HINTS FOR ALLOTMENT HOLDERS. By spade-workeb. WHAT SHOULD BE DONE NOW. The successful gardener is he who does the Tight thing at the right time, and does it well. Those who wish to make the very best of their allotments and to grow suffi- cient vegetables to last until vegetables come again, should realise that the only work that matters at the moment is the cultiva- tion of the ground. There is an economical and a wasteful method even of doing that. It has been a common sight during the last week or two to see loads of manure carted on freshly turned land, and no sooner is it there than it is dug in. That is not the best way to prepare new soil for potatoes and other vegetables. Land that has been pasture for many years is inert, but it is not usually poor; a dressing of lime now will do far more good than manure, and it costs a good deal less. Last year I tackled ten rods of pasture land and grew very satisfactory vegetables without the use of stable manure, but with the help of lime. THE GREAT YALUE OF LIME. The average allotment holder very often wastes as much money on manure as the vegetables are worth, whereas by spending a lit tie on lime he would obtain better crops. Unless the soil contains sufficient lime, much of the plant food cannot be made use of by the roots of vegetables, and adding manure simply makes matters worse. My advice to the prospective grower is to throw up the soil in the form of ridges as shown in the accompanying sketch, and to scatter Vacant ground in the kitchen I garden should be thrown up in the I form of ridges. lime at the rate of two or three ounces per square yard, or, in other words, as though there had been a light fall of snow. In three or four weeks' time the ground may be levelled, and, if then thought desirable, "table manure may be dug in about twelve inches deep, being mixed with the lower "spit." Ridging has the effect of exposing the largest possible surface to the weather; thus the mechanical condition of the soil is improved, insects are killed by frost or de- stroyed by birds, and, helped by the action of the lime, the soil will crumble to a fine tilth in spring and be in excellent condition for sowing and planting. PLANTING SHALLOTS. In order to grow a good crop of onions it is necessary to go to some considerable trouble in preparing the ground. Those who have neither the time nor the inelination to o this should grow shallots. They are the easiest of all vegetables to cultivate, and now is the time to put in the bulbs; they The correct way to plant the Shallot is shown above. can scarcely fail if planted in fair soil in a fiunny spot. They should be about Sin. from each other in i-ows lOin. or 12in. apart. The proper way is to press the bulbs in-the soil until they s*re about half covered; it is a mistake to pl4nt them below the surface. Another point 'n favour of shallots is the large return obtained from a small outlay; further they will be off the ground in July, in time to allow of another erop being planted to supply "winter vegetables. A WORD FOR HORSERADISH. Christmas is still a long way off, but those who would have horseradish sauce with their Christmas beef must see about preparing for it within the next week or eso. There are not many vegetables you can plant out of doors at this season, but horseradish is one of them. As may be gathered from the accompanying illustration, deeply-dug soil is necessary to produce serviceable roots. How Horseradish Roots should be Planted. Unless the ground is tilled to a depth of 18in. to 20in. the plants have no chance to give of their best. A rich soil is not essen- tial, though if manure is thought to be necessary, it should be put well down. Pieces of root Sin. or 9in. long are placed from 12in. to 15in. deep, and should be lOin. or 12m. apart. I HTS ABOUT POTATOES. ":M06t of us have our favourite varieties, and are rather loth to try different ones. Yet it is a great inistake to be so conserva- tive, for old potatoes are superseded by new .and better ones, an4 if the seed costs a little more the increased yield is ample ￼ pensation. Have you tied, among first early potatoes for digging in late June and July, the varieties May Queen and Ringleader? If not, I am eure you will be pleased with the result. Excellent second earlies, to dig in August, are New Guardian, British Queen, and Sutton's Abundance, while of maincro p sorts, to take up in September for storing, Toogood's Tremen- dous, Arran Chief, Goldfinder, King Edward, and Langworthy are a first-rate half-dozen. Having made up your mind as to the selection of soitfi of potatoes, the pveat thing now is to orr-er them at once. There is an unpreced-enU<leinand for seed potatoes, and thMe 's lio do nv sending off their orders may be left 1arienting. ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. Essex.—It is undoubtedly a great advan- tage to sprout potatoes. If you have not much room for this puipoee, sprout the early varieties rather than the maincrop tubers. Handsworth.—It is a mistake to plant largo potatoes just as they are it is far better to cut them into two- or three pieces, but be sure that each piece'has an "eye." E. O. G.—To grow first-class onions you must dig the soil not less than 18in. deep, and mix stable manure in the bottom of the trench. Early in March use superphosphate of lime at the rate of two ounces per square yard a fortnight later give a good dressing of soot, forking both materials beneath the surface. Sow the seeds now under glass or out of doors towards the end of March. I "Spadeworker" is open to give practical advice, free of charge, to readers of this paper. Address your inquiries to "Spad. worker," care of Editor.
THE ORGANISATION OF WOMEN'S WORK. To the Editor, Amman Valley Chronicle. Sir,—The organisation of women is one of the most pressing problems of the day, more especially in connection with the cultivation of the soil. It is well known that the employment of women has been eminently successful; but they have drifted into their occu- pations largely haphazard, certainly not by any organised system. They were, after a determined stand, in- cluded in the National Register of 1915, but, much, to their disappoint- ment, their part of the Register was never utilised. The sole object of this Register was to organise the re- sources of the country for war, indeed, to organise our fighting forces and our industries simultaneously; the latter being, as is abundantly proved, quite as important in securing victory as the former, and absolutely necessary for supplying the money to carry on the war. The great need of to-day is to organise to the full the services that can be rendered by the women of the country, who have already proved themselves to be so thoroughly capable in many directions. Mr. Neville Chamberlain has under- taken a colossal task. It is only those who have had experience of organisa- tion on an extensive scale who can understand what it means. I would like to suggest that Mr. Neville Chamberlain, the President of the Board of Agriculture, and the Presi- dent of the Local Government Board work in close co-operation. The great success of the National Register, which was the result of care- fully thought out details, and definite instructions being given to the 2.000 Municipalities, enabled 27 miUion forms to be dealt with in a remarkably short space of time, the work being done by the staffs of Municipal Authorities, assisted by a large army of voluntary workers. Unfortunately, the information supplied by the National Register was not used as it ought to have been, and the women's part of the Register was not used at all; although they were expecting to be called upon, and were ready to do their part. This is simply a statement of fact which I refra,in from criticising under present circumstances. As an experi- enced organiser, I consider the pro- posal that cards should be sent to the Department in London, offering help, will :only lose time, and not succeed; but if instructions were given by the Local Government Board to the 2,000 Municipalities to utilise the details of the National Register, especially as regards aascertaining the number of women available for work on the land, or any other pressing work, I am of opinion that the necessary information would be got in a very short time. As I have already said, the urgency for immediate work on the land is great, and I consider this the only way to deal promptly with the situation. The housing difficulty might be met by billeting on satisfactory terms, or any other method that has been resorted to in connection with His Majesty's forces. I feel confident that when the women of the country fully realise the necessity, and are told what to do, patriotism and esprit de corps will do the rest.—I am, yours faithfully, CHARLES W. MACARA. [Sir Chas. Wright Macara, Bart., who has been conspicuously identified for many years with the cotton indus- try, and has led numerous public- spirited movements in connection with this and other matters of national im- portance. He is the son of the. late Rev. Wm. Macara, of Strathmiglio, Fifeshire. ]
I BRITISH SAILORS' SOCIETY. I I To the Editor, Amman Valley Chronicle. Sir,-With the, aid of the Local Authorities, the British and Foreign Sailors' Society provided for all the men who were rescued (off the North- East Coast of Ireland) from the tor- pedoed "Laurentic" and many of their relatives who came from a distance. A few wounded who are still in hos- pital are visited daily by local ladies, as well as by the Port Missionary of the Sailors' Society. To convey the bodies of those whose relatives wished to remove them to their homes, but lacked the means, this Society also pro- vided hearses.— Yours very faithfully, I SYDNEY LAMB, I Assistant Secretary. I- ti
I Ammanford Urban Council. The monthly meeting of this Council was held at the Y.M.C.A. Institute, on Wednesday evening last week, when there were present: Mr. J. Davies, Chairman, presiding; Mr. j. C. Shaw, Vice-chairman; Mr. Wm. Evans, Mr. T. Fletcher, Mr. Evan Lewis, Mr. Evan Evans, Mr. J. E. Jones, Mr. J. Harries, Mr. D. George, Mr. D. Jones, Rev. J. Morgans; also the Clerk (Mr. T. M. Evans, M.A.), the Assistant Clerk (Mr. Ernest Evans), and the Surveyor (Mr. D. Thomas) I ELECTRIC LIGHTING. The Roads Committee reported that the question of the re-adjustment of the public lighting bill of Mr. Herbert was considered by them, and Mr. Herbert attended the meeting. After considerable discussion, it was found Mr. Herbert would not accept less than £216 per annum for 60 lamps under the restricted lighting regulations. The Committee recommended the payment of £216 per annum in respect of the public lighting of the district. Mr. T. Fletcher moved the adop- tion of the report, and said there were now 55 amps in use; the new arrange- ment left room for additional five lamps. One of the members of the Committee brought forward the ques- tion of having no lamps lighted on moonlight nights, and Mr. Herbert offered the concession to the extent of accepting £ 210 instead of £216 if the Council agreed to that. Rev. J. Morgans seconded the report. Mr. D. George said it was time they should consider the question of taking over the electric light station. Mr. W. Evans said that on some nights when cloudy, it was as dark as if there were no moon. The Council declined! to entertain the idea of having no lights on moon- light nights. Mr. Wm. Herbert wrote asking the Council to agree to an increase in the price of electric current to private con- sumers of Id. per unit, to commence April, 1917, and trusted the Council would see the reasonableness of the application and accede thereto. Mr. D. Jones did not think they should entertain this application at all, as it was not fair to the ratepayers now. Mr. Herbert must sacrifice something, the same as anybody else. Mr. J. Harries said the Council had passed a resolution to take the electric lighting under control, and he wished to know the position :in regard to this matter. The Clerk said he had written Mr. Herbert asking his terms to transfer to the Council, and to state those terms in writing. He had not received them, and though he had seen Mr. Herbert, he did not even verbally suggest any terms. Mr. Fletcher asked if it were not possible under the agreement to com- pel Mr. Herbert to give them terms. This matter had been going on for years, and they had passed a resolution to negotiate with him. It was for the Council to decide whether they would accept any terms, or come to any arrangement to purchase the under- taking. They had the option to pur- chase within ten years of the construc- tion of the plant. Mr. D. George said the position was altered altogether since they went to Mr. Herbert last. He met Mr. Herbert this week, and was attacked with regard to what he stated at the last meeting, that the thing would pay him at the rate the Council were offer- ing per lamp. Mr. Herbert said he was not having more than 2t per cent. at the present tioe on the capital laid out. He was sure Mr. Herbert would be only too glad to give up the plant now, when there were plenty of oppor- tunities for speculating his money at five and six per cent. (Hear, hear, and laughter). Mr. W. Evans said the agreement had only two years to run; and they must come to terms before it expired. Mr. Fletcher: We have the option of purchase within ten years. The Clerk was instructed to write Mr. Herbert, insisting upon a state- ment of his terms in writing. In answer to the Rev. J. Morgans, the Clerk said they were not bound to agree to the increase of Id. per unit. The two parties to the agreement must agree on any modification. Mr. D. Jones moved that the Coun- cil do not entertain the application, as he did not think it fair consumers should be charged any extra under present circumstances. It meant a tre- mendous lot of money throughout the area if the Council gave authority for It. Mr. W. Evans: I hope Mr. Jones will speak to the same effect in regard to the Railway Company. (Laughter). Mr. D. Jones: I beg to correct Mr. Evans; it is not the Company, but the Government. The application was refused. I BETTWS WATER SUPPLY. The Health Committee reported that having regard to the steps already taken by the Llandilo Rual District Council for the provision of a supply of water for the rural parish of Bettws, the Committee felt strongly that it should be pointed out that this Coun- cil had already offered them very reasonable terms to carry a supply of water, and the Rural District Council be informed that if they proceed any further with the scheme this Council will petition the Local Government Board in regard to the matter. Mr. W. Evans moved the adoption of the report, remarking that the Coun- cil had offered Bettws water at a rate which would be something like half the cost the Rural District Council could procure it for the inhabitants. As they did not seem to take any notice, or entertain the offer, it was the duty of lthis Council to look after the people who lived as neighbours to them. They could do it even better than the people representing them. The Committee intended that they should give the Rural District Council notice if they proceeded this Council would petition the Local Government Board and bring the matter to a head. The report was adopted. I DRAINAGE. I he Committee agreed with the Sanitary Inspector's report respecting the drain from Bancyrhun, and in- structed the Clerk to write to the County Council requesting them to place the drain in order, and if it were not done within seven days, this Coun- cil would carry the work through at the cost of the County Council. Mr. Wm. Evans said if the drain were not carried out in a proper manner, the nuisance caused in the Square will not be abated in any way. The County Council had spent a good sum of money there, and it was a pity they did not put a little more labour on to have the drain efficient. As it was now laid it would be quite ineffective and a menace to public health. The Clerk was instructed according to the Committee's ecommendation. THE WAR LOAN. Some discussion ensued on the pro- posal of the Council to invest S.5,000 in the War Loan, and it appeared from a letter from the Local Government Board that the Council had no power to borrow for the purpose. The Finance Committee recom- mended the Council to act under para- graph 3 of a circular from the Local Government Board, and that a public meeting be held to carefully explain the whole matter, and that in the mean- time a small committee of three, to- gether with the Chairman and Vice- chairman, be appointed to formulate a scheme for a special meeting of the Council to be held before the public meeting. A letter was read from Ald. W. N. Jones on the subject, advocating a public meeting. Paragraph 3 referred to states: It has also been suggested to the Depart- ment that the Local Authority might enter into an arrangement with their bankers by which they could purchase a certain amount of War Loan Stock, and institute a scheme for enabling per- sons of small means in their district to purchase such Stock by instalments, payments to be spead over a longer period than that for the payment of instalments in the Loan prospectus. The Department would have no objection to the Local Authority taking this course if they are satisfied that it will not involve any charge on the rates of the district. It was decided that the matter of a scheme be referred to the Finance Committed, that a special meeting of the Council be held on Friday night, and that a public meeting be held in the Y.M.C.A. on Monday evening. THE COUNTY COURT. Un the motion of Mr. D. Jones, seconded by Mr. Jno. Harries, the Clerk was instructed to re-open with His Honour Judge Lloyd Morgan the question of establishing a County Court district for the Amman Valley. Rev. J. Morgans referred to the slippery state of the main roads, and suggested that the County Council be asked to supply loads of chippings. The Clerk spoke of the making of slides In the streets, remarking tbat it was a great shame boys should be allowed to do it, and he could not undestand how the practice was tolerated. It was decided to call the attention of the police to the matter.
The Submarine Menace. ADMIRAL'S MESSAGE. The following message is contained in a speech by one of our foremost Admirals:— Don't worry too much about the submarines. The Navy will give them all the worry they want." (Laugh- ter). "The splendid pluck of our merchant seamen will upset the German calculation at the end of the war just as badly as did our contemptible little Army at the beginning of the war. ( Cheers) The Germans, judging others by their own standards, think the country is going to be panicked and our mer- chant seamen frightened by this piece of bluff, but it is not going to be frightened, panicked, or starved. ( Cheers). What you may worry about now is the War Loan. If you will try as hard to do your duty ashore by raising the loan as we are doing at sea by sinking submarines and frustrating other evil devices, you will make the loan such a success that it will be a knock-out blow for the enemy." ( Cheers)
Our Poultry Column. I THE SITTING HEN. Although the present frost and snow is not good weather for talking about sitting hens, still, it must be done if we are to have any young chickens. Of course, there are thousands of people who still hatch by hens, partly because they only set the eggs in small quan- tities at each time, and to bring off a big lot together would fill up, the place at once; hence they hatch by hens, 'and so bring off about half a score or some- times less. The sitting hen is a much abused creature. Either she gives up her work or breaks an egg, and then she comes in for a good deal of slander. Much of this is due to the action of the owner, or, at least, the cause of it, because the hen has not been treated properly. Hens are really live crea- tures, whether when laying or wanting to sit, and I am afraid that so many people treat them as just a block of wood, which can be thrown about any- how, or used roughly at will. But if you want her to mother a young brood you must treat her kindly, and see that all things necessary for her comfort are done. It is not always so, but at least some people make the nest before finding the hen; then when she is found there is no delay in getting her to work. Take an ordinary box about 15 inches square, then put in some loose earti,, with which fill up the corners, and then leave the middle part a little hollow like a saucer. On the earth put a little bruised straw, which will be softer than the fresh, and then shape this round like the earth. Your next work will depend upon the hen. If she is an old stager of your own, to which you are quite accustomed, you can put the eggs into the nest; then freely dust her with insect powder, and at night put her straight on the eggs. In nearly every case they will readily take to the nest, and never cause the slightest trouble. The nest box should always be placed in a quiet spot, where there is freedom from vermin and shelter from the rough winds; but when set so early, it is best to put the box in a house where they can be treated away from the climatic changes to which we are subjected. But it is possible you may have to use a strange hen, in which case care must be used, otherwise the eggs may be wasted. If you can get to the fowl-house, look for a hen which sits close down on the nest, and sticks up her feathers when you go near. Put your hand under her body, and if she settles down on your hand, you may be pretty sure she is a sitter. Still, this hen is on her own nest and not used to you, hence in changing her, she has to put up with fresh treatment and a new nest. Better to try her on a few dummy eggs first, and if she takes to these, they should be removed one night and the good ones substi- tuted When making the nest, remember that the eggs have to be turned each day; and though you do this in an incubator, the hen must do it for her- self when on the nest. With this in mind, do not make the nest too hollow, or she cannot move round the centre ones; and if the nest is flat, some of the eggs may get rolled out to the sides of the box, and then the hen cannot reach them with her wings, so that, perhaps, before you see them they become cold through and are useless. If you will examine the nest each time the hen comes off, you will find that the middle eggs to-day are on the out- side to-morrow, or working towards that, and a,lso they are being turned over at the same time. This is Nature at work, and in working an incubator we want to copy Nature, because there cannot be any improvement. Another most important thing is to see the hen has food. Many people, to save trouble, will put her in a place enclosed, where food and water can be given, and the hen can come off when she likes. But this is not good enough. Unless the natural heat of the body is kept up, don't expect a good hatch, and that heat can only be kept going by plenty of sound food. Take her off the nest each day. and see that she has food. Maize is best, but when they go off this try wheat or barley; but see they get plenty, other- wise the fowl will become thin and lack heat. Soft food is not good, but you had better give a meal of this than let them miss; but with all food allow plenty of grit and clean water.
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Killed on the Line. FATAL ACCIDENT AT BRYNAMMAN. A distressing fatality occurred on the Midland Railway line on Saturday evening, just opposite the old Cwm- llynfell Independent Chapel, where there is an abrupt turning in the course of the track. It appears that while proceeding that way, some Cwmllynfell people came across a body lying on the line, which was eventually found to be that of David Connick, Bryn Road, Brynamman. Our correspon- dent, on making inquiries, gleaned that deceased had spent the week with some relatives residing at Brynhyfryd, Swan- sea, with the object of recuperating his health, which had not been quite as usual for some time. He had sent a letter home intimating his intention of returning on Saturday. It is, there- fore, conjectured that he travelled to Ystalyfera or Gwys, and there, having occasion to alight, missed the train, and proceeded to walk home, but was caught by the same train returning from Brynamman at 7.45 p.m. There was considerable mutilation about the head. The body was conveyed home by Cwmllynfell friends. Deceased was a widower, and leaves two little chil- dren. He was 42 years of age, and was employed at the galvanising department. Raven Works, Glan- amman. He was of a bright and jocular disposition, kind of heart, and well respected. The accident has caused quite a sensation in the district, and subsequent deep sympathy with the family. The remains of deceased were in- terred at Gibea Cemetery on Wed- nesday. THE INQUEST. I An inquest was held on the body of David Connick, Brynammaip, at Gibea Chapel, on Tuesday, by the coroner, Mr. R. Shipley Lewis, the foreman of the jury being the Rev. W. D. Thomas, Gibea. Inspector Bird, of the Midland Rail- way Co., was present on behalf of the Company. Evidence of identity was given by Mr. Wm. Connick, brother of de- ceased. He stated that the deceased was 42 years of age, and worked at Glanamman Sheet Mills. He last saw him alive on Monday, 5th inst. De- ceased on that day went to Swansea for rest and change, feeling not very well. He never had fits, and did not suffer from heart disease. They re- ceived a letter from him on Friday, stating he would be returning home on Saturday evening—the night of the accident. Naturally, the family ex- pected him by train. « Mr. William Edwards, shoemaker, Pentre Estyll, Swansea, stated he saw deceased between 5 and 5.30 on Saturday night at his house at Pentre Estyll. He left there, appearing all right; but deceased had been taking medicine during the week. Mr. Arthur Morgan, tinman, GIyn- beudy, said he saw deceased at Y stalyfera Station platform at about 6:45 p.m. on Saturday. He had left his compartment, as all passengers had to do. He did not see him afterwards. Mr. Wm. Thomas, collier, Ochry- waun, Cwmllynfell, stated that he was walking on the line from Cwmllynfell to Gwys. about 8.30 on Saturday night, when he trod on something soft, which he found was the body of a man. He lit a match, and saw that one leg was missing, and there was no head on. Then he went for P.C. Onions, Cwm- llynfell. P.C. Onions, of the Glamorgan Police, said that he was notified by the last witness about 8.45 p.m. He immediately went down the line, and found the body about 200 yards below the railway bridge that leads to Cwm- llynfell Farm. It was right athwart the rails, and the head was missing, and the right leg was cut above the ankle. He went for assistance. On returning he found Dr. Wilson examining the body. The head was discovered about seven yards higher up the line, anfl his foot lower down the line. He searched his pockets, and found a pocket book and regis- tration card with his name on. Then he got a stretcher and removed the body to Brynamman. The accident must have occurred at a very s harp comer, and it was impossible for the driver to see anybody on the spot. Mr. David Lloyd, engine-driver in charge of passenger train leaving Bryn- amman on Saturday night at 7.36, said he noticed no obstruction or shock. He examined the engine in the shed at Swansea, and found marks upon it. Dr. Wilson, Upper Cwmtwrch, stated he saw the body at 9.20, be- tween the rails near Cwmllynfell Farm. He examined the body, which was badly mutilated. Deceased must have been run over by the Midland passenger train. A verdict was returned by the jury that deceased met his death by being run over by a passenger train.
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