, they form one of the most vital factors in the plan of campaign of every European Power against a. neighbouring Power, and, as such, have been the subject of close study by every General Staff during peace. The Treaty of Prague, whole it restored Venetia to the Italians, gave Austria the angular frontier of the Trentinc, which made it dangerous for the Italian Army to concentrate or operate east of the Adige (.if Austria were able to take the offensive) without first gaining possession of the Tren- tino. An Austrian force in the Trentmo could operate either towards Lombarcfy or Venetia, and, in co-operation with a force acting from the Pusterthal, would have the latter province at its mercy. In addition to this advantage, the treaty left Austria in possession of all the passes and the beads of all the valleys on the mountain frontiers of LombaTdy and Venetia, and of -the I I Strong line of the Isonzo oetween tne iu-iaan Alps ana tile sea. The I Isonzo, it may here be noted, ds most for- midable as an obstacle during the spring and summer months, when its stream is swollen by the meltin2 snows. Sb great are the disadvantages of Italy's angular frontier that the Italian General Staff considered the advisability of abandoning Venetia at the outset of a war with Austria, and of con- centrating the armies behind the Adige. The conditions at the outset of the pre- sent war, however, obviated any such sacri- fice, for Austria was deeply committed in Galicia, and the initiative lay with the Ital- ians, who forthwith set themselves to remedy the tactical disadvantages of their frontier line. The Austrians had devoted years of peace and expended much labour and money in rectifying the defensive weak- ness inherent in a mountain frontier, which lies in the Liability of positions to be outflanked or turned if any practicable line of advance j should bo left unguarded or inadequately defended. Permanent forts, heavily armed, were constructed to command every possible | line of approach; and in this 6=.t"l? scheme the Austrians had the tactical ad- vantage, referred to above, of possessing the higher ground. Besides this advantage from the defensive point of view, the posses- sion of the heights and passes gave the Austrians the power of concentrating-forces unobserved in any desired locality behind the mountain screen, and invading Italian territory in some unexpected quarter. The Italian defences, being necessarily situated on the lower features, would be taken at a disadvantage. To vsecure themselves against such an enterprise it was incumbent on our Allies at the outset to oust the enemy from their fortified positions along the whole length of the frontier as a preliminary to any offensive operations on a large scale. The Trentmo fi on tier claimed a large, xf not indeed the greater, part ot their attention, because of the facilities, already indicated, which its salient character offered for Enterprises in rear of an Italian army operating on the side of Carinthia and Car- I mola, wiiich is obviously the direction for a serious invasion of Austria. The slow pro- gress made by our Allies in subduing the barrier forts may seem surprising when con- trasted with the speedy collapse of the great fortresses :1Il other theatres of war. The explanation is doubtless to be found in the impracticability of transporting heavy siege- artillery in the mountains and placing it within effective jange of the fortifications, which have the advantaiges of command'ng sites and a powerful armament. On the Isonzo front the Austrians, in anticipation of Italy throwing in her lot with the Allies, had supplemented their permanent defences with field entrench- ments on a vast scale, designed on the pat- tern which the Germans have found so effective on the Western front. They also brought up every man and gun that could ba spared from the Russian front and the Serbian frontier, 'and, by all accounts, offi- 1 cial and unofficial, have been supported by German troops, despite the fact that there h-as been no declaration of war between Germanv and Italy. Our Allies, in the face of the most obdurate resistance and deter- mined counter-attacks, have made material progress towards gaining possession of the stio? line of tbe Isonzo.
PARISIAN PRESS. I GERMANY LOSING SINCE AUGUST LAST." THE NEW BRITISH FORCES. (Press Association War Special). PARIS. Thursday. M. De Lanessan, formerly Minister of Marine, writing in the "Petit Parisien," says: Events have clearly shown that Von Tir- IPitz and Emperor William have grossly de. ceived themselves in thinking that they could replace batt!"ship so-uadrons by gubmarines, while events have also demonstrated that the German Fleet has suffered disaster each time it exposes its battleships to the fleets of Great Britain, France or Russia. M. Herve in the "Guerre Sociale" declares that the glaring truth for every man of hound mind is that not even a miracle can new prevent the crash. Germany, he de- els res, was lot from the day when, by the violation of Belgium, she found England against her. "Up till then" (he continues) "the balance of power was almost equal, but everyone knows what England, with her Colonies, represents in men, ships, munitions, money and influ- ence. Germany has been losing since August hst, and our friend Bulgaria should realise this." M. Pichon, in the "Petit Journal," referring to his yisit to the British forces, says r—"It must be said in face of the superb organisa- tŒl and intenaity of eSort, which has sur- passed anything that possibly have been imagined, that no .other country than Great Britain could have been capable of achieving in so short a time anything like the same result. Lord Kitchener has spoken in the House of Lords of a spectacle which would astonish the world. Those who have looked for the meaning of these bold words will see it to-day."
POPULAR PORT TALBOT WEDDINC. At St. Mary's Church, A beravon, on Thurs- day, the marriage took place of Mr. David George Mainwaring, voungest son of Mr. and Mrs. John Mainwaring, Craddock Arms, Aber- avon, to Miss Edith Emily Powney, of Bron- deg House, Port Talbot. Both bride and bridegroom are very popular in the district, -n d a large number of friends witnessed the « ceremony, which was performed by the vicar, I the Rev. Ed. Dalies. The br?e, Who was 2martly attired in a favn waterproof COB- tume and hat to match, was attended by three bridmaids. viz., Mrs. J. Howells, Miss Duloie Mainwaring and Mrs. R. Phillips. The duties of best man were carried out by Mr. John Howells. Both Mr. and Mrs. Mainwar- ing, who were recipients of numerous pre- sents, left for Durham, where the honeymoon will be spent.
R. & S.I. SENSATION. I ——. G EX- ST ATIONM ASTER CHARGED. ALLEGED EMBEZZLE- MENT. — t At a speci.al si. tting of too County PolÎeft, Court, at Neath on Thursday J. Evaoa, formerly sts-tionmaster at Blaeiigwynfi Sta- tion, Rhondda and Swansea Bay Railway, surrendered to his bail on a charge of alleged embezzlement of money balonging to his em- ptbyers. The original amount stated on the warrant was 2196, but at the-l"t sitting of tha Court it was alleged tha the totaJ discrepancies involved were .£339. Mr. Trevor H. Hunter (instructed by Mr. A. H. Deer), prosecuted, and Mr. Lewis M. Thomas defended. Mr. Hunter said train booiks and proof books were kept at each station. These allowed the number of tickets issued and sdld. It was usual for the booking clerk to do this work of entering the books, but for some time the books were entered by the defendant. When the booking clerk entered up the books he usually handed them over J to the defendant to check and initial. The oaah taken was Remitted to Swansea on the day following, and a receipt was sent for the money. Proceeding, Mr. Hunter said that de- i fendant had a systsm by which entered on the cmuiterpai s of his accounts, which he retained at the station, the sum which, he had taken at the booking ollioe, but on the original which he sent to the head office Swansea, he showed a less amount. A re- was -enl, back from Swansea in acknow- ledgment of the oash. This receipT, should ha.ve been attached to the counterpart kept by the defendant, but Evans did i. t attach the receipt to the counterpart. For instajace, if he took- D9 on a certain day he would ■ remit £ 6 to Swansea and iataiii B5. The books at the stations were audited by an auditor, but unless he brought the forms I' Eerut on by Evans with him there was no- thing at Biaongwynfi by whiah he cotdd dis- I cover discrspaincies. Continuing, Mr. Hunter said that The first charge referred to the falsolication of the daily ac- cckmt, and making false entries in the accoiKit ixtoks. On January 25th last de- fe.11-dan:t showed the takings at. £6, whetrfUs the true takings ware £ 9. On another day 'the true totals were J310 5s. 2d., but the de- fendant only entered a sum of P,7 5s. 2d., and ift oailly sent E7 5s. 2d. to Swansea. lie was also charged with embezzling chese sums. The second charge rafer-red to making false entries in the proof book and monthly returns. Tbje proof book showed the total dumber oi tickets issued. From this book it was possible to ascertain at the end of each nronlli the total number of tickets issued from the station during the incNith and the moneys received. This book was really a check on the train book. Defendant entered up this book himself for some time, and sent a monthly summary to the Swansea office. If the proof book showed 200 tickets for the month, the defendant covered him- self by entering 100 tickets in his monthly returns to Swansea. This System of embezzlement only referred to workmen's tickets. In the third charge Evans was accused of altering the receipts. On June 2nd lie re- ceived a receipt sent back from Swansea for Ll 3s. 5d., being tha amount remitted. This receipt was altered to £4 3s. 5d. after it had been received by defendant. The last charge was one of larceny of cer- tain books. In July last the audit clerk visited Blaen- gwynfi Station. Evans was not there on that day. The auditor went through the books with the extracts which he had brought from Swansea. He then discovered certain discrepancies in the workmen's ticket books, and Evans was asked about it and asked for an explanation. The audit cletk returned to Swansea that evening, leaving the books in the booking office. When he returned there on the following day the Books referred to had disappeared, and it was alleged that Jivaus iiaa Darned them so as to make it difficult for them to ascertain his defalcations. Witnesses for Prosecution. Frederick; Reader, a youth employed as booking clerk at Blaengwynfi Station, said he had always handed the cash over to the defendant each day. In reply to Mr. Thomas, witness said he had never been in trouble over the books, and had never inter- fered with them bey on i entering them up. Sometimes witness pasted receipts in the book, and at other times Evans did so. The workmen's tickets were issued before wit- ness arrived at the ofifce. Frederick Richard Sing, Swansea, cashier to the Rhondda and Swansea Ba.y Railway Co., said he had gone through the counter- foils at the Swansea, office and those at the station, and the following deficiencies were discovered -January 25th, e3; February 4th, 1;2; February 21st, £ 5; March 2nd, iA March 28th, £ 2; April 11th, E4; April 25th, £ 2; May 10th. je5; May 15th, £ 3; June 13th, JS5; June 28th, £2; July 22nd, £ 2. The writing and signatures on the whole of the cash slips find accounts sent were in the handwriting cf the prisoner. Alleged Docjering of Receipts. Witness proaucea a receipt wmch he sent to the defendant on June 1st acknowledgin.g a remittance of £ 1 3s. 5d. This had beeai altered, the word "one" pound and figure JB1 being altered to four and the figure 4, making it read as L4 3s. 5d. On July 11th a receipt for P,7 Is. 5d. was sent to prisoner, and this, it was found, bad been afterwards altered to £ 11 Is. 5d. Mr. Thomas (cross-examining) What is the turnover at the Blaengwynfi Sta-tioa everv yearr Witness said he could not reply then. Mr. Thomas: I suggest it is about £ 23,000 a j-ead A. Witness I don't know. The prisoner's salary, said witness, was J3115 a year and 2s. a week war bonus. Mr. Thomas: Has the statioomaster got ti make up any shortages? Witness They are supposed to supply us with a list of shortages and surplus, a; id if the shortages are reasonable they are al- lowed. Mr. Thomas: Do you know that whilst Mr. Evans was on his holidays a Mr. Rees, who took his place, had to make up a short- age of L4? Witness said he heard that was so. Mr. Joshua L. Thomas, chiaf accountant at the Swansea office, said that on July 26th last he went to Buaengwynii Station to aud/lt the accounts. Prisoner was not there during that day, but witness went through the books and discovered certain irregularities. He asked Evans for an ex- planation, and he replied that a parcffl of tickets had been burned by a porter." Witness asked him to acoount for dis- crepancies in June and July, and prisoner then replied, "It is all up! Take my keys and have me arrested A police constable was standing near by, and prisoner said, Here, policeman, take me in charge." Prisoner added that he was glad that it had come to an end, as he had paid in 250 which he had withdrawn from the Post Oiiice Savings Bank." Later, in the wait- ing room, pØoner said/ I am sorry for you (meaning witness), because the books were wrong in September, when you were here, and, of course, you did not discover it." He swore that none of the other clerks were implicated, and they knew nothing about it. Prisoner maintained that a parcel of tickets were burned but when witness podnted out that the diiscrepancie.s covered about 5,000 tickets, Evans said that the tickets fell into a bucket of water and were destroyed. Mr. Hunter produced a bucket similar to those issued to the stations, and filled it with (bundles of workmen's tickets, and proved that it would not contain near the number stated by prisoner. When witness visited the station on July 27,th prisoner said that the books
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SIXTY-YEAR-OLD COLLIER. ALLEGED ASSAULT ON LANDLADY. ￼ William Davies i60), co Cwmfelisc f.?l surrendered to bail at Abercarn on Thursday on the charge of assaulting Mary Scammel (35), mavried woman, of CwmfeIin. fach, on August 14th. Mrs. Scammell said her husband, who had been a collier, was with the colours at St. a Asaph, but was in court that day on leave. Accused was a lodger and came home under the influence of drink. He had a flagon of beer, Piid after declining his offer of a drink she accepted to satisfy him. Having put her children to bed she went into the back kit- chen and was followed by defendant, who thrqw her down and committed the offence with which he was charged. She called in neighbours and subsequently communicated with her husband. The defence was that the complainant was a consenting party. Davies was committed for trial at the J Monmoutb Assizes, bail being allowed, him- self in £50 and two sureties for £25 each. t i
iTOO MANY SPANIARDS, SWANSEA YALLEY PROTEST i MEETING. I Trouble has arisen among the miners of Abercrave, in the Swansea Valley, over the importation of Spanish labour at the local I' coUieries. There is now a Spanish colony of over 250 residents in the district, and the Welsh workers allege that they are gi ven preference over t local men, and further allege that they cannot speak Welsh or English. I A huge protest demonstration has just been held. Headed by the Yst-radgynlais Band, over 1,000 miners employed at the I Abercrave, International, and Gwauaclawdd Collieries, marched in procession to Ystrad. ^ynlais, where a protest meeting was held on the square, the chief speakers twing Mr. J. J. James, sub-agent- Anthracite Miners' Association, County Councillor T. Proaser Jones, and Mr. T. Lewis (checkweigher). Ultimately a resolution was passed calling upon the Home Office to put an end to for- eign labour.
[MINISTRY OF MUNITIONS I TAKES OYER CONTROL OF ORDNANCE. I ARMY COUNCIL RELIEVED OF DUTIES. It is officiary announced that arrange- IDsnts have just been made between the Army Council and the Ministry of Munition, for the transfer to the latter of the contrct of the Royal Ordnance Factories during tbl period of the war. The Order in Council relating to the duties of the lincist-er of Munitions provided thai there should be transferred to the MwsteJ as from a date to be agreed upon in each case between the Minister of Munitions and the Department or authority conce-ri.,ed:- (a) From the Army Council the func- tions of the Department of the Master- General of the Ordnance in relation to contracts, the supply of explosives, and the inspection of munitions, subject, how- ever, in each case to any exceptions ani limitations which may be agreed upon be- tween the Army Council and the Minister^ (b) Such functions- (1) in relation to work carried on at the Woolwich Arsenal, the Enfield Small Arms Factory, and the Waltham Pow- der Factory, as may be agreed upon be- tween the Minister of Munitions and tha Army Council; and (ii.) In relation to work carried on at any other Government establishmeni' used for the purpose of the manufacture or supply of munitions of war, as may be agreed upon between the Minister of. Munitions and the Department or 11 authority having the control of that establishment; (c) Any other work of the Secretary of State for War, or the Army Council, or of the Admiralty, or any other Government Department or authority, the transfer of which appears expedient to the Minister of Munitions and to the Department or authority concerned.
examined on the previous day v are miss* ing. On July 27th, when he spoke tf prisoner about the missing books, Evanf said" Oh, they were wrong when yov were here in September, and now they will not be able to say anything about it." Evans also gave witness a list of tickets which he said had been destroyed, but witness had since ascertained that most of these tickets had been actually issued r nd used to Blaencwm and Duffrya Rhondda. Later Evans toid an official that he had burned the missing boola. on the preceding night. The books de. stroy-ed were the proof book in use priol to March, 1913, and the train book used frora November, 1912, to April, 1914. Mr. Thomas (for the defendant): Why did you not discover this system in September, 1914, when you audited the accounts ? Witness: Owing to the Cleuer ingenuity of Evans in manipulating his figures and his care in doing so, and also because of ray en- tire conifdence in Mr. Evans. Witness agreed that receipts were missing in September last, but it did' not arouse his susptcicn;, Leeaue ho thought they were mislaid, and he had every confidence in the prison n\ He admitted that if be had heon able to compare prisoner's sum- marie^ sent to Swansea with his accounts at the station it would have been easy to detect the discrepancies. He was tinable to do to because these summaries were continually in use at the office. Other evidence was given by 11;. Alex Lewis, traffic manager of tiio R. and S.B. Railway Co., J. Bond, goods clerk at JBlaengivynli, and P.S. Davies, Blaen- gwynfi, who arrested the accused. Joi-oph Bona, Oakwocd-stre-ei, rort Talbot. in evidence, said that, at the present, and during th3 rast. 5i years, he had acted eA goods' clerk at the Blaengwynfi Station. In cross-examination, witness stated that the key of the bcoking office was kept by the ticket ded, Reader. AH the station staff ticket where fli-e key was !<'?t in the absence of Reader. There was a safe in the booking > lor which witness had a key for him- self. which was giver, him by the accused. He d;d not think that \"h1-, f;tat.e of affairs had been authorised from the hsad office. Mr. ThoavTS: Rave you ever been to the safe?—Yes, for change, hundreds of times. M .Thomas said he d:d not intend to go funher into the case, and would. therefore, reserve his defence, and wouid alsc, advise fl->nt. as to what course should bo ado-pted.. Accv?cd wss: ooTnnutted for trial vt the next .cLssizas. bail heinsj allowed.