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i Outline of Ll!i:a! Gr¡vðrl1meílt…

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Outline of MMUS::? MS b.M??e. MMS?' t?!tM!c!. THE CENTRAL AUTHORITIES. I I The following are the principal Depart- ments controlling local government 1. The Home Office was created in 1782. The Home Secretary' s duties relating to local government include: (I ) He is charged with the maintenance of the King's Peace; controls police and prisons; advises the King in the exercise of the prerogative of mercy; has absolute dis- cretion as to the naturalisation or aliens; advises as to the appointment of Recorders, Stipendiary Magistrates, police. (2) Generally he has under his control the whole machinery required for securing the internal well-being ot the country. (3) Inspection of institutions, including prisons, reformatory and industrial schools. (4) Miscellaneous duties under certain statutes, e.g., The Factories and Workshops Acts, Mines Regulation Acts, &c. 2. Local Government Board was created in 1&71, and is a Board in name only. it ;a composed of the Lord President of the Council, the Secretaries of State, the Lord ar.d a President, but, like the Board of Trade, Privy Seal, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, it never meets. Its duties are performed by its President, assisted by Parliamentary and Permanent Secretaries and a large staff. Its functions include Public Assistance, Public Health. Housing and Town Planning, Old Age Pensions, General Administration. Aliiec to it is the General Register Office, respon- sible for the registration of Birth, Deaths and Marriages, and preparation of vital statistics 3. The Board of Education was formed in 1899. Like the other phantom boards it does not et. Its admiistration is presided over by its President, who is responsible to Parliament; he is assisted by Parliamentary and Permanent Secretaries. Its principal duty consists in the control of elementary, secon- dary, technological, higher and university edu- cation and trusts, including medical inspec- tion of school children. 4. The Board of Trade was originally a committee of the Privy Council. Was first established in 1622. Present Department owes its origin to an Order in Council of 1786. It has been reconstructed from time to time, and in 1918 was divided into two main divisions, viz.:— (1) Department of Commerce and Indus- try, divided into sections dealing with Com- mercial relations and treaties; Overseas trade; Industries and manufactures; Industrial pro- perty Industrial power and transport; Statistics; (2) Department of Public Services Ad- ministration, engaged primarily in the work previously performed by the Marine, Rail- way, Harbour, Companies and Bankruptcy Departments. 5. Board of Agriculture and Fisheries wa- established in its present form in 1899, and its powers extended in 1903. It has .n ii)teill- gence Division for the collection of statistical and other mroTmatKMi relating to a?McuIture. for the bettor dissemination of which it edits a quarterly JoumaJ. The regulative side of its work is comprised in two other divisions, one of which is mainly concerned with the preventign and suppression of contagious diseases amongst animals, and the other with the working of the Tithe, Copyhold and Allotments Acts. The Board employs a chief agricultural analyst to investigate the quality of fertilisers and feeding stuffs, and the Enclosure Acts, and the Small Holdings and Ordnance Survey and the Geological Survey are now carried on under the Board's control. 6. The Privy Council is a body of nomi- nate d persons whose names are approved by the sovereign. Has played a most important part in the administrative development of local government. Grants Charters of Incor- poration for the creation of new Boroughs. Orders in Council make provision for bringing into operation many new statutes. In 1915 there was established a Committee for the Organisation and Development of Scientific and Industrial Research. (Clarke). 7. The Road Board was established by the Development and Road Improvement Funds Acts, 1909 and 1910. It is empowered: (I) to make advances to County Councils and other highway authorities either for improving existing roads or for making new ones; (2) to construct and maintain new roads on its own part which appear to be required for facilitating road traffic. 8. The Development Commission was established, by the above-mentioned Acts to advise the Treasury in the administration of a national fund for the development of agri- culture, fisheries, and other analogous economic resources of the United Kingdom. 9. The Board of Control was created by the Mental Deficiency Act, 1913, for the purpose of administering the Acts relating to lunatics and mental defectives. 10. National Health Commissioners were established ia 1911. I I. Ministry of Pensions was created by the Ministry of Pensions Act, 1916. 12. Minitsry of Labour was established in January, 1917, by the New Ministries and Secretaries Act, 1896. There has been trans- ferred to this Department the powers and duties of the Board of Trade under the Con- ciliation Act, 1396 Laoour Exchanges Act, 1909; Trade Boards Act, 1909; National Insurance (Unemoloyrnent) Acts, 1V1 1 to 1913. 13. Ministry of Reconstruction was estab- lished by the New Ministries Act, 1917, to consider and' advise upon the problems which may arise out of the war and may have to be dealt with upon its determination. Methods of Departmental Action. Clarke summarises the methods of Depart- mental Action as follows: (a) Inspections: Police and Establishments. (b) Enquiries: Borrowing, Alteration of Boundaries, Complaints. (c) Statistics Financial, Sanitary, Poor, Education, Judicial, Mental Deficiency, Births, Deaths and Marriages. (d) Audits by District Auditors of the Local Government Board. (e) Proscription of duties and their en- forcement. (f) Advice respecting new powers and duties. (g) Provisional Orders under enactments. (h) Local Taxation Grants. (i) Appointments: Approval of Appoint- ments, e.g.. Officers of Boards of Guardians. (i) Bye-laws subject to approval of the Secretary of State or Local Government Beard.

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