f^E?nL.EIGH ? ?Es t B?'*?'* *NBtttt!tB!!?NNLtMtJttN t am ? ??Af?? ?S??THE ALL>5TEELBI6YCLE.I ■ j ???L?,' whose speew features, with Dwgop bTm and Manney-Archer BB J ?nTT'4? three-Speed ,ear. make it 80 much better than other bb?iccyycclees2. Rjl Bj SJ, ? Only the finest cold-robed <t<? is ued in Iù construction—no malleable K$| Iron castings as in other bicycles. Iabmitdtn<theR?lei<hthi<tteetis«ib- K^j mPfjim i f[ j I mUted to strains over SM times greater than 8 cyclist can poMibty ttppppilyY,. KM frjfl j J ? this immense strength 8 Raleigh cycle is made practically unbreakable. Br** ? H GUARANTEED FOR EVER. ￼ ? ?? Prk" ?7 'O* to <M J'" Bead pœtcard lor "The Book of the Ratdgh," §21 f||/ Ammanford A. J. WALDRON, The Arcade. E|1 la ?? Ystradgynlais DAVID EVANS (Jan.), Church Terrace. ? Baf # Cycling for Hcdth," by SirPnmk Dowdem BMt. P.R.G?.. &c. 100 pp. Is. )
Impoverished Elementary Education in Carmarthen- shire. r :rBy E. R. R. LEWIS, Hon. Secretary, N. U. T., Carmarthenshire. ] The Elementary Schools are essen- tially the schools of the workers. They form the only means of education open to the huge majority of the workers'- children, and these schools are starved. There *are over 20,000 children (boys rtys) whose only start in life can benefit of their Elementary jfooi training. Their parents are for most part hard-working, but poor quite unable to hand their chil- ten a cheque of i 100, or even a overeign. to help them commence the itruggle for existence which they have before them. To these children their education is their only asset, and that education should be the best procurable. The circular, Education in Ruins," brought to light some of the glaring dis- abilities generally obtaining in our schools as a result of the economy of an Education Committee. THESE EDUCATION SWEATERS, I %> search the country up and down — sweated, unskilled labour, are not •8g their duty by the children. By v r cheese paring, parsimonious, *• ^rly tactics they are robbing the rfth of the country of a priceless i-jo J!Í' By what right do they 7 • --withe rising generation of their .rli How can they excuse for sending out the children ,7t- Carmarthenshire handicapped as compared with children of other coun- ties and towns, where cheapness and" parsimony and sweating are not the mainsprings of their system of education. To prove my indict- ment for the present I shall refer to the ijCOVERNMENT STATISTICS, I turc pd out how much Carmarthen- read' Jgs behind in her expenditure ie education of the children of was a, T, kers. In Clu TOTAL EXPENDITURE I eve u I pre [nd that Carmarthenshire spends v., east per child of all the Education Qt Ipties in Wales. On every child 0f, <ur county is spent 13 ] Is. 8d., .udin,c, Government grants; the )ge amount spent on every child, pcluding Government grants, for the iounties of Wales is S,4 9s. I d.; that tor Gl amorgan, £ 4 17s I I d- whilst the cost of the education of each child I wider the Barry Authorities amounts to £ 7 13s. Id. This shews that Carmar- thenshire would have to spend 17/5, "U 6s. lid., or 14 1 Is. 5d. per child ;&e every year to meet the average tur4"ie counties of Wales, Gl amorgan, or Barry, respectively. There are in ^ir county 19,378 children in average tendances, and a little calculation :ew that the Carmarthenshire Edu- tio, Committee would have to spend £ .16,875 Os. 2d. more per annum to .fitijg up their expenditure equal to the Average of the counties of Wales, £ 26,079 lis. 2d. to reach the expen- .re per child which obtains in Gla- Atan, and 178,884 12s. 2d. to ;»». yai Barry in its expenditure per 1 OUT OF THE RATES. .5 I ""irhe total cost of elementary edu- tioni; is borne partly by the local soiaiei >ij partly by grants from the burnhat ;)i Education. These grants are with rr ,Local Education Authorities, the Ti Mthey fulfil the requirements of day evf ,qde" (the Government Rules secured. rtaÛons controlling the ad for his c, a of Education ), and are he h ad He had proportion to the number of trade, in average attendance through- work 0year. In Carmarthenshire there tion (w large number of small schools A iiearn very small Government even.! jt because there are only a few attending such schools. Hence, The- -4 wish to make the schools pro- of we should expect to find a -Cr bn of expenditure upon the :1a\t!, to roaVp up for the low grants r jj to these Schools by the Govem- P4 .J1ö Out of the ;13 1 Is. 8d. per p only £ 1 7s. 10d. is found E. ily, Nvhilst the average per child s' 0 ypd locally by the, counties of \'Ÿ.ales is f-2 6s. 4d., making a differ- fence of 18s. 6d. per child. The amount found by the Glamorgan L. nty Council is £ 2 17s. 8d. per making a difference of ii 9s. Barry finds ;E4 3s. 10d., ? ?ceeds Carmarthenshire by ?2 3 Lit L child. A further calculation II that our county would have to afS?' '??J7.924 !3s. a year more and ??g Jtra lOd. rate to bring up our ex- old in 1 "ture per child to the average for EStFk ounties of Wales; 1-28,905 8s. VIM Sap- 1 "H 4d., or an extra I s. 4d. rate, to reach the expenditure of Glamorgan per child, and actuaily £ 54,258 more, or a extra half-crown rate, to equal that of Barry per child. Again, of the total expenditure upon Elementary Education, Carmarthen- shire, even with its large number of low grant earning areas, finds only 30 per cent., or less than 8s., out of every £ whereas the counties of Wales find on the average I per cent. locally and over 10s. in the £ Glamorgan finds 57.8 per cent., or about I Is. 6d. of every £ whilst London finds 73 per cent., or nearly 15s. of every i. WHAT EFFICIENT EDUCATION I can be expected from these miserable sums? Our Education Committee eagerly seek the saving of penny rates as being their only objective, and care nothing for the physical, moral or intellectual welfare of the children. What a painful misnomer, Educa^- tion Committee." It would be much more honest, as Mr. S. O. Davies, B.A., suggests, to call them Police of Rates and Taxes." The hypocrisy of their policy lies in the fact that they blame the ratepayers who would; not allow them to spend the ratepayers' money. I question whether the rate- payers have been consulted on this matter. The replies to this question have been clearly defined by the in- dustrial workers, representing over 13/000 organised workmen, who have forwarded resolutions in no unmistak- able terms condemning the parsimonious economies practised by the Carmar- thenshire Education Committee, and calling upon them to raise the whole status of education in our schools, the staffs, the buildings, the school re- quisites, teachers' salariees, &c., and, in face of these demands by the workers of Carmarthenshire, the Edu- cation Committee have the audacity to excuse their mean, selfish policy by blaming the ratepayers. THE PRIME OBJECT I of an Education Committee should be to establish in our county as perfect a system of elementary education for the workers' children as possible, for it is their birthright. The investment is good, sound, and brings in abundant harvest to the people. No expense should be spared in making this nationaal work supremely efficient; it is the workers' right, and unless the Carmarthenshire Education Committee get into centre with the spirit of modern educational ideals, they should be removed to make room for men who will honourably and intelligently ad- minister the education of the workers, who realise that life is really more than meat, and body more than raiment."
MANORDEILO. "Cymru am Byth."—The follow- ing account of the wedding of a local lady appeared in one of our Kent con-, temporaries:— Few of the people of Kent have an unders anding of these mystic words, Cymru am Byth.' Literally translated, Wales for Ever '—a very fervent heartcry of Welshmen which we have been. tempted to use at the time when a daughter of Wales has joined forces w,ith a son of Kent. On Christmas Day, a wedding look place at All Saints' Church, Galley Hill. Swanscombe, the bride being Miss Elizabeth Anne Evans, eldest daughter of Mr. and M'rs. D. Lloyd Evans, Post Office, Manordilo; the bridegroom, Gunner Henry E. Halford, K.R.G.A., eldest son of the late Mr. E. T. Halford and of Mrs. A. E. Halford, Church Road, Swanscombe. The bride, who was given awaay by her cousin, Mr. Llewelyn Davies, Skewen, was prettily dressed in a grey rainproof cloth cos- tume and brown hat, and wore a gold chain and pendant, the gifts of the bridegroom, and she carried a lovely bouquet of flowers. The two brides- maids were Miss Blodwen E. Evans (sister of the bride) and Miss Hilda Summers (cousin of the bridegroom); and the best man was Gunner S. A. Halford (brother of the bridegroom). After the ceremony, a reception was held at 40, Church Road, Swanscombe, when the ceremony of cutting the bridal cake with a bayonet was carried out. Among the many useful presents received by the happy Pair were a clock and ornaments from the N.C.O.'s, and a set of carvers from two of his comrades, Messrs. J. Norris and Black. We wish the young pair every success.
The Chronicle will be sent by post to ar.y address at 3/3 for the half-year, or 6/6 per annum, payable in advance. -d- AJ5'i:1F8J
HINTS FOR ALLOTMENT HOLDERS. I ——- I BY SPADE-WORKER^ I GET BUSY AT ONCE. Have you stripped the turf from your allotment and either stacked it in a heap or burnt it, and scattered the ashes on the soil? If not, you are wasting valuable time, and every week this work is delayed it is certain that there will be proportionately fewer potatoes, carrots, and other vegetables to take up at the end of the season. Having stripped off the turf,, the allotment holder must have the soil turned up as roughly as possible, so that it may be thoroughly ex- • >osed to such frost and snow as have yet to come. One week the ground may be in excel- lent condition for digging, and if advantage is not taken of the occasion, the work may be delayed- for several weeks. But that is simply a proof of the wise saying that "Suc- ro>sslul gardening lies in doing the right thing at the right time"; the allotment holder would do well to take it to heart; it will save him much disappointment. THE PROFITABLE BROAD BEAN. I nc broad bean is one of the hardiest of vegetables, and is olten sown in November, though February is the chief month in which to put in the seeds. I find that the best results are obtained by sowing during this month, as soon as the soil is fairly dry. The crop is then well advanced before the plants are attacked by the dolphin or black fly, which never fails to put in an appear- ance in early summer. The only satisfac- tory way of dealing with this pest is to nip off the tops of the plants and burn them no harm is done, providing by that time several bunches of pods have formed, but if the tweeds are sown late the plants are at- tacked before they are well grown, and the consequence is that the crop is poor. I shall eow my broad beans as soon as the present Plant Broad Beans in a double row, I as shown above. severe weather is over, so as to make sure of a good picking in early July. I sow in It double row. placing the seeds 5in. to 6in. apart, and allowing lPin. between the sets ci rows. The seeds are arranged at regular intervals in a shallow drill, and are covered with Sin. or 4in. of tioil. My choice of varie- ties is one of the longpods for quantity and size, though for flavour I prefer the Giant Wi ndfior. It is an ('a.y matter to get a donijle crop of beans from the same plants, although it is not, in my opinion, always advisable to do so. If I do not want the ground for another crop, I cut down the old stems as soon as the beans arc gathered, and then obtain a second lot of pods from the fresh growths that form. It is, however, rJft,'n belter to dig up the plants when the first crop is gathered, in order to allow an autumn or winter crop to be sown or planted. TWO CROPS AT ONCE. I i always endeavour to get as many crops off the ground during the season as possible, and by the exercise of a little forethought it is astonishing how much can be done in tIll. way. For instance, this week I am sowing a few broad beans singly in small pots in an unheated greenhouse which is in a sunny position. When I plant my early potatoes I shall put the beans in the row— between every other potato-and in this way shall get a double crop. The beans do not interfere with the potatoes in the least. I am also makiug a similar sowing of early I peas they give a most useful crop before those sown out of doors are ready, for they turn in just when vegetables are scarce. THE JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. Every allotment holder ought to grow a few roots of this vegetable, which has con- siderable food value. It is of the easiest cultivation, and serves a double purpose. The plant produces tall, vigorous, leafy stems, and I make a point of planting a short row on the north or east side of the plot for the sake of the shelter it affords against cold winds. It is, of course, a I How the roots of Jerusalem Arti- choke are put in is shown in figure. great mistake to plant it on the southern side of the ground, for it would then de- prive other plants of sunshine. Nothing is gained by crowding Jerusalem artichoke. I put the tubers about 4in. deep, 2ft. apart, and allow from 2ft. to 2ift. between the rows, if more than one row is put in. No crop gives less trouble during the summer months, for all that one has to do is to hoe the soil occasionally to keep down weeds. ECONOMY WITH SEED POTATOES. Seed potatoes are unusually dear this season and various methods will be adopted to eke out the supply. The potato is a tiur- prising root and far more accommodating than is generally supposed. A friend of mine has grown quite a good crop from potato peelings alone, thpugh, of course, he takes care that each piece has an "eye." I have never gone so far as to try this method, but a satisfactory return may be obtained bv cutting out the potato "eyes, with part of the tuber to each one. Large potatoes ought not to be planted whole. I have found that they ofter fail to decay, with the result that the plant is weakly and fails to produce a good crop. Generally, r. -,)tatoee, weighing from one and a half o ounces each produce the best crop, but any deficiency should be made good by cutting large tubers into several pieces. The potato. is not considered to be a hardy plant, yet I have had new potatoes at the end of Mav from chance roots left in the ground whel digging up the crop. Those who care to have new potatoes in autumn should save a few seed tubers when planting in spring, keep them on end in a box in a 'iht place, and plant them in July. Early varieties are Ivcst for this purpose. Q'u? a welcome addition to the supply can be ob- tained in this wav.
￼ _n"- Owing to the scarcity of raw I material, the large Burntisland Oil Mills have been closed.
Letter from the Front. Writing to a friend at Gwaun-cae- gurwen, Priv. Richard Davies, R.A.M.C., Somewhere in France, says:— I should like for you to publish this letter in the valuable paper, the Amman Valley Chronicle. I am an old resident of Cwmgorse, and, of course, I am so interested in the paper I get from home. We all know the troubles and hardships we have got to go through out here in France, and on other fronts where we are checking the invader with his great armies from advancng further. Once more we have shewn the enemy what the Allies can do to destroy their lust and the power shewn by them in the early days of this great European conflict. It is mar- vellous how we have worked up to the persent a great Army with plenty of munitions. Now we shall say to the enemy we are prepared for them, and they know it, as they have found it since July 1st. All the same, the ex- periences we have got to go through in this push are rather exciting, and full of narrow escapes from heavy shell fire. I have had many narrow escapes from being wounded and killed, but there is one thing—every man has a will power and determination to carry out his work, neither heeding nor caring for the danger he is in. I will give you one of my exciting experi- ences. I daresay you have read of the death of our worthy friend, Evan Jones, of the Naval Division, when, last November, they were on the left of us in the attack we made to capture the villages strongly fortified by the Germans. I am just picturing now the morning of the attack. It was about six o'clock in the early dawn of the day when orders came through to us to be ready at that hour to follow up the attack, and collect and also to attend to the wounded, and bring them in to the Advanced Dressing Station, where they are well looked after and receive prompt treatment; also plenty of hot drinks to keep them warm. Then they are sent down straight to our hospital, where they got more attention and re- ceive refreshments. Generally,-some of the poor lads have not received any- thing for hours in the trenches, and were eager to get something to eat. We have a, perfect system of dealing with them, and the poor wounded- Tommies appreciate it very much To go back to my experiences of that morning, there were six squads of us, four men in each squad, arid we went out from our Advance Dressing Station soon after six, with a sergeant, up so far as the front line of trenches which our troops occupied before the attack. Soon after we met a medical officer, and he told us that we would have to go up and follow the lads to where they had advanced over a thou- sand yards and captured two German trenches and dug-outs. As it happens, the regimental stretcher bearers had been nearly wiped out owing to the heavy barrage of fire by the Germans, and also by machine-gun fire, so we had to take their places and bring the wounded out. During the time we were bringing them out we had terrible fire to encounter, but we had pluck and determination to carry our work out; and after we had brought a few cases down, we went back again. Finding a lot of wounded about, we had to carry them in the open of No Man's Land,' and on the way down to the old front of ours three shells came over all at once amongst us. We fell flat to the ground, patient and everything. We found ourselves dazed a bit after the concussion caused by the explosion of the shell; but we heard some groaning somewhere, and found that one of our boys had been hit by the pieces of shrapnel, and he had a large wound in the side of his body. We had to draw him to a shell hole, and then we had to treat him there under heavy fire; but, thank the Lord, I came cut of it without any injury, only I felt a bit shaken. But we soon came to ourselves, and were on with our work. Some reported the occurrence to our medical officer, and were told to have a rest for a few hours, for which we were thankful. We had onlv a few casualties in our ambulance during that attack, con- sidering the great danger we had to go through. But little did I know that my friend, Evan Jones, was on .my left in that attack as a machine-gunner. 1 had heard that the Naval Division were there, and if I only knew, I would have made an attempt to see him then. But we were so busy, and the weather so wet and very muddy. The most mar- vellous thing which I saw were the dug- outs we captured from the Germans- simplv a hidden garrison underground, which could accommodate over thou- sands of troops. I daresay the Ger- mans must have had the idea that we could never shift them out. But with the deadly fire of our artillery, which were hitting the mark every time, they could not stand it, and had to give way to our infantry; and many were only too pleased to give themselves up as prisoners. They were also pleased to do anything, even to help us to get our Tommies that were wounded down to the Advanced Dressing Station. One incident I will relate. A big burly German came on to me, and asked for a match to light a cigarette, and he offered me a packet. He said that they had planty of them, but not much food, as they were in worse conditions than we were. They did not know what bread was for days; so there must be terrible times in Germany in regard to the food problem. He told me that England plenty bombard?' by which I could understand that they were nerve shattered owing to the deadly effect of our guns. Everything seems to be a mass of ruins and a scene of deso- lation, with the ground having been churned up as if ploughed, with nothing but dead bodies about; it is a ghastly sight to look at. But we are quite used to it, as we are up the line always. We captured a lot of German medical stores also, but they were of poor quality. They had a hospital under- ground to accommodate over 300 patients. Well, they will miss a lot of these nowadays, and they will come very useful to us. They even had large water wells right in the dug-out for their water supply. I must say the Germans are clever engineers in build- ing such dug-outs, which gave every comfort for occupiers, as they are equipped with beds, sofas, tables, and chairs, and everything is lighted up with electric light worked by a small dynamo in them. We found traces of plenty of cigars and bottled beer and literature about, so they must have been having a nice time. I have had many other exciting experiences, but they are too numerous to mention in so short a space, and also it makes one feel too horrified to do so. I find by the news in the Amman Valley Chronicle that the people of Cwmgorse and district are giving a warm welcome to soldiers home from the scene of battle; and I think every man deserves it, as little do you know the hardships we have got to go through in every sort of weather. But we are ready always to defend our King and country, to whose call we have nobly responded. May this new year bring us an everlasting peace, and that we shall see no more wars for centuries to come. Remember me to all I know at Cwmgorse. I have received many narcels from some of the people. I am very thankful to them for their kindness. Best wishes and 'k;r1 regards to all."
PENYGROES. I The death and funeral took place of one of our old inhabitants, in the person of Mrs. Roberts, formerly of Maes- glas, but who resided at Spade Oak Farm, Bourne End, near London, for many years. During the last few years she had been in declining health, and when in that state she had a desire to return and reside in the old place amongst her old acquaintances. For the last three months she resided at Eryl, Penygroes, with Mr. and Mrs. E. Davies. The last few weeks she had been seriously ill, and the end came suddenly, on Friday, February 9th. She had expressed a wish to be buried at Penygroes Churchyard (A.), where she had been worshipping for many years under the ministry of the Rev. Phillips and the Rev. W. Bowen. The funeral took place on Tuesday, 13th inst., when the Rev. W. Bowen officiated at the house, the Revs. J. Herbert (B.) and R. Thomas (C.M.) in the chapel, and the Rev. A. Britten at the graveside. A large number of friends and acquaintances attended to pay their. last trbute of respect to the deceased. The floral tributes were as follow:-In loving memory of our dear mother, from William, Ruth, and grandsons, Arthur and Edgar, Westhope, Bourne End; in loving memory, from daughter and sons, Rachel, John and Percy, Spade Oak, Bourne End; with affectionate love from son, daughter-in-law, and grand- children, David, Annie, Myfanwy, Gwyneth, and Owen, Brynawel, Johannesburg; in loving memory from sister and family, Glyncaerau; with deepest sympathy from Mrs. Rees and family, Swansea; with sincere sympathy from Mr. and Mrs. Jones and family, GwTidwn-bach, Penygroes.
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Our Poultry Column. CHICKEN REARING. I Although the raising of chickens is I not a laborious undertaking, still it must be continuous if success is to follow the work. There is some differ- ence between one coops in the back- yard and a score out in the field. One can attend to a few at the back door like this and not notice how much work it entails; but when it comes to having a score of coops, all to feed and water, besides keep clean, then it will be realised what trouble there is to keep things right. Chicken rearing is the most important branch of poultry keep- ing, because when anyone can hatch and rear chickens they should be able to make a success of the industry. If you can hatch a thousand, and raise these with a score only of casualties, then you can reckon you know some- thing of this part of the work, and yet this has been done and will be done again. Of course, vermin will kill off a whole batch during the night; but this cannot be laid to the fault of the rearer, for though it may have been carelessness on someone' s part, it does not affect the feeding and general management. I have known the amount of chickens raised all with hens, and, though some find this method suc- cessful, there are others who will swear by the foster mother as being the ideal method of rearing. No one can raise the greater per- centage of hatchings unless the chicks come from a vigorous breeding pen, and this should be the aim of all breeders. Using a cockerel which is immature, or weakly, is the fault cf many bad eggs, and then forcing the hens to lay is a serious drawback, be- cause it unduly excites the egg organs, and is the foerunner of weak chicks. i c h i c k s. If the egg was infertile it would not matter, for then there need be no wasted over it; but as a rule there is a germ in the egg, though not strong enough to result in a healthy chicken. Still, we take it for granted that you have some good healthy chickens out, and that now you want to raise them. Never be afraid to leave the youngsters on the nest for forty or forty-eight hours, because they must be properly nested before they can feed; but if you expect this in a shorter time the youngster is not hungry, and then it becomes chilled before it realises what you want it to do. The yolk of the egg is the first food, and this will last for quite two days, so that till after this you cannot expect them to eat. For the first meal give a good brand of dry chick food, which is a com- bination of small seeds and cracked wheat, and this will be variety enough for some days. This being all hard com, the chicks should have some fine flint grit put down with the first feed, and also see that water is kept handy. These little mites will not eat or drink very much; but still it must be supplied regularly, and not too much given at each time of feeding. Now there are many breeders who like to keep the corn in small troughs always before them, and then give the chicks a drink of water morning and night; but I prefer to let them have only a little food at each time and feed more often, for then you see the youngsters and know how they are getting on. The best method for artificial work- ing is to have the foster mother ready, and up to 90 degrees, at which heat it should be kept for three days, then gradually reduce it by at least five degrees at the end of the first week. Keep plenty of clean chaff on the floor of the mother, because that will help to keep them warm, and also assist them in getting about if they are at all weakly on the legs. In the matter of food, they must have the same treatment as with the hen, but more can be attended at less trouble. While not making the heat in the chamber too hot, mind it is well up to the regulation heat, otherwise the youngsters crowd together for warmth, and then there is overcrowding or crushing when the weak ones go to them. As most small men will be rearing with the hen, let me always say have a coop with a floor, if moveable so much the better, because then it can be kept clean and always dry. On the bottom put some; short chaff, and when the chicks are properly nested put them in the coop with the hen. If a good mother she will settle down at once, and then just with the hand bring" away some of the chaff in front of her, and put down a little food. Keep talking to the hen, because though they seem stupid things they under- stand you, and when she finds you have something for the chicks she will call them out. Half of the trouble in chicken rearing comes from the fact that the hen and the feeder have never been on good terms.
MEAI.J ￼ HENS Jm i L/ay im Sold in 71b. bags by all com dealers. All corn dealers are requested to send I for lists. Live. 11 tA r.t..