Choose gifts that will I I; increase in value I: THIS Christmas give the best of all presents-War Sav- ? ings Certificat"? Many a gift that costs more to buy will be worn out and thtown away before another Christ- mas comes round. But every War Savings Certificate bought now will be worth more, in hard cash, by qext December. Month by month and year by year the shillings will grow into pounds and the pounds into more pounds. Give War Savings Certificate* to each member of your home c rcle, and especially to the young people. They cannot begin too won to learn the value of money, to lorra the habit or saving wisely, to realise the duty of patriotic service. GIVE THEM ALL War Savings Certificates [ You can buy 15/8 Certificates and 6d. War Savings Stamps nt any Money Order Post Of. ice and at many Shops. Your country will add to the value of each 15/6 War Savings Certificate until in five years it is worth £1. This is equi. valent to more than Si per cent. Compound Interest, free uf Income Tax. The security is the best in the world— the guarantee of the British Government. If necessary, Certificates can be cashed at any time, with any interest due. j
MRS LLOYD GEORG. AT BLACKWOOD. Continuing her whirlwind tour, [rs Lloyd George visited Blackwood a Saturday evening to support the indidatnre of Capt. W. H. Williams jiberal Coalition), and received other great ovation. Mr T. Powell, local miner, presided, and Mrs Lloyd eorge was introdaoed b, r C. ond, J.P. She said she had never done so neb electioneering in her* life as she d done during the past two days, d she had a lot to do before the end the day. If ahe had been a voter the district she would have felt ghly honoured and promd to vote r a man who had fought for his untry. (Applaose.) A Coalition vernment was going to give them d peace terms. (Applause.) They nted the Kaiser to pay; they woald e in the papers that Great Britain, aDoe. and Italy had agreed to pot s Kaiser on his his trial, and had i a message to President Wilson Forming him of their decision, and e believed the people wanted it. Voice: "Hang him.") Captain W. H. Williams, on behalf his eoniiades who had fought iu e war and the absent comrades, ilcomed the wife of the man who (Jd behind ns in our efforts to win a great war." The little son of Mr and Mrs Webb, F^irview, Pengam, who was born t after Mr Lloyd George won au otion, and was consequently named yd George, was introduced to Mra ,Jd George and presented her with touquet. Alderman W. S Nash, J.P., pro- d a vote of thanks, which Mr T. well seconded. Responding, Mrs :yd George thanked them, and con- iied, c, We have won the war, we going to win the election."
IBARGOED TRADESMAN'S I BEREAVEMENT. t h. piinfolly sudden death took oe at a Nursing Home at Cardiff, Saturday last, of Edith Florence rsden, beloved daughter of Mr and s Frank Marston, batcher, Han- y-road. The deoeased, who was a moit loveable disposition, and eedingly popular with a wide circle riends, was taken ill oa Thursday. » was immediately oosveyed to if to undergo an operation, but not survive the ordeal. The inter- it took plaoe at Bedwellty on ida, amidst every sign of deep- tifection for deoeased, and ipathy with the relatives. The cat was covered by some exquisite I tributes nent by the following mam, and brothers; Gran and ties, Abertillery; Uncle Bill, tie Glad, and cousins, Abertillery; is Cis, Auntie Gwlad and consins; ie IS vans, Abertillery little friend (T Evans), Trinity Snuday School ice of Trinity Sewing Class, Matt t, Newport; Mr and Mrs Hartland, diff; Mr ?nd Mrs Fred Davies. and Mrs Jfy^atkins and family, and MrB??V. Onions, Mr &ad Jack W 'I, Mr and Mrs Rees oor), Mr and Mrs Pritohard, Mra Matthews, Mrs Hanoook, Mr and Mrs Reg Williams, Bargoed Girls' School teachers and scholars; Bargoed Girls' School girls of her class; Mr and Mrs F. Harrison, Rhymney Valley Meat Traders' Association, Cisaie and Sarah, Mr and Mrs Isaac Davies, Mr and, Mrs J. Payne, Mr and Mrs Martin, Cardiff; Mr and Mris Knott, Newbridge; Mr and Mrs W. H. Davies, A be r bargoed. The funeral was of a most repre- sentative character.
f CHRISTMAS WEEK SHOPPING The Ministry of Food announces that, in view of the fact that many shops throughout England and Wales may be closed during the greater part of Christmas week, the Food Controller has decided that, except in the case of meat, oonpons numbered eight in the current ration book shall be available for use throughout Eng- laad and Wales during the week beginning 15th December, as well M in the normal period of their currency —the week beginning December 22nd. This arrangement docs not apply to Scotland. During the period December 16th January 4th, catering establisments exempt under Clause 22 of the" Rationing Order, 1918, from keeping a register of consumption, will be per- mitted to serve meat meals at a priee not exceeding 2s. (exclusive of usual charge for beverages). The maximum price for any meal at which meat is not served will remain at Is. 4d.
NEW TREDEGAR. I I VISIT or Rlv. D. J. HILET.-Much interest is being centred in the visit of the eminent preacher, Captain the Rev. D. J. Hiley, London (Chaplain to H.M. Forces) on Tuesday next. The popular divine will deliver a sermon at Carmel English Baptist Chapel (kindly lent), at 4-30, and at 7-30 will give his famous; lecturii, 4 Two Tears with the Boya in France'. An intellectual treat is anticipated. As the proceeds are to be devoted to that noble object, the New Tredegar Relief Fund, there should be a large audience. ————— ice ■
WORD TO LADIU. I Atari tw stoatae lor oar mum MA tti$M? DhMt?? BeeMtt. M-tt-? ?Mm M< ???*t ?wee h<w In«t?dan<t?. <h? !.nv' ?.. a?y bt pM?wtted fcv aiiayia ? ? <<W ?<WM M??!ttd?.MM???a<<MMM ytM. LOM M?M'. L?6d., MomWe. M. Pinw Un, Lonm
PREMIER AND HOUSINQ. I Mr Lloyd George, through his secretary, has forwarded a message to Rear-Admiral Adair, Coalition can- didate for the Shettleston Division of Glasgow in which it is stated that the provision of an adequate supply of houses for the working classes at fair and reasonable rents is one of the matters which he places in the fore. fnttnt of his reconstruction policy. 'bfremier, the message adds, will, do nothing to lead the country Into anything of the nature of a rent war.
I THE GENERAL ELECTION. I BEDWELLTY DIVISION. I Coalition. Capt. W. H. WILLIAMS t Labour Mb CHARLKB EDWARDS Replying to questions at Bed was on Thursday, Captain Wijliatm said he was a member of the Provisional Committee established at Llandrindod Welle to draft administrative Mtot omy for Wales. A meeting in support of Captain Williams was held at Pengam on Thursday evening, addresses being delivered by the Rev. Peroival Camp- bell Morgan, London, and Mr Tom Powell, a prominent Trade Unionist, of Pontllanfraith, An enthusiastic meeting in support of Captain Williams was held at the Empire, New Tredegar, on Thursday. Mr W. Scammell, a member of the loeal Federation, occupied the chair, the speakers inoluded Rev. P. Camp- bell Morgan, London Mr Jas. Little- johns, Pontypridd; Captain Williams, and others. Mr Edwards visited New Tredegar on Thursday morning and addressed a meeting at the Lesser Hall. The chair was taken by the Rev. J. Hankinson, Wesleyan minister. -30.
I BIBLE SOCIETY MEETINO AT BARQOED. The annual meeting of the Bargoed Branch of the above Society was held at the Wesley an Chapel on Tuesday last, when the Rev. Urwys Williams, of Swansea, delivered a moat interest- ing address on the Society's work Daring the period of the war the Society gave away 8,000,000 copies of the Scripture among the troops. It required £1000 per day to keep the work going. At the olose of the meeting, a number ofj reforms were suggested with a view of increasing public interest in Bargoed in this great Society's work. The Rev. J. Roberts presided, and the meeting closed with the usual vote of thanke. ■■■■ "—ICC —
I 27 Kidney Stones. THE following testimony to the i merits of Doan's Backache Kidney Pills is gratefully contributed by Mrs Alfred Gosling, 6, Hillside, Stapleton, Bristol. Mrs Gosling and her husband feel that its publication is desirable in the interests of every kidney sufferer. Mrs. Gosling's Statement. On January 30th, 1917, Mrs GOI. lint said: I have escaped an operation and been relieved 01 kidney symptoms that endangered my life, and this is solely through taking Doan's Backache Kid ney Pills. 44 Although I had had skilled attention during eleven years, I went from bad to worøe-baokaobe and urinary disorders leading at last to atone in the kidneys. An operation was ordered, but in dread of it, I determined first to try Doan's Pills. 44 This well-known medicine had astonishing effect; three, then eleven, then five, and finally eight kidney Stones-27 in all-were painlessly dislodged. The other kidney symp- tome soon disappeared, and I am better to-day than ever in my life. (Signed) A. A. Gosling." On January 8th, 1918, Mrs Gosling adds: It is considerably over a twelvemonth since Doan's Pills effected my recovery, and I am pleased to say that my health is well main- tained." To enture the same results as Mrs Gosling, insist upon the same Kidney Medicine—DOAN'S BÂOK. 40HE KIDNB Y PILLS.-&U by fill Dealers or 21. 9d. a bottle from Foster- MoClellan Co., 8 Welle Street, Omford Strut, London, W.I.
CATTLE PEEDINQ STUFFS. I By a general license under the Cattle Feeding Stuffs Distribution Order, dated November aoth last, the Food Controller has allowed pro- ducers of cattle feeding stuff to use for the purpose of feeding liQfiec em- ployed by them solely for thMJ trade or business supplies of the particular cattle feeding stuffs produced by them. This permission does not exempt such persons from complying with the provisions of the Horses Rationing (No. 2) Order, 191S.
PRINTING of every description I executed on the shortest notice at I the I 'Journal Olions, Cardiff-road, Bargoed I n in i ■ I J I LLOYDS BANK MS LIMITED. HEAD OFFICE: 71, LOMBARD STREET, E.C. 3. COLONIAL AID FOREIGN DEPARTMENT: 17, GORNHiLL, E.C. 3, TIMM Bank possesses exceptional facilities for the I transfer of moneys to or from France, including I payments against documents, &c., in connection j with its French Auxiliary, LLOYDS BANK (FIANCE) ft NATIONAL PROVINCIAL BANK (FRANCE) LTD., OIl of 60, Lombard St., E.C. 3 Paris (3, Place de POpera), Biarritz, Bordeaux, Havre, Marseilles and Nice.
OUTPUT OF 10,000 MINERS WASTED YEARLY. Although coal is scarce, it is believed that many householders are !o«ing the full value of their rations by failing to sift, their citfllers thoroughly. In household- refuse atone, there is wasted aunuallv cinders equal in heating value to 2,226,000 tons of coal, representing the output of approximately M,000 miners. "Slft your ekidtrs" is, therefore, the message of the National Salvage Council, in many oW-fashioned fire-grates it is difficult to obtain full value from cinders. But we shall need to save every ounce of heating material this winter, and the advice is wfrtit heeding.
I SALVAGE OF TONNAGE. Til BJUSON WHY WASK MI ST B. SAVED. All who realise the Tital importance of the question of supplies during the critical times through which we are passing/ writes Lady Amherst of Hackney, laa- lte:p in a very simple manner to solve this difficult pro- blem. It can be done by the saving of waste material of every kind.' Lady Amherst is Head of the Rural Section of the National Salvage Council, and is aaxiovs lo hear from those who are ready to ".vt in the tonnage-saving campaign against waate. "This will L-ofct you nothing." she points out, beyond a very little personal trouble and loyal co-operation ia the work of saving and collecting. Material's formerly looked upon as rubbish aeed not end in the dust- bin, or in the fire or gamdei) refuse heap; ali or nearly all can be utilised or remade in 8OD1. form or another. Xverv ton of material saved at home. and convertible into mvui- tions, food, clothing, ana other coaunoditteg, tree. shipping for produete which must of necessity be brought from overseas. If irveryolle *-he cam will save, anti give for ns-tise an the v&ste which would other- wise be thrown mr&y, stanv thouktands of tons of space in ships will be made available." Information as to what to pave and how to save it may be obtained by sending a postcard to the Lady Amherst of Hackney, National Salvage Council, Rural Section, Caxtoa House, Tothill-straet, Loudcai, S.W.I.
I FILUIT STONES AND NUT SHELLS. EKD OK AN EMKKQKNCY SALVAGE EFFORT. TIae Director-Ger)eral of National Salvage announces that collections Of fruit stones and natshelle lor use in the anti-gas masks may be brought to a close, ample supplies of the accessary ma-teriale being now assured from eikae sources. Collectors who have quantities of stones and shellti in hand should despatch them as soon aa possible. The Director- General wishes to thenk the very numerous helpers who, in responding to thie appeal, I b successfully tidelt over a very serious emergency. The collections have once more demon- strated the truth of the maxim that every little helps." TJw. stones and shells have been scattered all over the country in what may have seemed almost negligible quantities, but vigorous attempts to organise the collec- tion of these materials have met with success, and substantial quantities have been aest to the munitions deptt and have helped to tide ever a critical period. Fruiterers all over the country have given valuable assistance in allowing their shops to be use. as collecting centres. In many districts sclKxrichildren have joined in the campaign with eneHeat resaha. The prompt respoj?M of the public bm swed gallant lives. No SUCH THING AS RUBBISH." II There is no math thing as rubbish, said Mr. David Currie, addressing a salvage con- ference of local authorities. "Rubbish I ia only matter in the wrong place. We most find a place for it, and get it there. Tb" is what it meant by < aalvage.' THa PAUS RAO-PIOKKK. The Paris rag-picker has a Rhumpow reputation, and be still. seems to live up t8 it, for, according to a reomt report, go- tking escapes the sorting of a multitude fit men who recowcr everything that eoaner- cial ingenuity enables one to utilise. The intervention of thaee men begina at the tiake of the throwing into the streets, and Í8 COli- tinuad up to the incinerator. The problem of salvage in Paris thus narrows itself down, says the writer, to the igcoverjr of vegetable waatf.
MESSRS H.BOSANKO &SON MARINE STORE DEALERS, B^.RO(lEiZ>, Are Authorised (Pe o. 15N) TO COLLECT WASTE PAPER OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. Schedule Prices Paid for all Grades Send a Post Card to the abon. W# Pay Caritif*. at
OURSELVES FIRST. Some people say we should aharo onr materials with Germany after the war. I do not subscribe to that. Work and wages for my own people first of all, and if it be needed let enemy people -gaffer a little longer for the terrible crimes committed in this ghastly war.-Mit. G. H. ROBMTB, M.P. SOME RECORD. What would wo not give now to hear 011 the gramophone the actual noise made by the Roman Empire when it fellik-Mit, EaNBST NEWMAN. THE ROCK OF TRUTH. We must build our League of Nation* upon the rock of truth, and we are confident that the l'oek. of truth in this matter must also be the rock of victory.-Ms. WUTSTOH CHURCHILL. PEACE. WITH SECURITY. Peace with security we cannot have until the Germans have been convinced that their doctrine of superiority is false.—Six AUCK- LAND GXDDES. THE FAITH OF OUR FOREFATHERS. Do not think I am either a bla/phemer or & Pharisee when I gay, "Let us never forget in all that we do that the measure of oUt ultimate success will be governed, largely if not mainly, by the strength with which we put our religious convictions into our action, and hold fast firmly and fearlessly to the faith of our forefathers."—GXKUAXI SI. WILIIAM ROBERTSON. FARMING IN WAF. TIME. In the past the rule ivae to go by what Said beet in farming; but in war time we ,ve to do the farmmg which produces the greatest quantity of food for man and beast.—MR. PROTHERO. A LASTING ENTENTE. Even in those millennial days when Ger- many may have atoned for her crime, Britain and France must always be fint the one to the other.—M. PAUL LOTSON. PRIME MINISTERS AND THEIR FRIENDS. Tou cannot dictate to a Prime Minister aa to whom he shall invite to breakfast. One Prime Minister is fond of one set, and another of another set, and Prime Ministers have occasionally had friends whom they had better have been without.-mi. BLRBBLT. WILL THERE BE A CHANGE? The tendency of the British face to be. come long and narrow is due to our generous diet.—PROFESSOR KBITH. THANKS TO THE DOCTORS. Looking back at the old war.-tU Crimean, for instance, or the South Afrioaa, which is much more recent-we saw a great deal of disease and epidemic, accepted, more or leas, as a matter of course and non-pre- ventable, bat in this war, in which we have had millions of men engaged, in many 4different theatres of operations, somo of them notoriously unhealthy, there has not been a single epidemic of any kind. That in a marvellous tribute to the efficient working of scientific research, and a very great credit to the medical profession of this couafty.- (haraBAL Sm WILLIAM ROBERTSON. PETROLEUM IIERB. fte of the most expert firms in the world fa convinced t}l At there are large deposits of petroleum in tVis country, and is prepared to support that opinion by risking hundredi of tbwsands of pounds in the effort to sMaia it.-Mit. HERBERT SAMUEL.
FOOD AFTER THE WAJL Si flsos not foldøw that the omd dt the was WM Mas a ntw te .4å- oW Tmaii Pimm viogmt lpoz cafa. 'n?t«MMtdb<fpMm?<MMtwMt?)Mrto dew boom whei man onbot=tw •aad Mpi—Bm«r or Lotraoar. WARIIJ ILBTATOW IXFLXJEVOE. Wkatarer jkmeralisatioB tbeft may have hssa ia niasnniwniiin mi the tnur, tkava has be" sa iaeesaparabte indication of moral aiere«ee, mm uplifting ot the aatinnnl ad & .iotioa of the amm <? wifaisoa tMt MMt ie<? to ngbimommem &±smuz-" ■nwity.—Sim JA?e rowx?le
FOR PRIHTIIVtt GO TO THB Guardian' Offices' I Rhymney.
RANDOM KEAOl i I OlSCOOKAOOie A TRAMP, I H i|li eltoa ■■■ilwil bow Ma WW Pi»iiine faaad it peedtis to JiM by hsMV ia lbs bsdr (aiaotM that stead .=-- si a Mew Hampshire mcMfM* emd half a jriU dw news* hbout. TO be mm fMtam did not lira them aft by hanslf Maa llaa a pact of Ike (in*. Born and laroudi* uP ia the M7, she had some into the eouatrf la keaitb, aad had taken the beautifully artaaftai elM farmhousa M a anaana of livelihood. Baa saw found it always full oi boudert, aad is do •oans ef the wintw it became the eentro gi a good aaay enow-shoeing parties. Between wsaa ocoMMWt MtM Patters= WM the 0811 J'" Mim Paitenoa. however, wo me :7 those M? sons who cuooeed in whatever they undestoha beoause they are without fear. A large i0*0l*ar hong in the kitchen, and at the back of the house a large dog lived in his kennel. But the dog has his own interests. He disappeared into the wood on occasion. It was during one of theM absences, as Miss Patterson tells the SK* perimitw that she had her only occasion TO TJSK THE REVOLVER. | "Fin not exactly what you might can a tiiaid person," she said, "but there are some kinds el people that one reoogmsee instinctively, and that day I felt sure that the man who had stopped and asked for a cold bite was not a deeirabia fellow to have in the neighbourhood. I dWt like the looks of him, and especially the way ho- cut his eye at the empty dog-kennel, for Bras was out in the woods cnasing rabbits. But v. gave him some food and he mumbled his thaidbs and departed. I wus glad to see the last of him "But about half an hour later I happened to look out of the kitchen wmaow just in time to eaMh him watching the house from behind the wood-pile. He had eaten bis cotd lunch, and evi- dently while he digested it he was trying to I mab up his mind whether it would be saf* f,* raid the premises. Bruno, I knew, might verl Kkely be away t?l 8unaet. 80 it I"Med to me that the best thing Mr aw to 48 was to show him that the premises wars pretty well able to TAKE CAM OT THEMSELVES. 1 I appeared at the back door, wiping my hands my apron as if I had 6nised my wor k and tookmg round for something with which ?nd amass myself. Then I took half a dozen old tin taas aatf stood them in a row on the back feace. I sea imagine he wondered mightily what I Was up to. I took pains arranging them at equal iatorvals. "Then I went back into the house and reap- assrerl at the window with my revolver, which I had been earrying all the time under my 1 spMa. I'm a pretty good shot with it, because ( never could see the sense of having such things round unless you know how to use them, and rve had plenty of leisure for practice. One after another I knocked those tin cans off the 1j lass, and then I reloaded the revolver and went hash into the house without bothering to elose the door behind me. "There was no need to dose it. Peeping out ) aa upstairs window, I saw my visitor cauti- ously getting away from the house and keeping the wood-pile between his own worthless carcase aad the baok door. He had evidently oome to Aw oonolusion that here was a lonely farmhouse qoito capable of taking can of itself." STOPPING THE TRAFFIC FOR A BET. I The Car relates that five men dining at a stub bagaa to discuss the nuisances which the con- tamtl pulling up of the streets cause to traffic- At the argument grew acute, one made a bet of ?100 that he would stop the traffic in one of the maiD streeb of London for a whole day. The bM vM taken, and the youth set about his t*sk ?< 4 ooNeeW some friends and some loafers in the| streets, bought some pickaxes, ropes, trestles, aad a shelter, saying he wanted them for such. aad-sush a borough council, and proceeded one morning early to a main street in the City. boldly roping off a certain area in the middle < of the street the hero and h^ ruffians set to work to pisk up the wood puvemvot. From nine to one the work of destruction went on, and nc one hindered or even asked a question. The ] -olioeman assisted in keeping the traeo in ,rder. Lunch-time found the foreman and his gang hungry and thirsty, and an adjournment was niade to A FUBLIO-HOUSS IS A BACX-tTRMT TIIIn, after refreshing themselves, the wreckers desidsd that a short day and a merry OM t' ) was quite enough, and the street was left to its j fate. For none of them ever returned to the disturbed area. For two days the wrenched-up bloom of wood lay about untidily, and eventu- I wtty some local official began to ask why and ^therefore; and the street was put down again, while a lively correspondence began between the local road authority and eight separate and di8- tiaot authorities. I We shall be much obliged if you can inform us by return by what authority you, &L," was addressed to: SThe Metropolitan Water Be?rd? t TU National Tele hone Company; ? The Post Office (Telephone I)cpartm<n?; (?4 Tb* Post Office (Telegraph 1)oparbzwW. A) The Hydraulic i Power Company; (U The Electric L ghting Company; (7 The G" Company; I The L.C.C. (Sewer DeptrtmcB?. Some of these bodies returned civil aaswant mmm rude answers, some (tlie%e are the GoverD- nsent departments concerned) no answers at alL THE DACHSHUND Wheat the funny man wanta to make a picture of a funny dog, lie draws a Dachshund. lie is the slown among dolp, inalienably associated in tfie publie mind with German jokes and sausage. As a matter of fact, a Dachshund is a scienta- oally-bred deformity, and his peculiar shape is due to certain points of excellence based on the uses to whieh he is put in hunting. Almost every bree of doirs was originally bred from the common dog progenitor for soma specific purpose. 1-U lithe greyhound is a run- filing machine; the shaggy St. Bernard can fight the Alpine blizzards; even the buUdog theoreti- hold fast to a bull's neck because of his brosihe bsoauso of i?im ws, and still be able to maaaive projecting iaws, and still be able to breathe beoauso of nis reoeding nose. SCany people regard a Dachshund as belong- lag to the hound family, and as such expect. hila to oompete with the beagles and other hounds fa following scent. Hund means dog in Ger- asaa. and a Dachshund ia NOT A HOVirD, BUT A RADOU DOe, dor bred to follow Wgors into their at a !j o to d* them out. He will make a good rabbit dog, to he surot but not to be hunted in fast company. Hit atfoita to Keep up with more fleet and agile beagles will prevent him from doing hit liwfli He possesses certain qualities of patieaee aaa •are. however, that to soma are far more domir. aide than speed. It it in his own province of hunting badgece thtt the Dachshund shows to best advantage. The reverse curve of his bow legs and his log Barrow body make of him a perieet oaajaa ahoeelt and enable him to work his way dowm a burrow with a minimwin of energy and the No moval of the smallest quantity of earth. Whoa ha anehai his prey, his courage and big is" ■eavert him into a fighting machine. POMES OF BRIGHTON ENGINES, MrrW. J. Gordon, in "Our Home R?wt?" (W)MM? some mtereetin? stories &beot = the old eap.. of the London, Bng?- tea* aad South Coast Railway. One engine, 08 Jaae 4th, 1851, was running down the incline be. tweaa Falmer and Lewes when it ran off the line at the Newmarket Arab, and, dragging two carriages with it, feU into the bridle-road below. kiDå8I[ three of the passengers and the firemaa oa the spot. The reason was that a shepherd hoy had placed a sleeper across the north raiL The bay was tried, and the jury found him no* gy. Twelve months afterwards, on the same of the month, at the same spot where thai ar waajpwt^the *pe boy was hilled by a If. 1 o.